%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417183340+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417183340+01'00') /Title (Propaganda: Power and Persuasion \(Exhibition\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3494 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Propaganda: Power and Persuasion \(Exhibition\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When you walk in to the )] TJ ET BT 155.336 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda: Power and Persuasion Exhibition)] TJ ET BT 384.668 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the British Library you are told )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?propaganda is used to fight wars and combat disease, build unity and create division?. You then walk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a guard of honour of black mannequins that offer different definitions of the word ?propaganda?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These definitions, wide in scope, range from the views of political thinkers and philosophers, to dictionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions. One from the French political thinker, Jacques Driencourt, asserts that ?everything is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda?. In essence, these points characterise the difficulty in trying to define what exactly propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, and demonstrate one of the key aims of this exhibition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walking through the gallery, the visitor is taken through a myriad of subjects in order to cover this widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1489)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 3 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Welch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780712357005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Butler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined concept. These include examples of propaganda used for nation building; identifying the ?enemy?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether that be externally or from within; at times of war, most notably through films and posters; through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public health campaigns; and propaganda used today, especially the role of social media within this context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is through these examples that one of the other tasks of the exhibition is most aptly demonstrated, namely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispelling the notion that propaganda is always a negative concept. Of course, the visitor is given examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the Nazi use of propaganda in the 1930s and 1940s, but also instances which one would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily deem to be propaganda, such as the opening ceremony of the London 2012 Olympic Games, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilized to promote Britain?s ?country brand?. These help the visitor to reassess their definition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, and to think about it in a new way for themselves, and do so, on the whole, successfully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The accompanying book to the exhibition, written by David Welch, Professor of History at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kent, supports some of the themes mentioned above, whilst also exploring some of them in further detail. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This adds more of an ?academic? understanding to some of the issues that are raised, whilst also displaying a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich array of images from the exhibition itself. The book reiterates the point that propaganda, historically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a practice motivated by evil intent, and the idea that it is ?a cancer on the body politic, manipulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our thoughts, and something that should be avoided at all costs?, is a notion that should be challenged \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3?4\). This reinforces one of the main aims of the exhibition, and the book proves itself to be a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companion piece as well as a starting point for further study of propaganda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Upon descending the stairs, the visitor is presented with a 1949 film, )] TJ ET BT 366.656 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda Techniques)] TJ ET BT 484.316 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, followed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section on the origins of propaganda. We are told that the first recorded use of the word was during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, and was closely bound to the spread of Christianity by the Church. In eight objects, the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of propaganda is laid out, from Ancient Greece to the American War of Independence in the 1770s. After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, there is a display of Japanese war art from the 19th century, as well as a large portrait of Napoleon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These, however, are the only items on display which tackle any use of propaganda before the 20th and 21st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, and this is a slight shame. Naturally, propaganda came into its own during the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(we are informed of this\), and I am sure that the curators were conscious that, to a paying audience, anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the 20th century is not as attractive as that which came later. Thankfully, this history is tackled in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little more detail in Welch?s book. More in-depth examples for earlier centuries are given, along with visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, and a more comprehensive analysis of the changing definitions of propaganda is provided. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, the reader is also treated to some of the more theoretical aspects of the study of propaganda. At this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, the reader is told that, from the propagandist?s point of view, any lie must only be told about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unverifiable facts \(p. 33\). In addition to this, definitions are made of some of the different forms which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda can take: black propaganda; white propaganda; grey propaganda; and psychological warfare. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are all forms which the exhibition successfully displays, whilst not explicitly mentioning them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section of the exhibition is devoted to propaganda and ?Nation?, and closely resembles the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corresponding chapter in the book, which also includes ?Leadership? in its discussion. Within this section, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the viewer is shown a colourful array of flags, as well as being given the chance to listen to a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national anthems \(including those of the UK, USA, Spain, and South Sudan\). As Welch argues, these flags )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anthems are the most powerful of all national symbols, and so are justly on prominent display in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition \(p. 45\). But these are just two obvious examples of propaganda for the nation. The exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines the work of the Empire Marketing Board and its efforts to promote imperial commerce, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes a slightly strange advert for Australian wine. The importance of world fairs, sport, monuments, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology are also discussed here, each with relevant and interesting examples.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7591 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welch is able to explore the idea and importance of ?leadership? in propaganda in more detail, although it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touched upon in the exhibition very briefly. He stresses the obvious examples of Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Mao ? figures that are most closely associated with the totalitarian use of propaganda. However, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures that have used propaganda to their advantage are also cited, such as Churchill, JFK, and Nelson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mandela. This highlights one of the triumphs of the exhibition and book, namely that the visitor and reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not bombarded with material that solely focuses on propaganda used by totalitarian regimes. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is some, and there has to be, but by not focusing on this particular aspect the visitor is able to think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about propaganda in a much broader sense, and this is no bad thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section of the exhibition, ?Enemy?, is one which differs slightly from the book. The exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks at aspects such as the enemy from within, using the example of the Nazi attack on Judaism. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the enemy state as a propaganda tool, as well as the state as the enemy, explaining that this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually occur with propaganda produced by dissident groups. Conversely, Welch looks at specific case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in negative propaganda which relate to particular countries. A wide array of examples are utilized, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and these are carefully chosen to demonstrate the exploitation of stereotypes in this form of propaganda \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(154\). Examples include, amongst many others, the ?avaricious? French; the Hun and the Prussian bully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the First World War; the Teutonic Nazis; and the Irish ?men of violence? during the Troubles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Ireland. The reader is reminded that these stereotypes were presented in such a way to preclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. A final mention of the ?war on terror? is discussed here, demonstrating that some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques employed have not died out, and in many ways are no different to some of the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples presented. Rather ominously we are told that ?a human tendency to think of ?them? and ?us? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always liable to be exploited by those with the means and the power to do so? \(p. 188\). Perhaps, then, this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most powerful tool available to the propagandist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth part of the exhibition takes in examples which were utilized during ?War?, and, once again, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book closely follows this blueprint. Again, a wide array of exhibits are presented to the visitor, including a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section from the )] TJ ET BT 115.004 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why We Fight Series)] TJ ET BT 215.984 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, commissioned during the Second World War for an American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience, which displayed the merits of becoming involved in the conflict in Europe as well as the Far East. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recruitment posters are also displayed, not just for the First World War, where they are most closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated, but also for Civil Defense organizations during the Cold War. The most interesting example used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this context relates to war bonds and the American use of the four freedoms \(speech, worship, want, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear\) to show why citizens should purchase bonds in order to keep up the fight. Once again, various forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda illustrate its use in wartime. Propaganda for wartime production in the form of the ?Dig for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victory? and the ?Rosie the Riveter? campaigns during the Second World War, as well as the ?Protect and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survive? pamphlet, and ?Bert the Turtle: The Duck and Cover Song? in the context of the Cold War are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welch follows a chronological approach to this subject, choosing the First World War as a starting point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, more information regarding the earlier uses of propaganda during wartime would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome, especially during the Napoleonic Wars, but using the First World War as a starting point further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates just how important propaganda had become by this time. The reader is also given brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of the use of propaganda during the inter-war period, particularly pointing to Hitler?s belief that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s expert use of propaganda had been one of the largest contributors to Germany?s defeat in 1918 \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94\). Furthermore, extended coverage is given to propaganda during the Second World War, using some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the examples covered in the exhibition, and, in addition to this, the Cold War and beyond is covered, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finishing with a picture of the famous ?Gotcha? headline from )] TJ ET BT 335.960 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sun)] TJ ET BT 374.960 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( newspaper, which related to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falklands War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the fifth section of the exhibition and book, dealing with ?Health?, a change of emphasis occurs, and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move from displaying what might be deemed as ?conventional? forms of propaganda to a discussion about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public health campaigns as propaganda. Once more, the examples are wide-ranging, including campaigns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which emphasised the importance of food hygiene and diet and a sample of British public information films, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the )] TJ ET BT 89.672 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Green Cross Code)] TJ ET BT 179.000 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\), )] TJ ET BT 219.992 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Smoking: Baby)] TJ ET BT 316.976 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1986\), and )] TJ ET BT 378.296 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Change 4 Life)] TJ ET BT 446.300 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2009?10\), are )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7788 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displayed to the visitor. A mother and children campaign from the Soviet Union, and material promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s one-child policy, are also displayed in this context. Additionally, propaganda to do with safe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour is presented, including posters from the 1980s warning of drug use and AIDS. Welch covers many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these aspects, once more in greater detail, and stresses the point that public health campaigns demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of propaganda in peace, not just in war \(p. 150\). It is further underlined that, in the majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cases, this form of propaganda is a much more positive one than other examples already cited. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of the exhibition is the one which most directly challenges the misconception that propaganda is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always a negative thing. It is difficult to view propaganda associated with the goal of cutting road deaths as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative thing, and this causes the visitor or reader to rethink their own feelings towards the phenomenon as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole. This is one of the positive outcomes of the exhibition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the exhibition deals with the use of propaganda in the 21st century. The increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the media and war is cited, particularly in relation to the war in Iraq, highlighting some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media responses to the British Government?s report on Iraq?s weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of social media is explored here. In the exhibition this consists of a large screen which displays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions on Twitter to certain events, such as the London Olympic Opening Ceremony, the Sandy Hook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School shooting, and the re-election of Barack Obama as President. Interestingly, the majority of the older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors of the exhibition walked straight past this display with little more than a glance, whilst the younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors took much more of an interest, perhaps demonstrating the appeal of social media to a younger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation. The exhibition also has an interactive side at this point, visitors being given the opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comment on the most convincing piece of propaganda they have seen using the hashtag #BLPropaganda so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that others can view these responses, which is perhaps a clever propaganda tool used by the exhibition?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curators. But this is also an interesting additional feature, giving others the opportunity to have their say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The accompanying book takes up the issue of social media and propaganda and poses the question ?Are we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all propagandists now?? Welch mentions the importance of social media during the recent Arab Spring in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitating growing citizen discontent, whilst also warning about the sheer plurality of sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information available in cyberspace \(pp. 198?9\). The author of this review is under no illusion that this body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of text is another addition to this volume of information. My views will be promoted on social media in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to attempt to get as many people to read it as possible \(@wbutlerhistory in case anyone is interested: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does this prove that we are all propagandists?!\), as I would like to think that those reading might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuaded by what I have said about the exhibition and its book. Finally, Welch sums up this role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda in the age of information, maintaining that the final goal of winning hearts and minds remains as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant now as it ever has \(p. 200\). The means in which propaganda has been disseminated may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved, but its purpose will always be to influence, and the power of this influence, be it good or bad, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully demonstrated in both the exhibition and Welch?s book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately book and exhibition are able to bring together disparate subjects and examples under the banner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of propaganda. At times these examples, taken in isolation, appear almost haphazard, but within the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the exhibition appear to work. There are, of course, some aspects that are not considered in any detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most importantly the propaganda used by the campaign for women?s suffrage in the early part of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(even though an extensive selection of memorabilia on this subject is available in the exhibition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shop\), but many subjects that might not have otherwise been thought of have been included and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributes to the goal of getting people to think differently about propaganda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/reviews/exhibition-review-propaganda-power-and-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 134.067 m 534.908 134.067 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