%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 42 0 R 77 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20160829040123+01'00') /ModDate (D:20160829040123+01'00') /Title (Bang!: A History of Britain in the 1980s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4436 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Bang!: A History of Britain in the 1980s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A sure sign of the ageing process is when events that are part of your own memory start appearing in works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history. And so it is now the case with the 1980s; for one?s students, ?Thatcher? is a person of whom they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have no firsthand knowledge, just a figure whom many of their lecturers and supervisors are prone to paint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the devil incarnate. Similarly, many of those who attend football matches take the fact of all-seater stadia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for granted; the events of Hillsborough that led to them is something to be watched on YouTube. How many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those that paid obscene amounts of money to see the Stone Roses reunion concerts in 2012 saw them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originally? And so on. With the first decade of the 21st century having seen the comprehensive tilling of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground of the 1970s in British history, it is perhaps no surprise that scholars have moved onto its sister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.328 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.328 172.137 m 84.320 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.320 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As Graham Stewart ? author of among other things an excellent volume of the official history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 83.684 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? notes in his introduction, ?we are gaining distance and critical detachment from events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities that seemed remarkable even at the time? \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a strange quirk of fate, I was around a quarter of the way into this book when the news came over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wires of the death of Margaret Thatcher. Any book about Britain in the 1980s must inevitably revolve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the former Conservative Prime Minister, and Stewart on the whole agrees with Andrew Rawnsley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent verdict that often there seems to be two Margaret Thatchers ? a mythologized version that recourse to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical record doesn?t always support. The archetypal ?conviction politician? who nonetheless kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1491)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Stewart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848871458)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(560pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://atlantic-books.co.uk/book/Bang%21)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malin Dahlstrom)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3277 172.4515 84.3197 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7756 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saatchi & Saatchi ? ?masters of style over substance? ? as part of her intimate counsel: ?for an instinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puritan, she enjoyed being feted by the colourful, even )] TJ ET BT 298.964 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(louche)] TJ ET BT 330.956 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( band of courtiers that constituted her image )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making team? \(p. 30\). She had ?considerable personal experience of patronising sexist attitudes?, but never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed anything like a interest in feminism; correspondingly, her rise to becoming one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential women in the world afforded little satisfaction to most feminists\(p. 46\). Furthermore, she did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to power aiming to sweep away all that had gone before; her 1979 election manifesto was ?remarkably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar to Edward Heath?s statement of intent in 1970? ? the difference perhaps being that Thatcher was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined to deliver on her promises \(p. 48\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart also concurs with Thatcher?s first major biographer John Campbell that there was nothing inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Thatcher?s rise to the premiership; which, of course, for those who suffered under her reign, can give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to plenty of what-might-have-beens: if Keith Joseph hadn?t referred in public to ?human stock?; if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Du Cann could have been persuaded to stand; if Callaghan had called the election in the autumn of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1978. There was nothing inevitable about Thatcher?s rise, and she also enjoyed much good fortune: her first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years as party leader and Leader of the Opposition were fairly underwhelming, but as Stewart points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the second half of the seventies ? was an excellent time to be in opposition? \(p. 47\). But it would be unfair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to paint her rise to the Conservative leadership, and ultimately Number 10, as mere contingency: she was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only candidate unafraid to stand against Heath in 1975 while the supposed favourites either dithered or hung )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the wings waiting for the second ballot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The defining event of her premiership was the conflict over the Falkland Islands. In many respects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falklands War was a bizarre conflict: as Ronald Reagan was moving towards promulgating a missile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence system that would involve space-based interceptor missiles, Britain found itself embroiled in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict ?whose origins owed more to the preoccupations of the nineteenth century ? in that it was about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership of territory? \(p. 131\). The weapons that both sides used were by and large still those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War; and newspapers were the most immediate means for the public to gain information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the conflict.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.004 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.004 428.931 m 134.996 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.996 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Stewart calls it the ?last of the good-old fashioned wars?; a throwback to the days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before humans became so good at killing each other that conflict now potentially involved the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire planet. And ultimately, the conflict was a more close-run thing than popular memory allows. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Incidentally, it should also be noted that Stewart claims that reports of a ceasefire in the Falklands conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to emerge during the 1982 World Cup final \(p. 166\). This is highly unlikely, given that the ceasefire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was signed on 14 June and the World Cup final took place on 11 July.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.316 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.316 357.651 m 384.308 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 384.308 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it undoubtedly played its part, victory in the Falklands War was not entirely responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher?s re-election in 1983. Opinion polls suggest the tide had begun to turn at the start of 1982, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment rate still growing ? but more slowly ? and the economy beginning to turn around. That said, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Falklands transformed Thatcher from a unreliable quantity into the Tories' prime electoral asset. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, opposition leader Michael Foot attracted large amounts of derision, with one )] TJ ET BT 448.628 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times)] TJ ET BT 477.296 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( columnist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing him as the sort of man ?unable to blow his nose in public without his trousers falling down? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(173\). Meanwhile the novelty of the SDP had quickly worn off after its formation in the early 1980s ? there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was now no need for ?for the media to dispatch a camera team every time Shirley Williams stepped deftly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a railway carriage onto a station platform? \(p. 174\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of Thatcher?s economic policies? Stewart is by no means a convert: ?whatever the promises of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual salvation the early consequences of the new economic policy were appalling? \(p. 59\). Thatcher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always maintained that unemployment would fall once inflation was halted. But even when the tide turned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the damage had already been done, particularly to the long term unemployed and the disfigured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities they inhabited? \(p. 183\). Fans of Thatcherism point to the fact that for several years the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was able to support a sizeable portion of the population on employment benefits and low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomes while actually cutting its budget deficit. Certainly the achievement is not to be sniffed at; as Stewart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, she was able to draw on something that no prime minister was able to before or indeed since: the tax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeds from North Sea oil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was it the case that Thatcher?s claim to have turned the British economy around was ?really just a quick fix, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.0037 429.2455 134.9957 441.1255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.3157 357.9655 384.3077 369.8455 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7705 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved by squandering oil proceeds which would have better invested for the long term benefit of future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations? \(p. 185\)? The oil bubble did not last long, with production peaking in 1985 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international price of oil collapsing in 1986, not to mention the Piper Alpha disaster of 1988. By 1992, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Sea?s income stood at half its 1985 level ? 11.7 billion, yielding merely 2.2 billion in tax? \(p. 192\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It might be argued, however, that those who state Britain should have taken a long term view over North Sea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oil with regards to imposing an extraction cap )] TJ ET BT 257.324 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ala)] TJ ET BT 272.660 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norway are endowed with the benefit of hindsight. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s finances in 1979 were precarious enough ?for the outgoing Labour and incoming Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments to conclude that oil proceeds were a necessary lifeline for the present, rather than the future? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 195\). And indeed, Stewart concludes that the UK could only have invested ?it wisely for the future by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(risking ruin in the meantime? \(p. 196\). Barring a Fogel-esque work of counterfactual history reconstructing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s economy in the 1980s without North Sea oil, the conclusion is a sensible one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart fails to mention anywhere what persuaded him to give his book the dreadful title )] TJ ET BT 463.628 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bang!,)] TJ ET BT 495.956 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspects it relates to the deregulation of the London Stock Exchange that came to be known as ?the Big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bang?. Prior to deregulation, the London Stock Exchange was primarily a place for British institutions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invest in British companies, which meant that it was seriously undercapitalised. The exchange operated upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an archaic system which shut out foreign competition, and of the $200 million raised on the global securities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market in 1985, only $8 million was raised in London. An OFT case that the Labour government of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s had raised finally came to the Restrictive Practises Court in 1984; and the exchange realised to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismay that the Conservatives meant what they said about fighting restrictive practises. When Cecil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parkinson became Trade and Industry Secretary in 1983, he made a deal with the Stock Exchange chairman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Goodison that the OFT case would be dropped in return for the city getting a grace period of three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years to implement what the OFT would have done in around nine months. The Big Bang thus occurred on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27 October 1986.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with many aspects of the 1980s, the deregulation of the SE is open to differing interpretations. It can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that opening up the London market to competition saved it from becoming a provincial backwater in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the financial world; and the ?Wimbledon? analogy was widely trumpeted ? London thrived because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted the top players from all over the globe. The analogy was misleading though ? ?the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tennis championships were at least owned by the All England Club, whereas the investment institutions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to dominate the city retained their headquarters in New York, Geneva and Frankfurt? \(p. 406\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign takeovers that were a consequence of the Big Bang were certainly not anticipated beforehand. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope was that British merchant banks would take on foreign competition; instead they were taken over by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then. To use one of many of Gordon Gekko?s lines from the ubiquitous 1980s film )] TJ ET BT 434.648 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wall Street)] TJ ET BT 488.312 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Stewart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predictably rolls out ?Greed, for the lack of a better word, is good? early on ? the British firms ?weren?t used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pissing in the tall weeds with the big dogs.? But for all the problems and unintended consequences that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Big Bang wrought, had it not taken place it is hard to see how the London Stock Exchange could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoided becoming an irrelevance ? ?marginalisation as the price for retaining the old ways would hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been in the domestic economy?s wider interests? \(p. 408\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1980s were also the decade that saw the decline ? or the breaking of, depending on your viewpoint ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade unionism. Ted Heath had fought and lost an election on the question of ?who governs?? in the 1970s; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher was determined history would not repeat itself. The two major union confrontations ? between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miners and the government during 1984?5 and between the print workers' union and Rupert Murdoch over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the move of the latter?s newspaper titles to a plant in Wapping in 1986 ? both saw the unions soundly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated. By the end of the decade a country that ?was internationally notorious for being strike-torn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became, within a short period of time, a model of industrial peace? \(p. 375\). What were the reasons for this? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The privatisation of previously nationalised industries which had been a hotbed of militancy was clearly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor; as was a series of legislatory measures which changed the way strikes could be organised. Doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away with an incomes policy also meant that ministers no longer needed to negotiate pay norms ? or indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything policy related ? with union leaders. Such was the change in the state of affairs that when EC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president Jacques Delor's' visited the TUC conference of 1988, he was given a standing ovation for a speech )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that proposed standardizing employment law across the European Union: an ovation from a movement ?that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7668 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had until that point regarded the European project as capitalist dogma? \(p. 379\). One could interpret all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the above measures as part of a concerted policy by the Conservatives to destroy the trade unions; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart ultimately makes no comment on the matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the reader feels that I have concentrated on the fortunes of Thatcher and the Conservatives to the detriment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the other political parties, this is largely because Stewart does the same. This is not so much a reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political prejudice as a testament to the minuscule impact the opposition parties had in Britain for much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s. The birth of the SDP is covered in some detail; but for all the fanfare that accompanied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakaway of the Gang of Four, ?the most discernible long-term consequence of the SDP?s brief life was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it bought about the demise of the Liberal Party after 129 years of independent existence? \(p. 427\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980 Jim Callaghan stepped down as Labour leader, and to avoid having to choose between Denis Healey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Tony Benn \(who later slugged it out in a tremendously bitter contest over the deputy leadership\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party voted for compromise candidate Michael Foot, who promptly led Labour to its worst election result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1934. Neil Kinnock took over from the hapless Foot with Roy Hattersley as his deputy ? the ?dream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ticket? as it was put at the time ? but the faction within the party known as the Militant Tendency continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to cause problems, and although Labour added 20 seats to their tally at the 1987 general election, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives still retained a three-figure majority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1989 Margaret Thatcher took to the platform at the Conservative Party conference to be greeted by chants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?ten more years!? Little over 12 months later, she was out of office, removed not by the electorate, but by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her own party. Popular memory associates the downfall of Thatcher with the community charge, the official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name for what was more commonly referred to as the Poll Tax. The genesis for the tax rested on two fronts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the mid 1980s, several Labour-controlled councils reacted to the government cap on rate rises by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(announcing they would set no rates at all, resulting in a farcical situation in Liverpool where the city council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hired 30 taxis to dispatch 31,000 90-day redundancy notices to its staff. Eventually the councils were bought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into line, but it had been a close-run thing; if the councils had held out longer, several inner cities might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descended into chaos. Despite )] TJ ET BT 181.652 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sun)] TJ ET BT 220.652 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( raging against ?loony left? councils, the Labour vote in most of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was holding up. The government this started to look at taking ? among other powers ? taxation away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local authorities in the hope of making said Labour councils unelectable. The other impetus for the Poll Tax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay in Scotland; a mandatory rate evaluation in 1985 had seen outrage among Scots with regards to the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tax demands, and the Scottish Tories concluded a flat rate would be preferable to one linked to property )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value. If ?the new system was good enough for Scotland, it was presumably good enough for England ? On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9 January 1986, the Cabinet approved in principle the poll tax? \(p. 438\). The unpopularity inequity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poll Tax can be illustrated by the fact that, whereas under the old system the Duke of Westminster paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10,255, under the poll tax he ?would now be asked for 417, the same as his housekeeper and chauffer? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(422\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To use Lawrence Stone?s model of causation, if the poll tax was the precipitant, the trigger was Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher had not always been what we now call a Eurosceptic; having campaigned for Britain to remain in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the EEC in the run-up to the 1975 referendum. However, her relations with her European partners were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never great during her tenure: after 1985 her relationship with Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev was better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than with any of her EC counterparts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.316 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.316 217.347 m 228.308 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 228.308 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But it was EC President Jacques Delor?s aforementioned speech to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the TUC conference of 1988 that set in motion the train of events that saw the resignation of her Chancellor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Deputy Prime Minister, and ultimately Thatcher herself. Responding to Delors? TUC speech, Thatcher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infamously remarked that ?we have not successfully rolled back the frontiers of the State in Britain only to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see them reimposed at a European level? \(p. 447\). Her disagreements with her cabinet over the issue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Exchange Rate Mechanism saw Geoffrey Howe moved from Foreign Secretary to Leader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House and led Nigel Lawson to resign as Chancellor in 1989.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It appeared the tide was also beginning to turn against the Conservatives in the country; the constituents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastbourne reacted to the murder of Ian Gow by the IRA by overturning a 17,000 Tory majority into one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4,500 for the Liberal Democrats. Geoffrey Howe had considered resigning in 1989, but hadn?t gone through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with it; in 1990 he delivered a resignation speech \(made all the more effective the fact it was televised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cameras having been allowed into the Commons the previous year ? a fact Stewart fails to mention\) that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.3157 217.6615 228.3077 229.5415 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 6027 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved to be the )] TJ ET BT 114.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coup de grace)] TJ ET BT 182.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for Thatcher ? one of her oldest lieutenants was now publicly saying that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time has come for others to consider their own response to the tragic conflict of loyalties which I myself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have wrestled with for perhaps too long? \(p. 457\). Michael Heseltine ? who for years had been positioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as the heir apparent ? announced he would stand against Thatcher in the annual leadership selection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was usually a formality. Thatcher kept to her official schedule instead of campaigning ? justifiably she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that if she hadn?t convinced people with her record in office, there probably wasn?t much hope in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any case ? finding out in Paris that the contest would need to be decided by a second ballot. Initially she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(announced she would fight on, but on her return to Downing Street, she discovered the true extent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party?s disaffection ? the consensus was that she was now ?so badly wounded that it would be better to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finish her off than let her limp on? \(p. 459\). And so she resigned on November 22, 1990.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does Stewart see as the legacy of the 1980s? A compare and contrast exercise between Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979 and 1990 reveals the changes wrought by the decade. The issues filling newspaper columns at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1970s were by and large the same ones present at the start of it: rapidly rising prices; strikes and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolution, with pronouncements by trade union leaders being as least as important as those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government; the two sides in the Cold War facing each other across a divided Germany \(p. 460\). Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of the 1970s were still prevalent at the start of the 1990s: unemployment was still a concern, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the IRA terror campaign showed little sign of slowing down. But there was much that had changed. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the 1980s, ?judged by this admittedly crude method, seems not only more profound than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that which was wrought during the seventies, but also more primary in nature than the breaks in continuity ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Britain in the respective summers of 1991 and 2001? \(p. 461\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What changed in Britain in the 1980s? As we noted earlier, the prominent position enjoyed by the unions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1970s had disappeared at the turn of the 1990s. Interventionist economic measures were largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jettisoned during the 1980s; the question of whether Britain should have a market or a socialist economy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanently settled: by the end of the decade Labour had given up on the idea of renationalising British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telecom or British Airways. This naturally leads to the question of whether a more interventionist economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy might have saved British manufacturing, which all but collapsed in the 1980s. Stewart argues ?it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not be presumed that British industrial decline would have been reversible if capital movement had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be restricted and government had remained interventionist?, using the example of the similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline of French manufacturing, which took place under a socialist government \(p. 465\). Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart puts it that had the Thatcherite policies introduced by the mid 1980s been available earlier in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade, they would have bought down inflation and therefore the tough interest rate squeeze of 1980?1 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not have been necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart also argues that it is a myth that the eighties saw the end of the ?post-war consensus.? Some of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was dismantled: nationalised industries, a commitment to full employment and a corporatist partnership with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trade unions all fell by the wayside. But Thatcher was more of a disciple of Attlee and Bevin?s foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy than Michael Foot or Neil Kinnock were; despite constant criticism of her attitude towards the NHS, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government spending on health increased by over one third above inflation, and no major reforms were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced during her premiership. In a famous exchange with Hugo Young, Thatcher bridled at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion she had moved away from 1950s conservatism, arguing that in her view Britain had started to go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downhill in the late 1960s, a process which had continued throughout the 1970s.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7125 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, Stewart does not gloss over the fact the 1980s were not all coffee and roses. Some of the worst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picket line violence in the country?s history was witnessed at Orgreave and Wapping; football hooligans saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English clubs banned from European competition for the rest of the decade, while the increasing tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treat football fans like cattle lead inexorably to the Hillsborough disaster; inner-city riots in 1981 saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government consider partially evacuating Liverpool \(revealed in Cabinet papers post-dating Stewart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book\); the troubles in Northern Ireland claimed 853 lives without bringing the conflict much closer to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion; the decade saw the outbreak of AIDS, and heroin use rose dramatically \(despite the best efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grange Hill)] TJ ET BT 105.344 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The 1980s saw the death of the idea of ?a job for life? \(with the exception of a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protected areas in the public sector\), which ?made for anxious times and searing hardship, especially among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those with few skills or with a specialism that was not easily transferable? \(p. 470\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As HughTrevor-Roper once put it, history is what happened in the context of what might have happened. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talked earlier of some of the what-ifs ? the point about counterfactuals is that they remind us nothing is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable, and certainly the turn that events took over the course of the 1980s were not pre-ordained in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way. The Falklands War was an extremely close-run thing; a British reverse in the conflict would have put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher under enormous pressure \(though the case that the nation could ever have been persuaded to vote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Foot remains to be made\). If the IRA bomb at the Grand Hotel in Brighton had been placed differently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would the next occupant of Number Ten have been? If Arthur Scargill ?had chosen his timing better, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienated fewer potential allies \(and other miners\) and known when to make a small compromise in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gain the substance of his demands, then the miners would have won their strike? and trade union power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have remained alive and well \(p. 472\). If Dennis Healey had won the 1980 Labour leadership election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of Michael Foot, he certainly would have been a tougher first term opponent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably Stewart?s book will be compared to Dominic Sandbrook?s tomes on the 1960s and 1970s. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area where Stewart?s work isn?t quite up to Sandbrook?s is in the latter?s ability to weave in a cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplar to underline a point in a political chapter; or vice versa. One can?t help feel that for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sandbrook would have underlined the impact of acid house upon mainstream culture by citing the episode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brookside)] TJ ET BT 82.676 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where Jimmy Corkhill ended up dropping E at a rave; or mentioned the parody of the Protect and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survive manual in )] TJ ET BT 125.012 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Young Ones)] TJ ET BT 204.344 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Ultimately there isn?t quite as much depth to Stewart?s work as there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Sandbrook?s; and the former doesn?t quite possess the verve in his writing style of the latter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are several omissions, particularly with regards to culture; no mention of )] TJ ET BT 416.948 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Young Ones)] TJ ET BT 496.280 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly one of the defining comedies of the 1980s; and no mention of the fact the first series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Blackadder )] TJ ET BT 113.336 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was fantastically dire, and it was the addition of Ben Elton to the writing team that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed it into a classic. I also find it odd that )] TJ ET BT 275.996 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Auf Wiedersehen Pet )] TJ ET BT 379.640 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a quintessential program of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher era based around unemployed builders from England being forced to look for work in Germany ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored. There is also no mention of one of the decade?s most iconic television storylines, Zammo?s descent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into heroin addiction in )] TJ ET BT 149.348 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grange Hill)] TJ ET BT 207.680 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; or the Davis vs. Taylor snooker final from 1985 that drew a record post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midnight audience of 18.5 million viewers. With regards to music: no mention of C86; the section on The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smiths fails to mention that in the high court royalties case the judge called Morrissey ?devious, truculent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unreliable?. I can also testify that no-one ever said ?Welcome to the Acid House?; I suspect the phrase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart wanted was ?Welcome to the Jackin? Zone?, which )] TJ ET BT 324.608 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was)] TJ ET BT 343.280 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prevalent at the time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.596 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.596 205.347 m 461.588 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 461.588 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If one is going to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talk about the emergence of acid house, one should surely make a mention of a style of music known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bleep?, which was the first real British twist on acid house.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.640 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.640 176.835 m 336.632 176.835 l S endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.5957 205.6615 461.5877 217.5415 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.6397 177.1495 336.6317 189.0295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 9197 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The above might be regarded as ephemeral; more serious perhaps is the lack of space Stewart devotes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic of football hooliganism. 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And the undergraduate student reading this book will be left clueless as to why many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his/her lecturers regard Thatcher as the devil incarnate: nothing about her reforms of higher education is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in )] TJ ET BT 100.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bang!,)] TJ ET BT 132.344 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perhaps the book?s biggest oversight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately your view of Stewart?s book will depend on which side of the political spectrum you stand on. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher was an incredibly divisive Prime Minister, something which the divergent reactions to her death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated. Those on the right will regard her as a heroic figure that dragged Britain kicking and screaming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the modern age; those on the left will not have much time for Stewart?s arguments that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing would probably have declined anyway.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 295.292 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 295.292 600.003 m 309.284 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 309.284 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Stewart has made a solidattempt at providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced appraisal of the 1980s; but it will be a long time before passions have cooled enough to start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the period with anything like scholarly detachment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance, Dominic Sandbrook, )] TJ ET BT 249.656 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State of Emergency: Britain 1970?74)] TJ ET BT 428.972 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2011\)/ )] TJ ET BT 513.632 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seasons )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Sun: The Battle for Britain 1974?79)] TJ ET BT 267.692 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2012\). Andy Beckett, )] TJ ET BT 424.340 493.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When the Lights Went Out: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in the Seventies)] TJ ET BT 175.676 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2010\) Alwyn W. Turner, )] TJ ET BT 348.644 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crisis? What Crisis? Britain in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventies)] TJ ET BT 108.668 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.992 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.992 463.203 m 243.980 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 450.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although ironically, as one military historian later wrote on the conflict, while the Royal Navy was, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after a fashion, ?prepared to fight World War 3, it simply was not equipped for the WW2-style, low )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level bombing attacks? that it faced around San Carlos Bay \(p. 189\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.300 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.300 420.435 m 446.288 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Simon Kuper has claimed one of the reasons the ceasefire was signed was that otherwise )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Argentina would have had to miss the tournament. See Simon Kuper, )] TJ ET BT 400.316 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Football Against the Enemy)] TJ ET BT 534.644 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1994\), p. 180.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.340 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.340 377.667 m 232.328 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As she infamously reminded the French at the bicentennial of the French revolution in 1989, Britain )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had gained many of the same rights over a 100 years earlier in a revolution that didn?t involve the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guillotine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.024 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.024 334.899 m 167.012 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps explained by the absence of either Wayne Anthony?s )] TJ ET BT 363.608 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class of 88: The True Acid House )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience)] TJ ET BT 117.992 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\) or Matthew Collin?s )] TJ ET BT 300.980 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Altered State: The Story of Ecstasy Culture and Acid )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(House)] TJ ET BT 94.676 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.000 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.000 292.131 m 229.988 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.112 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://energyflashbysimonreynolds.blogspot.co.uk/2008/04/bleep-20-fact-februarymarch-2008-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.112 277.875 m 548.708 277.875 l S BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 263.619 m 101.024 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.024 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 118.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 8 May 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.748 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.748 263.619 m 295.736 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take for instance, Owen Jones, who writes that during the 1980s the working class were stripped of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their power, belittled and scapegoated. See Owen Jones, )] TJ ET BT 336.956 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chavs )] TJ ET BT 369.956 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2011\), p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.280 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.280 235.107 m 532.268 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/bang-a-history-of-britain-in-the-1980s-by-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 180.339 m 550.268 180.339 l S BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graham-stewart-8446360.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 166.083 m 179.660 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.660 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.google.co.uk/url)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 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