%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 13 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150724190115+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150724190115+01'00') /Title (River Of Dark Dreams: Slavery And Empire In The Cotton Kingdom) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 11 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 797.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET 0.500 0.500 0.500 rg BT 34.016 808.794 Td /F1 8.0 Tf [(Image not found)] TJ ET BT 34.016 798.794 Td /F1 8.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/sites/reviews/files/logo-150dpi.png)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 784.589 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 784.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 784.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 783.195 m 357.332 783.195 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 784.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 761.863 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 723.441 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(River Of Dark Dreams: Slavery And Empire In The Cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 702.057 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 34.016 671.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Review Number: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 657.179 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1496)] TJ ET BT 34.016 642.923 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Publish date: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 628.667 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 614.411 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Author: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.155 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Johnson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 585.899 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ISBN: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 571.643 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674045552)] TJ ET BT 34.016 557.387 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 543.131 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 528.875 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Price: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 514.619 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(£25.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.363 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pages: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.107 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(524pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 471.851 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Publisher: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 457.595 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.339 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.083 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674045552)] TJ ET BT 34.016 414.827 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 400.571 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.315 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Mathisen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 345.803 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the centre of this rich, provocative book is a body of water and a steampunk contraption. In the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 331.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the Mississippi River loomed large in the American imagination; a waterway of immense power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.291 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and possibility which sliced through the North American continent. The river was also a natural wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which cried out to be tamed, and over the early decades of the 19th century, Americans threw everything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 288.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had at it. They surmounted the distance between the river?s banks and forded it to settle western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 274.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories. They built port cities on the river which acted as magnets for settlers, speculators, foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investors, farmers and slaves. The current of the river, which flowed relentlessly from north to south, made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel upriver difficult, but by the early 19th century, Americans had answered the challenge with a boat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 231.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which defied nature. In 1811, according to legend, the first steamboat was launched on the Mississippi: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 217.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technological marvel which prompted amazement, and more than a little awe. Steamboats changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything. They revolutionised the ways that Americans ferried themselves, their harvests and their human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property. Steamboats also turned the Mississippi River Valley into one of the most important emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets of the age. By the middle decades of the century, the banks of the river were home to some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthiest citizens in the United States; several important entrepôts like New Orleans and Memphis; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundreds of thousands of slaves, and hundreds of steamboats which made its way up and down the river )] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with alarming speed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 105.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The steamboats and the river they travelled on became more than the mechanisms and magnets of settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trade. The Mississippi River Valley also became the spiritual home of expansionist slaveholders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialist dreamers, who looked upon their lands heaving with cotton, not to mention the slaves who made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it all possible, and imagined a future of limitless possibility. Anything but backwards or reactionary, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 12 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 783.5095 357.3317 795.3895 ] >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 14 0 R >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Length 7628 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architects of the Mississippi River Valley saw themselves at the leading edge of a political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution that was sweeping the Atlantic World. It was a revolution borne not only of bold ideas, but of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account books and plantation ledgers: the cold cost-accounting of a cotton monoculture, made more brutal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the blood, sweat and semen of African Americans, whose labour made the fantasies of river planters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, and whose offspring bolstered the slaveholders? return on investment. With everything to gain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these men, according to Walter Johnson, staked their future on an ambitious plan of expansion: a plan which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took root in the dramatic expansion of the republic across the continent, but which had extended by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s and 1850s to include Cuba, Nicaragua and, if fortune willed it, much of the Caribbean Sea. When that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire came crashing down around them, slaveholder dreams found succour and meaning in the sectional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict which was tearing the American republic in two. So often, as Johnson argues, the literature on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of the American Civil War pits an expansive, forward-thinking North against a retreating South, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with slaveholders breaking from the Union and into their own Confederacy, all to stop the tide of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was contracting the plantation complex all over the Atlantic World. This narrative ? so central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the United States ? remains a relentlessly inward-looking story, though Johnson?s aim is to inject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story of the American slaveholding masterclass with cosmopolitan bravura and world beating ambition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Johnson puts it, if ?instead of looking at what ?the South? was leaving ? one asked where Southerners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and slaveholders in particular\) though they were going and how they thought they could pull it off?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians might better understand one of the turning points in American history in an entirely new way \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To say that this book is ambitious does not do justice to the full scope of what Johnson attempts. Insights, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative interpretations and clever turns of phrase leap from almost every page. The author ? whose first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.984 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.984 483.699 m 340.976 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.976 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, repositioned the historiography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American slavery by showing just how much the market-driven commodification of African Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned would-be planters into paternalist masters ? has cemented his reputation as an academic star. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this initial success, there is a restless tone to the book: an undercurrent of frustration with older ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking and older interpretations, which reads, at times, like the work of an overlooked historian, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a doyen of his field. It is this restlessness, however, which gives Johnson?s argument its punch. What the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author wants is nothing less than to change the way that we think about the history of the United States in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th century and at points throughout, he achieves just that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though divided into 14 overlapping chapters, the book contains three braided themes. Each theme connects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a historiographical debate and in every case, the author looks to deal reigning interpretations with a body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blow. The first five chapters of the book detail the settlement and the American mastery of the Mississippi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(River Valley: a region which lay on the littoral of the imperial Atlantic. The author takes aim in this section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the ways in which historians have written about the development of American capitalism. Whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature so often points to the northeastern United States as the engine of the American market revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson looks to the periphery and finds the real beating heart of transformation on the Mississippi River. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, by connecting this place to an energetic plan of territorial expansion, Johnson argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding American manifest destiny is impossible without making sense of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism and the imperial dreams of planters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Johnson, however, the Mississippi River Valley represented something more than an imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will to power. It became, rather, the great laboratory of American capitalism, and the site where an emergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international capitalist system mingled effortlessly with the imperial dreams of its first planters. There, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international capital flooded the region, creating a cosmopolitan master class who imagined the Mississippi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(River as an economic umbilical cord which would connect the region to the markets of the world. To make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dream real, Americans perfected innovations in cotton planting and harvesting and built steamboats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which defied gravity: all to collapse time and space, to bring goods closer to markets and to maximise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profits. The combination of imperial ambition, capitalist drive and technological innovation represents one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the great strengths of this book. Seen through the prism Johnson constructs, it would be hard to imagine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s early national history in quite the same way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be sure, the violence necessary to make the whole system operate required that both planters and slaves )] TJ ET endstream endobj 15 0 obj [13 0 R /Fit] endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.9837 484.0135 340.9757 495.8935 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7770 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live in an environment where ordered society teetered on the edge of chaos. The book?s first chapter begins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a slave rebellion in 1811 which threatened to upend all the promise of a cotton empire, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive chapters, Johnson is clear that life at the centre of capitalist transformation was as likely to kill as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was to make someone rich. As he illuminates in a particularly revealing third chapter on steamboats, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lure of a quick buck pushed steamboat owners and engineers to push their contraptions to the outer limits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting in explosions on the river which killed by the score. Just like Herman Melville and Mark Twain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before him, Johnson also detects an instability to life on the Mississippi River; an instability which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerated, but required constant vigilance. Though Johnson does not break new ground when he focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the confidence games which lay at the heart of American capitalism ? the trickster cons which propped up so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of a system where so many economic transactions could not be trusted ? he does show how slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played confidence games of their own: passing as respectable, all in a bid for freedom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the first five chapters of the book detail the creation of one of the 19th century?s most important emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets ? with all the technological innovation and social instability that emerging markets always seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess ? the middle chapters of the book take up the camera lens, both to understand what made the cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire work, and what connected it to a broader world. These chapters make up the core of the book, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they show Johnson?s real talent for interpretive insight and the telling anecdote. Throughout, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses attention not only on the ruthless system planters built for themselves, but on what slaveholders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreamed; what they imagined when they looked out on their lands and looked to their river. It is this focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the speculative ? on the fantasies and anxieties of a master class ? which gives Johnson?s work much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its interpretive power. Added to this, however, )] TJ ET BT 260.648 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams )] TJ ET BT 370.628 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoves the gritty, lived reality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery to the foreground. While the prevailing turn of the literature on slavery has, of late, concerned itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the relative agency of the slaves themselves, Johnson is keen to set aside dry, intellectual concerns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the real power at the heart of the plantation complex. There is talk of dirt, shit, sweat and blood; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking down of simple human processes into brutal units of market measurement. In Johnson?s first book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soul by Soul, )] TJ ET BT 100.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a focus on the base, carnal gaze of slaveholders was evident. In )] TJ ET BT 406.592 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the focus becomes a key part of his argument, which collapses the distinctions between capitalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and slavery. In Johnson?s hands, slaveholders were masters of Fordism, decades before Model Ts rolled off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the assembly lines. Planters quantified every scarred black hand and every boll of cotton picked, all to turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American Cotton South into one of the richest monocultures in world history. The middle chapters of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, which deals with the labour of slaves, is shorn of the romanticism which has, of late, crept into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of slaves. Rather than interpreting them as a proto-peasantry, using their culture and their wits to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subvert a master?s control, Johnson places slaves at the centre of a system of total, coercive domination. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was this control which sustained the South, the American republic and an emergent international process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation, stretching from New Orleans to Liverpool and beyond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is when Johnson begins to zoom out from the cotton row to the larger system to which the Mississippi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valley was tethered, that readers begin to understand both the indomitable optimism and the nagging doubts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of slaveholders. By following a bale of cotton from the field to the marketplace, Johnson shows in a ninth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter how despite their mastery of the world around them, cotton planters actually sat on the lower rungs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the economic ladder. Absorbing much of the risk in bringing a valuable crop to market, which could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily spoiled, the nature of the financing system that grew up around cotton was such that planters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locked in an economic cycle they could never dominate in the same way that they controlled their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantations. ?Because their cotton was generally sold on consignment?, writes Johnson, ?planters retained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal ownership all the way up to the time it was finally sold, often thousands of miles from their plantations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and months after it had left their care. And because they had received advances against that sale, they could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find themselves dunned for money they had already spent, in the event that their cotton eventually brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than had been advanced for it? \(p. 264\). Just as the confidence games so central to capitalism made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system lurch from boom to bust, so too did the confidence in cotton result in an empire being built on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting sands. The international marketplace proved the circle planters could never square.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapters of Johnson?s book carries the designs on mastery and the worries about their position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world into the 1840s and 1850s, as imperialist planters looked beyond the Mississippi Valley to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7294 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories further afield. Tying Narciso López?s raids on Cuba between 1849 and 1851and William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walker?s conquest of Nicaragua in 1857, Johnson argues that the American ?filibuster? movement was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimately connected to both the ambition and the worries of planters in the Mississippi Valley, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wondered \(with some justification\) about whether their empire was on the downward slide. In making this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection, )] TJ ET BT 92.672 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams )] TJ ET BT 202.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delves into a history which has been told before \(most especially by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert May\), and for this reason, specialists in the field will find little that is especially new. Though the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later chapters of the book do make obvious connections which fits well with the picture Johnson paints in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier chapters, there is not the same interpretive payoff.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One point which is new is that in the pamphlets and published journals of the most ardent of southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialists, Johnson finds a view of history which helps to explain why those same southerners, in 1860, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed they could go it alone in a breathtaking bid for nationhood. Drawing selectively from the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, Mississippi planters could not help but see the emancipations of Haiti and the British and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean colonies as a quixotic errand, rendered useless in the face of progress. With hindsight, historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too often paint American slaveholders as reactionaries, who sought retrenchment in the face of the dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraction of the Atlantic slave system by the middle decades of the 19th century. Johnson?s argument, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is that when we see the 1850s through the eyes of slaveholders, the world looks far different. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, ?the irresistible force of the Mississippi [River] symbolized the gathered power of the emergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendencies of historical development ? white man?s republicanism, free trade, and institutionalized slavery ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which made it both crucial and inevitable that Americans, and particularly Southerners, would turn their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention? to Cuba and the Caribbean Sea as the key to their collective futures \(p. 318\). When these forays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into empire building abroad amounted to little, it made sense to pour their ambition and their belief that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tide of history was on their side, to a nation-building project of their own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occasionally, a book emerges which shakes a broader literature to its foundations, and this was surely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambition of )] TJ ET BT 92.684 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams.)] TJ ET BT 202.664 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For this reason alone, Walter Johnson is to be commended for writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something with such a grand sweep and penetrating vision. Like all great books, )] TJ ET BT 422.300 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poses as many questions as it answers. While Johnson deals somewhat roughly with the work of Eugene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Genovese, there is little in the book about how slaveholders secured the support of the majority of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white, non-slaveholding southerners, for whom cotton dreams so often rang hollow. The outward, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international gaze of the book also seeks to overturn an old literature on the coming of the Civil War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without showing how, or even whether, slaveholders in the Mississippi Valley attempted to control national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy with the same bravado as they did their own empire on the river. Though )] TJ ET BT 419.960 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shines a bright light on the assumptions which have undergirded the study of the sectional conflict, it does so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not by engaging with these old debates about national politics, so much as it talks over them. Taken together, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, it is a measure of what the book sets out to do that by the time readers finish reading it, so much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century American history looks different. By inverting accepted wisdom and charting a new path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the history of the South, )] TJ ET BT 193.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(River of Dark Dreams )] TJ ET BT 302.996 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be the measure against which future studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American slavery, cotton, capitalism and manifest destiny will be judged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walter Johnson, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market )] TJ ET BT 407.972 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.624 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.624 192.339 m 555.284 192.339 l S BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 178.083 m 90.344 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n+1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://nplusonemag.com/slave-capitalism)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 123.315 m 231.680 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.680 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 119.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 102.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 102.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1496)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 100.809 m 328.316 100.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 75.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/49498)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.6237 192.6535 555.2837 204.5335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 15 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 178.3975 90.3437 190.2775 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 15 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 123.6295 231.6797 135.5095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://nplusonemag.com/slave-capitalism) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 101.1235 328.3157 113.0035 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1496) >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 150 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://nplusonemag.com/slave-capitalism)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000322 00000 n 0000000351 00000 n 0000000537 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000005812 00000 n 0000005921 00000 n 0000006031 00000 n 0000006140 00000 n 0000006268 00000 n 0000006352 00000 n 0000006436 00000 n 0000014117 00000 n 0000014147 00000 n 0000014275 00000 n 0000014311 00000 n 0000014376 00000 n 0000022199 00000 n 0000022304 00000 n 0000029651 00000 n 0000029779 00000 n 0000029834 00000 n 0000029960 00000 n 0000030015 00000 n 0000030142 00000 n 0000030233 00000 n 0000030361 00000 n 0000030457 00000 n 0000030522 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30724 %%EOF