%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150702143849+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150702143849+01'00') /Title (Histoire de la France contemporaine) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2824 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Histoire de la France contemporaine)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1494)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 10 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aurlien Lignereux)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782021000832)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(432pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seuil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.seuil.com/livre-9782021000832.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bertrand Goujon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782021033472)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seuil)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.seuil.com/livre-9782021033472.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Pilbeam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7738 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are the first two volumes of a new series, )] TJ ET BT 265.628 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire de la France contemporaine. )] TJ ET BT 450.272 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They replace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous Seuil series, published in the 1970s. As a reflection of the attitudes of current French academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists, they are interesting on two levels. Each is a careful synthesis of recent research on the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. In addition they indicate how the attitudes of French historians to their history have evolved since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first series appeared. The variation in the starting dates of the two series is startling. The 1970s series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began with the 1789 Revolution, whereas the new one starts with 1799. The French Revolution, which in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s was still considered of seminal importance to France, Europe, indeed to the world, seems no longer to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be ranked as the beginning of contemporary history. Presumably 1789 will figure as an ending rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning in the concluding volume of a new Seuil )] TJ ET BT 282.332 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire de la France moderne, )] TJ ET BT 436.976 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned for 2015. While one can appreciate that the demise of Communism in Europe and the elimination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Marxist interpretation of history, which up to the early 1970s dominated French views of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, necessitates a rethinking of 1789, it seems extreme to expunge the Great Revolution from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary history. A reader might reasonably wonder why the revolutionary baby is being thrown out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Marxist bathwater.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume one, )] TJ ET BT 99.008 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Empire des Franais 1799?1815, )] TJ ET BT 275.336 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the European significance of the Empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making full use of the author?s earlier study of the annexed departments together with the research of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and Italian experts. Although all the massive conquests of 1792?1814 were lost in 1815 and within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half a century new nation states had been forged, the author claims that this transient empire left a positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy for later French imperialism \(perhaps in the cultural superiority evinced by some of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquerors, though this is never explained\). This volume has four sections. Each chapter is subdivided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically, although the basic structure is chronological. Part one present a fairly familiar scenario. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s appointment as first consul in 1799 completed the Revolution; between 1802 and 1807 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic gradually faded and an Empire was constructed. Former supporters of the Directory backed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon because they hoped to complete existing reform projects, because he offered them jobs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because a successful general was the best guarantee that French conquests would be retained and the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in western France brought to an end. Ordinary French people, were less enthusiastic; typically fewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than half of the voters took part in the plebiscites. By 1812 the new Empire \(whose republican features soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faded\) consisted of 130 departments administered by local elites, under the control of French officials. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire totalled 80 million people, including additional vassal states. Former migrs were employed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior posts, although their loyalty was dubious. The Concordat crumbled; the Pope refused to approve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nominations to bishoprics within the Empire. From 1808 Napoleon lacked support within France for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial ambitions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two deals with social issues. Society was managed by an amalgam of old regime and revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features. Landed nobles and freemasons took a lead in the departments, often administered by former pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789 intendants, now called prefects. The Civil Code asserted patriarchal authority, but equal subdivision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property among heirs was decreed. New lyces and the centralized University educated the sons of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrats \(although they had spaces for only 10 per cent of the potential clientle\), but women?s orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still provided schooling for girls. Local studies show that economic development was very limited. Just over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9 per cent of the land of France, often church property, was sold by the revolutionaries as )] TJ ET BT 465.584 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(biens nationaux)] TJ ET BT 541.916 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peasants, who constituted three quarters of the 81 per cent living in the countryside, bought nearly 40 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent, but mainly lacked the capital to move out of subsistence farming. Wealthy purchasers bought the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land and embarked on a modest number of agriculture initiatives, particularly sheep-rearing and sugar beet. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some state encouragement and the availability of former church property for cotton production, facilitated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little industrial growth, but the British control of the seas and the earlier loss of colonies were serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setbacks and left western coastal cities such as Bordeaux and Nantes impoverished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three asks how the French regarded the Empire. Holding it together became a struggle. France was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massively behind Britain in armaments? production. Between 1793 and 1815 Birmingham alone built a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million rifles, more than was produced in the whole of France. The British were able to spend three times as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as the French on their technically far more advanced navy. However, although 1.3 million French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers were killed between 1792 and 1815 \(as many as in the First World War\), until 1812, when the war )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7663 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to go badly, most French people were relatively unaffected by the war. Occupied countries furnished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French army with men, money and supplies. The cost of the army of occupation swallowed nearly 56 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of the Italian budget in 1813. From 1809 one-third of French regiments were staffed by foreigners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(700,000 in all. The war was blamed on England and portrayed as a patriotic and republican obligation, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonapartist, although Napoleon commanded profound personal loyalty from his soldiers. Patriotism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stirred by the display of the Bayeux tapestry in Paris; Joan of Arc was remembered as a victim of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although army officers had a leading role in running the conquered territories, the Empire was not a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorship. Three quarters of officers were drawn from the ranks, but former migr and bourgeois officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured more rapid promotion. Better-off families paid for replacements. Up to 28 per cent of recruits simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to appear; a mere 52,000 of those enrolled were volunteers. The Russian campaigns tested patriotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties; 300,000 men died of illness and cold. At first some may have believed that they were fighting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war of liberation, but some began to behave as cultural imperialists critical of decadent, priest-ridden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italians. Local elites were offered subordinate posts, but attempts to create French-speaking lyces, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance in Turin, were abandoned. The introduction of French reforms of law and administration were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpopular. Curiously the author does not mention that French was the language of educated Europeans at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final part of the book deals with the ?Ends? of Empire. When the Allied military campaigns were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launched in 1813, local elites quickly abandoned the French. In 1813?14 Napoleon was unable to amass the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary reserves in men and money in France, but the Empire did not succumb to internal rebellion, except )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Bordeaux. Napoleon?s military defeat allowed the Allies to restore Louis XVIII. Despite his efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to work with revolutionary institutions and Imperial personnel, the demobilisation of over 200,000 soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged constant rumours of Napoleon?s return from Elba. When this came, problems of how to finance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a second Empire, gather enough troops to fight Allied armies, and combat both revolutionary and legitimist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations proved overwhelming. A second Empire was made impossible because attempts in the summer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1815 to re-jig the autocratic Imperial constitution to sound even vaguely liberal, were unconvincing, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even more by the Allies? refusal to consider anything other than the removal of Napoleon. The )] TJ ET BT 492.260 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marseillaise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was drowned by cannon in the )] TJ ET BT 183.320 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812 Overture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book works hard to live up to its title, ?the Empire of the French People?. The front cover shows a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family pouring over a map of Europe, gripped by the successes of French armies in 1807. The text stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negatives; that, once France had secured its ?natural? frontiers on the Rhine, Napoleon forced the French to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept conquests that they did not want. To explain the mismatch between Napoleon?s ambitions and public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion the author observes that between 1805 and 1814 Napoleon was in Paris for only 900 out of 3,500 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days. In addition, the complex and hierarchical structures surrounding him made him unaware that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unceasing military ambitions, especially in Spain and Russia, were unpopular. Yet the French did not turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Napoleon in 1814, and there was no active opposition to his return a year later. Napoleon as a person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a shadow in this volume. The assertion that his military ambitions were unpopular after 1808 demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, some evidence of public opinion, and second, an explanation how Napoleon was able to persist with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant war. The author claims that Bonapartism did not exist until 1814. If not, what was Napoleon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal? The author seems to be accepting, contrary to his title, that, after 1808, the Empire was not that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French people, but of Napoleon. If so, Napoleon, and especially how he was regarded, cannot be written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the story, however much one might like to do so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period 1814?48 earned two volumes in the earlier Seuil series. Volume one was a general account, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume two a detailed analysis of the regions, making excellent use of the enormous local studies then being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written by doctoral students. They are replaced by a single volume, )] TJ ET BT 359.624 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchies postrvolutionnaires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1814?1848)] TJ ET BT 88.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, another challenging title)] TJ ET BT 210.668 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 216.668 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach is chronological and descriptive; prolific sub-headings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect its broad range. Politics dominate, as indicated by the chapter headings, which are divided into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predictable periods; the return of the White Flag, the struggle to achieve national reconciliation \(1815?20\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ultra-royalist reaction, culminating in chapter four?s rather dismissive title, ?From one monarchy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another?. Chapter five deals with the attempt of the July Monarchy to ?set down roots? \(1832?40\), while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter runs through the ?slide to immobility of conservative liberalism?. The book ends abruptly with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7247 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very brief narrative of the February Revolution, 1848. The account of politics offers few shocks; the writer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eschews interpretation and analysis. His underlying philosophy seems to be to be that political changes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the result of chance and that events can be left to speak for themselves. Occasionally he seems to stop in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracks and offer a measure of interpretation, for instance the observation that the 1830 and 1848 revolutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the result of rather similar economic crises.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where are the revolutions which until recently were the significant events in recent French history? Volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one ignored 1789 and volume two performs a similar sleight of hand with 1830 and 1848. But revolutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not like white rabbits; they do not disappear. The title of volume two is assertively )] TJ ET BT 450.308 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post-rvolutionnaire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet both of the ?post revolutionary monarchies? fell prey to revolution. The period embraces two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions, 1830 and 1848, and several other episodes of popular unrest, in particular in Lyon in 1831 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1834 and Paris in 1839. The 1830 revolution is no longer ?Three Glorious Days?, but little more than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing incident in the middle of a chapter. Revolutions appear here as rather embarrassing accidents, devoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of analytical substance. 19th-century revolutions may not have been Marxist, but they are still worth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating, if only because revolutions, like the military dictator of volume one, remain serious concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is far more convincing and compelling when it moves away from politics. The period is shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a time of wide-spread change. Goujon is particularly well-informed and interesting on economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments and places commendable emphasis on regional variations. There is a very impressive guide to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary, artistic, religious and cultural developments. Philosophical matters are deftly explored. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities and variety in ultra-royalism and later in legitimism are so fully examined that the broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts almost melt away. However in the chapters on the Restoration, the ultras seem to swamp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional royalism, with the unspoken conclusion that the regime was indeed ?impossible?, a view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has become popular in recent years, rather than a workable compromise torpedoed by a king and a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coterie out of touch with the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles X?s replacement, his cousin Louis-Philippe, comes over as a shrewd manipulator, whose demise is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part explained because, as he grew older, he began to believe he was king ?because he was a Bourbon?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than despite his family connections. The front cover picture challenges the title of the book, exposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy as far from ?post-revolutionary?. It shows Louis-Philippe being offered the crown by the deputies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hemmed in by a turbulent crowd, with national guard banners waving, emphasising the novelty and danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of choosing a king. His heir, the duc d?Orlans, a man of radical liberal views, would have welcomed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element of choice, and if he had lived, the regime might have survived. The fate of monarchy may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned on his death in a coaching accident in 1840, leaving an infant son. Louis-Philippe was well aware )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how precarious his death made the regime, which may explain his personal withdrawal into the ?hereditary? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth of one of the later paintings of him and his sons, in which the dead elder son appears. Historians tend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be too fatalistic when judging early 19th-century monarchies. Orleanism as a concept slips between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cracks of the last two chapters. There is a musty tinge to the reiteration that the Orleanist regime was held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together by self-interest, given that historians now assert that the philosophy and personnel of the successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Republic in the 1870s was partly drawn from the ideas of former Orleanist liberals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emergence of ideas on social reform is realistically presented. The author succinctly distinguishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the different early socialist tendencies and tries to explain to whom Saint-Simonism, Fourierism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leroux, Blanc, Cabet etc. appealed. Republicans pop up where one would expect, but a fuller account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various strands would have been useful. The February revolution appears from almost nowhere. A more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical concluding chapter is needed, but perhaps the absence of conclusions is a design feature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series. Volume one wound down merely with a reference to music written about the Empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both volumes provide well-chosen bibliographies of recent monographs. Volume one contains a references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to some research published in English, volume two very little, which is surprising given that the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next book is on European elites. Both volumes mention the work of recent historians, but with no footnote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references. Unfortunately on a number of occasions the historians mentioned in the text do not appear in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography. Volume one contains a few references to contemporary sources, which are footnoted; volume )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two cites no original material. While the target audience for the series may include the ?general? reader who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not want a guide to further reading, surely this series is mainly directed at undergraduate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postgraduate students, who will need guidance and ought to find the gaps in references frustrating. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s series was published in English by Cambridge University Press and some of the volumes became an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential guide for English-speaking undergraduates. The new series will need some modifications if it is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfil a similar function.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1494)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 328.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/70964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/70965)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 328.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1494) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000627 00000 n 0000003503 00000 n 0000003612 00000 n 0000003722 00000 n 0000003831 00000 n 0000007392 00000 n 0000007520 00000 n 0000007604 00000 n 0000007669 00000 n 0000015460 00000 n 0000015525 00000 n 0000023241 00000 n 0000023306 00000 n 0000030606 00000 n 0000030690 00000 n 0000032183 00000 n 0000032311 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32407 %%EOF