%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818225448+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818225448+01'00') /Title (Shame and Honor: A Vulgar History of the Order of the Garter) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4852 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Shame and Honor: A Vulgar History of the Order of the Garter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Order of the Garter has enjoyed a continuous existence since King Edward III founded it in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1340s, and membership remains the highest honour an English sovereign can bestow. Throughout its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, much of the scholarship on the Order has been rather antiquarian in tone, concerned with such things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as its membership, procedure or regalia; Peter Begent and Hubert Chesshyre?s )] TJ ET BT 413.936 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Most Noble Order of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Garter: 650 Years)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 200.649 m 139.004 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 139.004 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most recent example of this genre. More recently, historians have begun to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine how the Order has functioned in its social and political context, particularly Hugh Collins in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Order of the Garter 1348?1461: Chivalry and Politics in Late Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 444.668 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Antti Matikkala in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Orders of Knighthood and the Formation of the British Honours System, 1660?1760)] TJ ET BT 461.024 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.024 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.024 157.881 m 478.016 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Stephanie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trigg?s )] TJ ET BT 73.676 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shame and Honor: A Vulgar History of the Order of the Garter)] TJ ET BT 378.656 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is firmly in the latter camp. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book deals with the Order from its foundation to the present, although not chronologically or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively, and from the perspective of a literary critic \(Trigg is Professor of English Literature at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Melbourne\). As the word ?vulgar? in the subtitle indicates, this is by no means a triumphal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admiring history of the Garter, but one that is also concerned with gossip and innuendo, particularly the rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities afforded by the Garter?s myth of origin. Whether one sees this as a good thing will depend on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s temperament, although such an ?outsider?s perspective? \(her words\) has the potential to be very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1495)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephanie Trigg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812243918)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(352pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/15001.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Good)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.0117 200.9635 139.0037 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.0237 158.1955 478.0157 170.0755 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8118 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable. Unfortunately, the potential is only partly realized here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter considers the related concepts of ritual criticism, medievalism, and mythic capital, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical framework for Trigg?s investigation of the Garter. Trigg focuses on the office of Gentleman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Usher of the Black Rod, who was associated with the Garter from 1399, but who became more important as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chief ceremonial officer of parliament; as such, other parliaments in the Westminster tradition, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Trigg?s Australian state of Victoria, adopted their own versions of the office. Since 1642, Black Rod )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has famously had the doors of the House of Commons ritually slammed in his face at the state opening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament in order to symbolize parliamentary independence from the monarch; only when he knocks three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times with his rod is he admitted. To Trigg, this is a perfect example of ritual practice, ?where actions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might seem bizarre in reality are planned with precision and performed with solemnity ... and where active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure is taken in rehearsing gestures and words that took place or were spoken long ago? \(p. 20\). It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an example of medievalism, whereby medieval institutions that survive into the present acquire further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers of meaning, producing a dialectic between old and new and actively shaping our views of the past ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something especially noticeable in Victoria, where the Gentleman Usher knocked on the door not with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragile plaster-tipped rod, but with his shoe. The third concept, that of mythic capital, is illustrated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garter itself, particularly its ?unrecoverable origins?. These have the effect of ?enhancing both its mystique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its historical distance? \(p. 36\), none more so than the dispute over the chivalric story that at a ball in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calais a lady?s garter had fallen off, and that to save her face, King Edward III picked it up, attached it to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own leg, and claimed that soon everyone would be proud to wear garters. Whether such frivolity was really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the genesis of the Order is moot; the fact that people know about the story and consider it \(or spoof it, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sellar and Yeatman?s )] TJ ET BT 141.656 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1066 And All That)] TJ ET BT 230.000 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), only adds to the Garter?s prestige.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter focuses on what we do know about the Order?s foundation, which is not much. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wardrobe accounts mention ?blue garters? sewn on banners from as early as 1345, pointing to the order?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection to the Crcy campaign. Literature provides no precise details, although such works as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicle of Jean le Bel, )] TJ ET BT 153.320 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Gawain and the Green Knight)] TJ ET BT 315.656 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or )] TJ ET BT 334.652 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tirant Lo Blanc)] TJ ET BT 411.332 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( seemingly justify the dropped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garter story, or at least point to an atmosphere of sexual scandal at Edward?s court. Similarly, the Order?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motto, ?Honi soit qui mal y pense? \(?shame be to him who thinks ill of it?\), while offering a ?reassuring core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of textual authority? ... ?positively celebrates its own ambivalence? \(p. 71\), and as such points to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmosphere of play at court, a world of disguises and contrived enigma. But it also points to the power of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king, who gets to inflict the shame and decide what the ?y? refers to; similarly, the great gap between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged dropped-garter incident and the subsequent glory and honour of the Order of the Garter illustrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king?s power to bridge it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter details some of the critical and historical discourse of the Order from the 16th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Various accounts of the dropped-garter story remained popular, in part thanks to Polydore Vergil?s retelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of it in his )] TJ ET BT 86.024 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglica Historica)] TJ ET BT 171.692 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, although he claimed ?fama vulgi? as a source. The story then would have had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same appeal that gossip about royals does today: )] TJ ET BT 288.320 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(they)] TJ ET BT 308.312 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may be wealthy and famous, but )] TJ ET BT 470.288 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(we)] TJ ET BT 483.620 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are able to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things that they cannot acknowledge themselves. Writers such as George Peele, Andr Favyn, and Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson all relayed versions of it. Other writers, like John Ferne, William Fennor, and John Selden, quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passed over the origin story in order to praise the great brotherhood of arms that Edward had founded. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious antiquarians like Peter Heylyn, Elias Ashmole, or John Anstis began to actively denigrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dropped-garter story starting in the 17th century as being beneath the dignity of the Order and the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a foreigner \(Polydore Vergil\), a critique that continues to this day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter focuses on the inverse of honour, shame. In order for the Garter to be honourable, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to threaten and occasionally punish members with degradation if they took up arms against a fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knight, or if they were found to be heretical, traitorous, or cowardly in battle. In being degraded, a Garter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knight?s crest would be cast down from its place in St George?s chapel, and his stall plate broken, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the usual humiliating rituals of having his spurs cut off or sword broken over his head. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a problem for the Garter: its honour had to be policed, but the )] TJ ET BT 380.288 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(damnatio memoriae )] TJ ET BT 479.612 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a degraded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member was an affront to its archival integrity. More recently, shame has attended the Order when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual knights try to out-display it \(by bringing 200 men to an installation, for example\), when the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8124 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving family does not return a member?s Garter regalia but sells it, or even when common people jeer its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate robes or crash its banquet. And in the 19th century the )] TJ ET BT 344.288 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Honi Soit)] TJ ET BT 389.960 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( motto made several appearances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in sexual jokes, testifying to the ?failure of the Order?s official historians to control its mythical associations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with women and sex? \(p. 164\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth chapter discusses how the Garter deals with change. The Order makes continuous appeal to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longevity and to the continuity of its ideals, but in reality has made frequent changes to them. In particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the current Garter ritual is a product of the same forces that David Cannadine outlined in ?The context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance and meaning of ritual: )] TJ ET BT 206.972 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the British)] TJ ET BT 260.312 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy and the ?Invention of Tradition)] TJ ET BT 463.304 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? c. 1820?1977?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 544.616 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 544.616 683.283 m 558.608 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trigg writes against ?proud? histories of the Garter to produce ?a history of the neglect and dishonor into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it has fallen at various stages?. For instance, in the reign of Richard II, the Order?s poor knights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canons were negligent in their duties, and the chapel was overrun with weeds. The Reformation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth saw regalia destroyed or sold off for personal gain. And Edward VII?s revival of royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial was impeded by the refusal to retire of Sir Albert Woods, Garter King of Arms \(d. 1904\), even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though he had long ceased effectively exercising his office. Attempts at reform were particularly urgent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the religious upheavals in the 16th and 17th centuries, when monarchs could not bring themselves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do away with the Garter, but wanted to cleanse it of popery and superstition, even going so far as to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that its lost original statutes were ?pure? and that corruption had subsequently crept in. The role of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Order can also be read as ?a series of interruptions and moments of resistance?. Women were appointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Ladies of the Garter in the 14th and 15th centuries, but this medieval courtly tradition did not extend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the reign of Henry VII. Edward VII appointed his queen Alexandra as a Lady of the Order \(an action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisted by Woods\), but it was not until 1987 that women, as ?Lady Companions?, were entitled to become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garter members on the same terms as men. ?Continuity?, in this case, is problematic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six deals with the garter itself, and the Order?s robes, as articles of clothing. The Order has steadily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved away from having the sovereign tie an actual garter on the leg of a newly installed knight; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimacy of this act is potentially embarrassing, and sartorial fashion does not necessarily accommodate it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This situation is especially true with the sovereign is a woman \(Queens Anne, Victoria and Elizabeth II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves wore the garter on their left arms\), and the Order has substituted the collar, star, and lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George as alternate signifiers of membership. The elaborate garter robes, for their part, can offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for ?historicism, fantasy, imagination and parody? \(p. 245\), as seen in Max Beerbohm?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novella )] TJ ET BT 72.344 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zuleika Dobson )] TJ ET BT 151.676 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1911\), which has the Duke of Dorset dress up in them before flinging himself to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watery death on account of his unrequited love for the title character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter revisits the theme of medievalism, and some of the more recent events in the life of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal family. The marriage of Charles and Camilla Parker-Bowles in St George?s chapel in 2005 helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimize it, while the encounter between the American photographer Annie Leibovitz and the Queen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007 over the Queen?s ?dressy? tiara and Garter robes illustrated both royal impatience with ornate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial and refusal to set it aside. The Garter and related phenomena continue to appear in various places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today, for example the image of St George that is affixed to the front of the Queen?s Rolls Royce in place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the usual figure of the Spirit of Ecstasy; a box of chocolate with a cartoon scene of the Garter procession on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it that Trigg recently purchased in London; Rex Whistler?s painting )] TJ ET BT 362.648 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Allegory: HRH the Prince Regent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(awakening the Spirit of Brighton)] TJ ET BT 191.360 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1944\), which features the Prince naked except for a garter, sash and star, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaning over a recumbent nude; or a chain of English-style pubs in France named The Frog and bearing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motto ?Honi Soit qui peu y Boit?. These all things point, in their way, to the Garter?s troubled relationship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its medieval past, and its divided and uneven history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the many interesting nuggets of Garter \(and Garter reception\) history to be discovered in )] TJ ET BT 501.584 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shame and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Honor)] TJ ET BT 65.348 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, this historian confesses that he finds much to dislike about it. As is apparent by now, much of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trigg discusses is only tangentially or arbitrarily related to the Order of the Garter. The Gentleman Usher of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Black Rod belongs more properly to a history of Parliament, and even the Garter King of Arms is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to a history of heraldry than to a history of the Order as such. St George?s, Windsor, is a royal free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapel and not everything that takes place there is or ought to be associated with the Garter ? such as Prince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward?s marriage there in 1999 \(seven years before he himself was made a Garter knight\), which cannot )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 544.6157 683.5975 558.6077 695.4775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8321 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really be seen as an attempt at ?smoothing over and forcefully displacing? embarrassment. That other groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choose to adopt the Garter motto for their own purposes cannot possibly reflect on the Order itself \(and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly that scandalous, given that in English heraldic practice mottos are not normally granted, and groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are free to adopt whatever mottos they want ? ?Honi soit qui mal y pense? is used by several military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments, to everyone?s satisfaction\). If an author chooses to signify a character as aristocratic by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associating him with the Garter, it merely raises the question, is this not simply arbitrary? Could he not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well have chosen a peer?s coronet or ermine robes? \(He might have been better off to do so, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the Garter are mere knights, who take precedence )] TJ ET BT 334.916 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(below)] TJ ET BT 363.584 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the eldest sons of barons ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters in Arthur Sullivan?s )] TJ ET BT 185.984 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Zoo)] TJ ET BT 225.656 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are technically wrong to exclaim that someone secretly wearing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garter is ?a peer in disguise?.\) A lot of the material in )] TJ ET BT 292.964 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shame and Honor)] TJ ET BT 380.288 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, particularly in chapter six, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critique of the British monarchy and British ?heritage culture?. This is fine, but a book parallel to Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nairn?s )] TJ ET BT 74.336 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Enchanted Glass)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.996 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.996 638.259 m 193.988 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.988 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would have been a better venue for it. Trigg acknowledges that ?there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of myopia that a project like this can induce, whereby everything becomes an allusion to its subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter, and where the subject matter is called to account for every phenomenon? \(p. 252\). But just because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is willing to acknowledge the problem does not mean that it goes away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, much of what Trigg does claim about the Garter can also be applied to any long-lasting organization. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Roman Catholic Church, an Oxbridge college, or the monarchy itself all adapt themselves to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current times, while trying to be true to what they see as their core ideals. Sometimes this process runs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoothly, sometimes it does not, but it does not necessarily mean that an organization is ?deeply riven by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own history?. To see changes in the Garter as the result of ?entropic decay and dilution? is a choice, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing the glass as half-empty. That 16th-century monarchs took such pains to revise the Order?s statutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to their respective religious beliefs points first and foremost to the Garter?s great prestige: Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VI could simply have abolished the society, as his regime did with most other confraternities, but he wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to keep it going and enjoy its cachet. And of course the Order will focus more attention on honour than on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame. To have to degrade a member is indeed shameful to the Order as well as to the individual member, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is therefore perfectly understandable for the Order to pass over such incidents with as little comment as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible. A university might expel a student for cheating, but the fact that a cheater had been a student in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first place does not make the university look good. That the incident will not receive front-page treatment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alumni magazine should surprise no one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trigg is probably right to claim that the Order?s foundation story accrues ?mythic capital? to it. One thinks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of similar mythical stories like Newton and the apple or Washington and the cherry tree. But just as it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to write a history of Newton or Washington without ever mentioning these things, so also it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to write a history of the Garter without having to mention, and then dismiss, the myth. Trigg takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some pains to position herself against ?official? histories of the Garter. But what if those histories are right? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What if the Garter really was an article of )] TJ ET BT 236.948 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(male)] TJ ET BT 260.276 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( attire, and Edward?s choice to use it as the emblem of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society was parallel to his cousin Alfonso?s Order of the Band ? and the dropped-garter story was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda originating at the French court, as Jonathan Boulton suggests \(and as Antonia Gransden showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was true about Edward?s alleged rape of the Countess of Salisbury\)? Much of what Trigg writes would then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become moot. Edward III was exceptionally image-conscious, and sometimes the simplest explanation is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best one: the garter was the emblem of the Crcy campaign, the motto refers to his claim to the crown of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, and the Order of the Garter a means of rewarding the important participants of the campaign and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(hopefully\) of perpetuating its success. Just as he substituted the Order of the Garter for his planned Order of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Round Table \(1344\), illustrating that he had little time for Arthurianism when he had important business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to attend to, so also is the dropped-garter story unlikely to have happened, or to have met with Edward?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approval. Medieval people had access to common sense, and their literature was often the equivalent of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action movies or romantic comedies ? fun, but no blueprint for real life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads to another concern of )] TJ ET BT 191.312 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shame and Honor)] TJ ET BT 278.636 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that of medievalism. The Garter is indeed ?medieval? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was founded in 1348. But the intense desire to define the medieval as against the modern seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misplaced \(most recent example: Stephen Greenblatt?s )] TJ ET BT 300.632 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Swerve)] TJ ET BT 356.288 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). History is one thing after another, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that the Garter was founded in 1348 as a result of the Hundred Years? War is in some ways )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.9957 638.5735 193.9877 650.4535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 4806 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arbitrary: if the Garter had not existed, one could see an order founded by Elizabeth I to celebrate the defeat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Spanish Armada, or Charles II to celebrate the Restoration, accruing just as much prestige over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of its existence. There is a pleasure in dressing up ? but that pleasure is presumably enjoyed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the Order of the Thistle \(1687\), the Order of the Bath \(1725\), or the Order of St Michael and St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George \(1818\), which have similar costumes but apparently do not have a ?troubled relation to a medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past? or an ?inability to acknowledge the medievalism of the medieval thing at its heart? \(p. 275\). Perhaps a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better approach to periodization is simply by century, which would designate the Garter as having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fourteenth-century? origins, giving it one hundred years? more accumulated tradition than if it had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founded in 1448, and 100 years less than if it had been founded in 1248. Whether this is ?medieval? would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then become secondary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as mentioned, these are the observations of an historian. Literary criticism and cultural studies have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different concerns, different methodologies, and a different argot. It might be best, however, if studies such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as this avoid the word ?history? in their titles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Begent and Hubert Chesshyre, )] TJ ET BT 241.316 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Most Noble Order of the Garter: 650 Years)] TJ ET BT 471.308 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 118.004 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Collins, )] TJ ET BT 134.360 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Order of the Garter 1348?1461: Chivalry and Politics in Late Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2000\); Antti Matikkala, )] TJ ET BT 225.332 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Orders of Knighthood and the Formation of the British Honours )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(System, 1660?1760 )] TJ ET BT 160.340 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Woodbridge, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.320 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.320 489.459 m 315.308 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine, ?The context, performance and meaning of ritual: )] TJ ET BT 394.940 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the British)] TJ ET BT 448.280 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Invention of Tradition)] TJ ET BT 176.024 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? c. 1820?1977?, in )] TJ ET BT 272.672 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Tradition)] TJ ET BT 399.680 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Eric Hobsbawm and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terence Ranger \(Cambridge, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.632 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.632 446.691 m 291.620 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Nairn, )] TJ ET BT 123.008 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Enchanted Glass: Britain and its Monarchy )] TJ ET BT 357.332 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Santa Fe, NM, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.320 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.320 432.435 m 519.308 432.435 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 417.103 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 399.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1495)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 397.929 m 328.316 397.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 372.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/67458)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 532.5415 118.0037 544.4215 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.3197 489.7735 315.3077 501.6535 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.6317 447.0055 291.6197 458.8855 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.3197 432.7495 519.3077 444.6295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 398.2435 328.3157 410.1235 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1495) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000005570 00000 n 0000005679 00000 n 0000005789 00000 n 0000005898 00000 n 0000009459 00000 n 0000009587 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n 0000009700 00000 n 0000009828 00000 n 0000009864 00000 n 0000009893 00000 n 0000010021 00000 n 0000010057 00000 n 0000010122 00000 n 0000018293 00000 n 0000018377 00000 n 0000026554 00000 n 0000026584 00000 n 0000026712 00000 n 0000026748 00000 n 0000026832 00000 n 0000035206 00000 n 0000035236 00000 n 0000035364 00000 n 0000035400 00000 n 0000035512 00000 n 0000040371 00000 n 0000040498 00000 n 0000040553 00000 n 0000040681 00000 n 0000040736 00000 n 0000040864 00000 n 0000040919 00000 n 0000041047 00000 n 0000041102 00000 n 0000041230 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41326 %%EOF