%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930165528+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930165528+01'00') /Title (New Worlds: A Religious History of Latin America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4144 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(New Worlds: A Religious History of Latin America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lynch, a highly distinguished Latin American scholar and Emeritus Professor of Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History at the Institute of Latin American Studies, published )] TJ ET BT 327.332 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Worlds, A Religious History of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 74.672 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2012, on the eve of the election of the first pope from Latin America, Francis I; it provides a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timely introduction to the history of the Catholic Church in Latin America. This history is complex, since, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the arrival of the first missionaries, the Church was entangled in colonial and later post-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. This entanglement of Church and politics has played an important role in Latin American history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this book uses this as a lens to bring the tumultuous history of Latin America into focus, from the 16th to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning with the Spanish Church around 1492, ending with 20th-century debates over Liberation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theology, and taking examples from across Latin America, )] TJ ET BT 322.628 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New World)] TJ ET BT 376.964 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s incorporates vast territory. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume contributes to the pre-existing corpus on the history of religion in Latin America. Lynch notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the works of modern theologians, historians, evangelists and catechists have enriched the subject [of the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Church and reception of Christianity in Latin America] in recent years and there is now enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material to make a modern history of religion in Latin America possible, though not enough to make it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1492)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lynch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300166804)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalepress.yale.edu/book.asp?isbn=9780300166804)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia McClure)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8194 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superfluous? \(p. xii\). The volume contributes to pre-existing studies such as Enrique Dussel?s )] TJ ET BT 487.628 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Latin America)] TJ ET BT 103.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which was funded by the Commission for the Study of Church History in Latin America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(CEHILA\) and drew upon the expertise of a range of historians to produce a study that was self-consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the Catholic Church.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.996 752.307 m 202.988 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch also focuses on the Catholic Church in Latin America, but seeks a broader approach to religion. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale of the territory he covers makes it difficult to provide more than summary introductions to complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious cultures and ideas. Only four of the 366 pages are devoted to summarizing the Amerindian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religions of the Mayans, Aztecs, and Incas. The brevity of this subject makes it more difficult to trace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes of syncretism, acculturation and accommodation that contributed to the formation of Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Latin America. Lynch refers briefly to syncretism, but also describes Amerindian religious practices as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?paganism? \(p. 22\), a term which does not enhance understanding of the identities and practices of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian religions. References to other non-Christian religions in Latin America are also scarce, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of other world religions such as Islam and Judaism is not explored. Islam and Judaism are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned fleetingly \(pp. 4?6\) in the context of ?The Spanish Church on the eve of the conquest?, and Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are only referred to again briefly in the context of 20th-century emigration to Argentina \(pp. 324?8\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Providing summaries for the beliefs of varied groups is an unenviable task, and the problem is highlighted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences such as ?blacks were not notable Catholic, though they were religious after their own fashion? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(163\). The only other non-Christian religion referred to is Vodou, brought by Africans to Haiti \(pp. 334?5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch notes that ?slaves did not arrive in Latin America bereft of religious beliefs, their souls a )] TJ ET BT 495.272 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tabula rasa)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ready for conversion to new religions? \(p. 335\), but the character and influence of these beliefs does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a major topic. Further, slaves were not the only migrants to Latin America acting as vectors carrying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious beliefs. Given the scale of migrations to Latin America, the role of other religions brought to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent could be explored further since this book does not aim to focus exclusively on Christianity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to non-Christian religions prioritise influence across an East-West axis, yet Latin America is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply an extension of the Atlantic world, and also experienced migrations from Asia and the Pacific world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many different beliefs have contributed to the religious make-up of Latin America, which, as Lynch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates, varies across time and region. Yet the strength of this work does not lie in its examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious identity and ideas, but in its social history approach to Christianity in Latin America and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intersection of the Church with colonial and postcolonial politics. It provides a map of the successes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failures of the Church across Latin America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch also goes some way to illustrate the heterogeneity of Catholic beliefs beyond the institutional Church. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here there were some problems with the depictions of Catholic identities. For example, the Franciscans are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included under the category of monastic orders \(p. 2\), but Franciscans were a mendicant order and, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they established convents, they were never cloistered within a monastery. This is important since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the specific identity and beliefs of the different religious orders facilitates an understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the character of beliefs transmitted to the New World. Chapter six focuses on ?The religion of the people?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly citing statistics of church attendance and examples of popular piety for the modern period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observing the persistent importance of millenarianism in Latin America, Lynch notes the importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th-century Franciscans who, influenced by the 12th-century Cistercian monk Joachim of Fiore, established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this tradition of thought in Spanish America \(p. 175\). Observing continuities with the late Middle Ages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legacy of late medieval European religious ideas and beliefs in Latin America can also contribute to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical perspectives on the makeup of beliefs; the first Franciscans arrived in the Americas as early as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 15th century )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.668 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.668 172.323 m 131.660 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 131.660 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and had influenced the thought structure of Columbus.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.632 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.632 172.323 m 413.624 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, of course, difficult to provide genealogies of religious beliefs and identities, especially across the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale in question. Lynch delineates examples of religious beliefs and practices, grouping them by genre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as millenarian thought\), but does not posit models of influence across time; this book does not set out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be an intellectual history of religious ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This )] TJ ET BT 58.352 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religious History of Latin America)] TJ ET BT 227.024 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( predominantly focuses on the Catholic Church. When the pluralism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Christianity is discussed, it is in the context of the 19th century. Lynch identifies the 19th century as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when the Catholic Church ?no longer exercised a religious or cultural monopoly? \(p. 185\), suggesting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 188.9957 752.6215 202.9877 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.6677 172.6375 131.6597 184.5175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.6317 172.6375 413.6237 184.5175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8242 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Latin America?s independence from Catholic sovereigns in the 19th century led to the arrival of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Christians. Chapter seven notes that during the early years of independence ?congregations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches of Anglicans, Presbyterians, and Methodists appeared? as ?tolerated enclaves that did not represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionary expansion? \(p. 185\). From the perspective of community demographics, which the book often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopts, it is reasonable to focus on the post-independence period for noting the importance of non-Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians to the religious makeup of Latin America. However, in this context, Lynch continues focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic Church, by exploring its response to the arrival of these groups. From the perspective of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism?s impact on the Catholic Church, it would be equally relevant to incorporate examples from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier period as well, thinking about how the Reformation influenced the Catholic Church and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour in the Americas in the 16th century. Space is given in chapter three for commenting on the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Enlightenment, yet this makes the absence of commentary on the impact of the Reformation more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is structured chronologically and covers an expansive time-frame, from the 15th to the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. This )] TJ ET BT 100.340 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 163.328 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( approach brings both benefits and problems. Historicising the Church in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of Latin America facilitates our understanding of the importance of the Church in Latin America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today and its entanglement in politics. This scale also leads to the compression of detail as it, at times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessitates generalisations that obscure complexities. Further, the temporal framework is not neutral or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evenly distributed. Lynch claimed he was ?aiming to strike a balance between the long colonial period and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shorter but more eventful modern age? \(p. xii\). The notion that modernity is ?more eventful? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable, and the perspectives of modern history can impact interpretations of the late medieval and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern periods. How time can be modelled over this large time scale, and the problems and benefits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this framework, could also be explored. Nonetheless the author makes it clear that the study will be weighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the modern history of Latin America, which is unsurprising since this is John Lynch?s period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Latin America? is a problematic framework )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.620 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.620 428.931 m 266.612 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.612 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and an introduction to how ?Latin America? can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approached as a cohesive subject and how it acts as an analytic unit might have been helpful for readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using this book as an introduction to Latin American history. The term carries many complex assumptions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and these are not politically neutral.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.988 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.988 386.163 m 219.980 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 219.980 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Latin America is continuously influenced by its transatlantic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transpacific relations, not to mention its relations with North America. In this sense, many boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containing the subject of Latin America are fluid. Further, this religious history of Latin America focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how different strains of Christianity impacted upon Latin America, and the development of Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious cultures. Yet influence was multidirectional, and while Latin America may have been a net )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recipient of migration historically, there have been significant numbers of migrant Latin Americans, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious cultures and influence of these groups could be another interesting case study. In addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing the ?Romanisation? of the Church in Latin America \(p. 147\), the Latin Americanisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity could also be explored. Placing Latin America within a global context may also contribute to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the religious history of Latin America. The Catholic Church, the dominant subject of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, is a religion of global dimensions, and the globality of Catholicism has influenced how it has acted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Latin American context. The missionaries documented in this book, such as the Jesuits, were part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global networks. Realising this global dimension is important for understanding the ideas and identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmitted through missionaries in Latin America. Understanding the global context of the Catholic Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also facilitates deeper understanding of its politics, particularly for complex problems such as the Theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Liberation movement )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.668 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.668 172.323 m 167.660 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.660 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which is explored in the final chapter of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scholarship of this work is evident in its strong case-studies approach, and Lynch?s expertise in the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and transitionary period is unquestionable.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.304 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.304 131.811 m 321.296 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.296 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He pays great attention to the differences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details of the nations that emerged out of Spanish America, and he takes care not to make generalisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across this highly differentiated context. This meticulous framework facilitates the exploration of the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central theme, the relationship between Church and state. The examples given demonstrate the complexity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this tumultuous relationship. Lynch describes how the Church had to re-negotiate its position within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly formed nations of Latin America, and how it had to act delicately within increasingly secular states. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6197 429.2455 266.6117 441.1255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.9877 386.4775 219.9797 398.3575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.6677 172.6375 167.6597 184.5175 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.3037 132.1255 321.2957 144.0055 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8042 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complexity of this 19th-century transformation provides an important historical backdrop to \(but by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means an apology for\) to the complicated Church-state relationship within the dictatorships and revolutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this book had been published months later it may have included the background of Francis I as a case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study for religion in Argentina in the 20th century. Fortuitously, Lynch provides an exploration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the Catholic Church and the state in Argentina during the Peron and post-Peron years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoting most of chapter nine to this subject. Lynch historicises the problematic coexistence between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and politics in Argentina, providing insight into the issue that came to media attention with the 2013 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election of the first Argentine pope, the Church?s involvement in the dirty war in Argentina \(1976?83\). His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section on ?Complicity? in chapter nine, ?The Church and the dictators?, will be read with interest by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars looking to know more about the background of Francis I. Lynch writes that ?the years after 1960 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were times of trial for Argentine Catholics, united in their faith, divided in their loyalties? \(p. 266\). Lynch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then describes the disunion of these Catholics who were split between Conservative Catholics, Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians, and Progressive Catholics, reminding readers that the views of Catholics were as differentiated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political context in which they found themselves. While conservative Catholics wished the Church to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allied with the state and the military, progressive Catholics, including worker priests, ?allied themselves with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest actions? \(p. 267\). Thus he surmises that the Argentinean Church was conflicted internally as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(externally on the eve of the military dictatorship. Lynch suggests that Catholics were confused and divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the time of the military )] TJ ET BT 159.344 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(golpe)] TJ ET BT 186.008 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1976; nonetheless he asks ?where was the voice of Christian concern?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 269\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Lynch acknowledges the varieties of Catholic actors in 20th-century Argentina, his comments about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the overall role of the Church during the military dictatorship are damning; he writes that ?the Church had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moral authority and the strength of numbers to provide independent opposition, but it failed to do so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed even to protect its own people? \(p. 270\). Diligently respecting variations across different national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts, Lynch notes that in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, and \(less consistently\) Bolivia, the Church did defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human rights and the progressive option for the poor. He compares this unfavourably to Argentina where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?there were a few protests against the worst excesses of military repression, but institutionally the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was silent and stood aside from commitment?. This issue has now entered the global Catholic discourse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since it cast a shadow over the 2013 election of Francis I, even as he selected a name that demonstrated his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to the poor. Lynch delineates the specific context which generated the unfortunate muteness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic Church during the dirty war in Argentina. He explains that ?the Argentine Church had a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of conservativism, public caution, and subordination of the state, whose economic support it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted for salaries, seminaries, and education, and that this created ?a deep-rooted culture which prevented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it from changing its ways or adjusting to a modern Church?. This explanation of the Church?s position is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably different from the picture painted elsewhere, where the voice of the Church was constrained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the face of persecution. Lynch goes as far as saying that some Argentinean bishops ?can only be described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborators?. He explains that one reason for the historic silence of the Church in Argentina in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sequester, torture, exile, and assassination of bishops, priests, religious, and laypeople, could be the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the military chaplains, which further complicated the relationship between the Church and the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorship. The strength of )] TJ ET BT 173.000 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Worlds)] TJ ET BT 232.004 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lies in its historicisation of the complex relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and state, and the variations of this relationship in different times and across different regions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin America. The attention paid to the Argentinean context, will doubtless be of increased interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church historians today. Ahead of the election of the first Argentinean pope, Lynch asked questions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now have increased significance, such as ?what did the Vatican make of the complicity between Church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state in Argentina during the dirty wars?? There were religious people, clerical and lay, who experienced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence in this context, but did the Church in Rome do much to help these people? Lynch suggests not. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonders Francis? I experiences of this Argentinean context will influence future global papal policies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Armitage recently observed that there is return to )] TJ ET BT 305.624 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 368.612 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history which ?presents challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and opportunities for all historians, including practitioners of intellectual history?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.652 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.652 74.787 m 441.644 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 441.644 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This religious history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Latin America spanning over five centuries can be seen as an example of this )] TJ ET BT 420.920 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 483.908 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.6517 75.1015 441.6437 86.9815 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 6963 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents both problems and strengths. The book does not specifically provide an intellectual history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varieties of beliefs which met and mixed in the Latin American context, and nor does it attempt to construct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogies of belief across this time frame. Instead it provides a broad contextualisation of the Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church in Latin America, in order to depict the religious cultures it established amongst the Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations, and to consider the challenges it faced historically. Examples of these challenges are provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the subject period, including the struggles against Amerindian religious practices in the 16th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entanglement of the Church with the colonial state, the expulsion of the Jesuits in the Early Modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, and the struggle for the Church to negotiate its position during independence and in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorships and revolution. Its strength lies in its case-study approach to Church-state relations and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to illustrate the differentiation of these relations across the political regions of Latin America within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this broad timeframe. The book provides an important introduction to Latin America and its religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, and provides a framework for future studies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church in Latin America, 1492?1992)] TJ ET BT 265.352 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Enrique Dussel \(Tunbridge Wells, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.316 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.316 572.739 m 541.304 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livarius Oliger, O.F.M., ?The earliest record on the Franciscans in America?, )] TJ ET BT 440.264 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(1920/1921\), 59?65.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.328 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.328 544.227 m 268.316 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pauline Moffitt Watts, ?Prophecy and discovery: on the spiritual origins of Christopher Columbus? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Enterprise of the Indies??, )] TJ ET BT 198.308 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 355.292 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 90, 1 \(February 1985\), pp. 73?102.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.932 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.932 515.715 m 556.592 515.715 l S BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 501.459 m 90.344 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Thomas H. Holloway, ?Latin America: what?s in a name??, in )] TJ ET BT 387.284 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to Latin America)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Waltham, MA, 2008\), pp. 1?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.660 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.660 472.947 m 269.648 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was explored by Walter Mignolo in )] TJ ET BT 262.328 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Idea of Latin America )] TJ ET BT 391.988 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.636 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.636 458.691 m 521.624 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The use of this perspective is demonstrated by Ian Linden, )] TJ ET BT 347.636 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Catholicism: Divergence and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Change Since Vatican II)] TJ ET BT 181.664 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.300 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.300 430.179 m 353.288 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynch has written extensively on this subject over his multi-decade career; for example, )] TJ ET BT 489.932 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colony and Nation)] TJ ET BT 155.360 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2001\), and )] TJ ET BT 281.348 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spanish American Revolutions, 1808?1826)] TJ ET BT 509.672 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 387.411 m 149.000 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Armitage ?What?s the big idea?, )] TJ ET BT 256.304 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 407.300 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(September 2012\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1129685.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 358.899 m 323.336 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.336 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 340.328 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( > [accessed 13 May 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.060 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.060 358.899 m 527.048 358.899 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 343.567 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 325.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 325.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1492)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 324.393 m 328.316 324.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 299.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/54789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1129685.ece)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.3157 573.0535 541.3037 584.9335 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.3277 544.5415 268.3157 556.4215 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.9317 516.0295 556.5917 527.9095 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 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