%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827031836+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827031836+01'00') /Title (Antarctica: a Biography) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3985 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Antarctica: a Biography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of this book, )] TJ ET BT 140.684 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antarctica: a Biography)] TJ ET BT 258.008 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, might cause some initial confusion but this is rectified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher?s puff on the front inside flap of the dust jacket where it is described as ?the first major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international history of this forbidding continent?. However, the title does serve the author?s purpose in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompting the reader to consider not only the discovery and geography of the Antarctic \(the continent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peri-Antarctic islands\), but also the explorers who made the discoveries and the political machinations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their governments over these uninhabited territories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the author?s preface, the book is divided chronologically into 21 chapters \(ranging from the 1770s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 2012\). The periods of each chapter vary in length according to the extent of activities within each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular period. Each chapter is subtitled with a short quotation relevant to its content, and although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular expression ?The Heroic Era? is not used it is covered in chapters six to eight. There is a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epilogue followed by 63 pages of endnotes by chapter, seven pages of a select bibliography and an index of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21 pages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the preface, the author explains how he came to write the book as a result of writing a previous book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the Antarctic kept impinging on the research. He also acknowledges individuals and organizations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1497)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Day)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199670550)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(624pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199670550.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Clarkson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that provided help and encouragement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one covers the 1770s, the author?s chosen starting period, dealing principally with the voyages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Captain James Cook. It is always arguable where to begin a history but, in this case, Cook?s first voyage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1768?71\), to observe the transit of Venus from the Pacific Ocean, seems appropriate. Other voyages that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had sailed in search of the fabled southern continent are mentioned but Cook?s secret instructions, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completing the science, were to search for the ?mythical Great South Land? and claim it for Britain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid imaginations of 18th-century cartographers and others had described a land of agriculture and minerals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a population of some 50 million. Cook did not sight Antarctica in either his first or second voyage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1772?5\) but he did circumnavigate the continent twice and crossed the Antarctic Circle \(66 33'S\) for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first time. He also charted the island of South Georgia and discovered the South Sandwich Islands, claiming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former for Britain. However, he did speculate that there must be a landmass farther south from which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge icebergs he encountered would have originated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter covers the period 1780-1820, beginning with Cook?s third voyage on which he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tragically killed by natives on Hawaii in 1779. The slaughter of fur seals on South Georgia, prompted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook?s accounts of his previous voyages, is mentioned only in respect of the Russian Bellingshausen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrival at that island. The Tsar had despatched two ships, )] TJ ET BT 309.968 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vostok)] TJ ET BT 342.632 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 365.960 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mirny)] TJ ET BT 395.288 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, under Bellinghausen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command to check Cook?s discoveries, search for the southern continent and to counter British territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations in the region. On 19 February 1819 William Smith from Britain sighted the South Shetland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islands. Bellingshausen crossed the Antarctic Circle on 27 January 1820 and sighted the coast of Antarctica )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the following day. Meanwhile Smith had returned with Edward Bransfield RN to chart his discovery before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning south and sighting the coast of the Antarctic Peninsula on 30 January 1820. Despite attempts at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secrecy, news of Smith?s discovery, not just of the islands but the thousands of fur seals there, had leaked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and American and other British sealers descended on the islands. After a maintenance stay in Australia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bellingshausen returned to the Ross Sea and sailed eastward around the continent to sight and name first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter I y and then Alexander Island. Unlike the British, who landed and made territorial claims, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bellingshausen simply named his discoveries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three deals with the uncontrolled predation of the fur seals on the South Shetland Islands, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively annihilated the population and led sealers to begin to search for new sealing grounds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Undoubtedly new coasts were found but secrecy for commercial reasons and the loss of so many ships? logs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean that outstanding records are few. Nevertheless some major discoveries were made, notably James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weddell reaching 74S in the Weddell Sea. Britain and France were preparing expeditions to explore and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry out research in the region while the young United States was eventually persuaded to send an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedition to explore and chart the seas frequented by its sealers. The scene was set for the next major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of discovery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Frenchman Dumont d?Urville, the American Charles Wilkes and the Briton James Clark Ross dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the next chapter, detailing the years 1839?43. Both d?Urville and Wilkes sailed along stretches of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antarctic coast south of Australia between about 150E and 105E but d?Urville landed on some islands at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(140E to claim the land for France that he named ?Terre Adlie? after his wife. Wilkes? course lay farther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north and although he sighted the appearance of land he was unable to disembark. However, he did suppose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ice cliffs were the northern edge of a continent that he termed Antarctica. Ross wanted to reach the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Magnetic Pole \(he had already reached the North Magnetic Pole\), but his observations indicated it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on land that he could not reach. Nevertheless he discovered Victoria Land and reached Ross Island, setting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new farthest south record. Ross also explored around the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered James Ross Island.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7227 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five covers the period up to 1895. While d?Urville was fted and honoured on his return to France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ross received less acclamation in Britain, and in the United States Wilkes was court marshalled for lying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about seeing land and doing so before d?Urville! Their reports stimulated some unsuccessful whaling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ventures to the Southern Ocean but there was little other activity apart from the )] TJ ET BT 417.284 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Challenger)] TJ ET BT 471.284 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( expedition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1872. During this period Britain was more concerned with the search for the North-west Passage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters six to eight, as mentioned above, cover ?The Heroic Era?. The author shows how the ambitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudices of Sir Clements Markham, President of the Royal Geographical Society, influenced the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antarctic exploration, not always for the best. The expeditions of De Gerlache \(Belgium\), Borchgrevink )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(UK\), Scott \(UK\), Drygalski \(Germany\), Nordenskjld \(Sweden\), Charcot \(France\) and Bruce \(UK\) are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly described. Science was the underlying driver but inevitably national prestige was an important carrot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for fundraising. The importance of sovereignty and territorial claims was beginning to emerge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whaling was now a well-established industry with shore stations in South Georgia and the South Shetland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islands. The development of the explosive harpoon, the use of faster catchers and better processing led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profitable industry. The lease of land by the Falkland Islands government to the whalers at Grytviken, South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgia, accelerated sovereignty questions. The British government issued ?Letters Patent? in 1908 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiate British claims in the Antarctic against Argentine and Chilean claims. Charcot returned to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antarctic Peninsula with a scientific expedition in 1908. Shackleton reached within 100 geographical miles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(180 km\) of the South Pole in 1908 while Cook and Peary claimed to have reached the North Pole in 1908 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1909 respectively. Amundsen redirected his Arctic expedition south to reach the South Pole on 14 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1911, followed by Scott on 17 January 1912.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight deals at length with Douglas Mawson?s Australasian Antarctic expedition, perhaps inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the author is Australian. However, he does uncover the different versions of Mawson?s epic journey, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapted to suit his immediate needs and audience. Filchner?s )] TJ ET BT 329.972 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutschland)] TJ ET BT 390.632 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Shackleton?s )] TJ ET BT 480.284 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Endurance)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions to the Weddell Sea and Nobu Shirase?s )] TJ ET BT 284.648 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kainan-maru)] TJ ET BT 349.316 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( expedition from Japan to the Ross Sea are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly referred to, with the Antarctic politics of the time being blended in with the stories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine turns to the post-war period, dominated by territorial questions and the determination of Leo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amery, a British government minister, to claim the entire continent for Britain, except for the irritating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French claim to Terre Adlie. Whaling, predominantly Norwegian, continued and the British government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by licensing the whalers, was adding support its territorial claims. A grandiose British expedition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antarctic Peninsula planned by John Lachlan Cope was eventually reduced to two men spending a winter in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an abandoned water-boat converted into a hut at Waterboat Point in Paradise Harbour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Byrd \(USA\), Hubert Wilkins \(Britain/Australia\) and Lincoln Ellsworth \(USA\) were all making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering aircraft flights in the Arctic and it was inevitable that this technique of exploration would soon be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transferred to the Antarctic. The complications this would cause for Antarctic sovereignty are discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter ten, particularly those between Britain and Norway as the latter claimed Peter I y and Bouvetya )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and considered claiming the unclaimed sector \(20W ? 50E\) between the British and Australian claims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 11 turns to Byrd?s first Antarctic expedition, to the Ross Ice Shelf, which used aircraft to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photograph vast previously unseen swathes of the continent, and on which he made the first flight to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vicinity of the South Pole. He was keen to claim territory and put ground parties into the newly discovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountains to bolster any claim by actual knowledge of the area. He also ensured that photographs included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coastline to link the coast to the interior. He named the unclaimed region Marie Byrd Land to forestall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any claims that might be made by Wilkins overflying the same region from the Antarctic Peninsula. Byrd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also made extensive use of radio to inform his media sponsors, and hence the rest of the world, of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries. At the same time, Mawson was in competition with the Norwegians to chart and claim the coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south of Australia and the Indian Ocean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter covers Mawson?s return to Antarctica for a second season on )] TJ ET BT 414.908 58.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discovery)] TJ ET BT 463.556 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to consolidate the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6862 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian \(British Empire\) claims although Norway had already agreed not to claim any territory within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australian area of interest. Both the Norwegian and Australian claims had an economic basis: Norwegian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whalers wanted to avoid paying licence fees and royalties to hunt in British-claimed areas while Australia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have liked those revenues and also hoped for a mineral bonanza on the continent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territorial concerns continue to predominate in chapters 13 and 14. In November 1935 Lincoln Ellsworth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flew from the northern end of the Antarctic Peninsula, across Marie Byrd Land to a point 25 km from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byrd?s old Little America station, claiming the area 80W?120W for the United States. Byrd returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little America a few days after Ellsworth?s departure. His expedition made further flights and ground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys and Byrd himself spent a winter alone 160 km south of the station. The appointment of a US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmaster to issue US stamps on mail franked at Little America alarmed the British and New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments who thought this might be used to establish sovereignty in the Ross Dependency. Meanwhile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Graham Land Expedition \(1934?7\) showed that the Antarctic Peninsula was part of the Antarctic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainland and not an archipelago.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The business of claiming territory was exercising politicians, particularly in the United States and Australia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the whaling fleets of Norway, Japan and Germany continued to harvest the Southern Ocean. Ellsworth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Wilkins were, in effect, being used as pawns by their governments to explore and claim territory but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reveal their intentions to each other. Then it would be for government lawyers to use their reports to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best advantage. Promises were made and broken, and the book reveals this to have been a very cloak-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dagger tale!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 15 and 16 deal with the Antarctic during the Second World War. Growing national posturing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly by Germany, over territorial claims in Antarctica, prompting President Roosevelt to propose a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States Antarctic Service expedition to claim large parts, if not all, of the continent. Byrd cancelled his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned private expedition to be leader of the governmental expedition. Its preparation, funding, aims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution are presented as a fascinating tale of inter-departmental rivalries, secrecy and misleading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national press. In the event, the expedition, with no formal scientific programme, achieved very little and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly not the planned geographical exploration on which to base a major land grab. Events in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly gained priority for the American government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The results of the US Antarctic Service expedition to East Base and West Base were published too little and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too late to substantiate the proposed American claims. Meanwhile Argentina took advantage of Britain?s pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation with the Second World War to make claims in the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peninsula. Britain was slow to respond but, in 1944, established small bases at Deception Island and Port )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lockroy, each with a post office and a scientific programme, under the guise of monitoring enemy activity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British ?expedition? was code-named ?Operation Tabarin?. All traces of the Argentine claims were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removed or obliterated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once the war was over, as chapter 17 shows, Operation Tabarin became the Falkland Islands Dependencies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survey \(FIDS\) that continued to man its Antarctic bases and to establish more. FIDS was now a civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation although many of the personnel were ex-military. Argentina and Chile began taking steps to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter the British claims, and those of each other, over the Antarctic Peninsula region. The United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile launched ?Operation Highjump? to bolster US claims by overflying huge swathes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent and to provide cold-weather experience to counter the perceived threat of hostilities with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union in the Arctic. Again, despite taking thousands of air photographs, the cartographers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unable to make meaningful maps because there was no ground control. Australia and New Zealand were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned that their claims would be jeopardized by the US activities. Australians were unable to land on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent, although the government arranged to annex Heard and Macquarie islands, and still no New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealander had visited the Ross Dependency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 18 the author discusses the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition \(1947?8\), which re-occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byrd?s East Base on Stonington Island alongside FIDS Base E and, in joint ventures with the British, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive mapping by combining air photography and the all-important ground control. Australian, New )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand and further US expeditions failed to materialize. The Soviet Union, not wishing to be left behind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began looking at Bellingshausen?s expedition and considered claiming territory seen by him, largely within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Falkland Islands Dependencies. However, suggestions for international governance of the Antarctic were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being made although there was fierce opposition in many quarters. Whaling was resumed but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretically controlled by the International Whaling Commission. Then, for several nations, the Korean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War diverted attention from the Antarctic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter turns to the early years of the Cold War. Tension was rising in the overlapping claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Antarctic Peninsula. In February 1952, RRS )] TJ ET BT 281.996 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John Biscoe)] TJ ET BT 340.316 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( arrived at Hope Bay to rebuild Base D that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been burned to the ground and was met by a hail of bullets from the Argentine base Esperanza. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British retreated but the Governor of the Falkland Islands returned with a detachment of Royal Marines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aboard HMS )] TJ ET BT 98.672 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burghead Bay)] TJ ET BT 167.660 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to secure a landing)] TJ ET BT 260.972 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 263.972 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( An apology was received from Juan Pern, President of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Argentina, but the tension remained. Meanwhile, Britain was preparing maps with British names and was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication with Norway, Australia, France and New Zealand, and with the Americans to reach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement over names proposed by the Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition. The British government also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported Vivian Fuchs?s proposed Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition \(1955?8\) as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidating the territorial claims of Britain and New Zealand. The International Geophysical Year \(IGY\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1957?8 was looming and would provide a scientific )] TJ ET BT 298.316 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raison d?tre)] TJ ET BT 362.648 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for Antarctic exploration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 20 begins with the death of Admiral Byrd on 11 March 1957, which closed a chapter in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States? exploration of Antarctica. He went south for the last time in the 1955?6 season as the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared for the IGY. Twelve nations took part in the IGY. Science was undoubtedly the foundation for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IGY but the claimant states were worried that occupation of foreign bases within their territories would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermine their claims. This was a particular concern for Australia \(Soviet bases\) and New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(American bases\). The Americans wanted access to the entire continent, as did the Soviets, and made efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to advise the Soviets that, wherever they went, the United States had already been there. The international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research \(SCAR\) was established in 1958 and proposed to coordinate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mapping in Antarctica that Australia saw as potentially threatening its claim. The American Secretary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State, John Foster Dulles, was keen to keep the Soviets out of Antarctica.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early in 1958, the US wanted to invite the 12 IGY nations to a conference on the Antarctic to develop a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic solution. Innumerable meetings took place between all of these nations, many of them in secret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between sympathetic nations, others also in secret to bring dissenters on board. The conference eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began in Washington on 15 October 1959 but it took six weeks of debate until the text of the Antarctic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaty was agreed on 1 December 1959.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter brings the story up to date. The entry into force of the Antarctic Treaty on 23 June 1961 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed the territorial claims of the adherent states in abeyance, with no activities being able to enhance or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detract from those claims. Nevertheless, many Treaty Parties were concerned to ensure that their activities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially mapping, naming features, operating post offices and issuing Antarctic stamps, would consolidate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their claims should they ever be challenged. The more bizarre of these activities were the efforts by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Argentina and Chile to ensure babies were born in their respective Antarctic territories. Environmentalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to exert pressure on national governments and their Treaty delegations to protect the Antarctic from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial exploitation, and this led to the abandonment of the Convention for the Regulation of Antarctic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mineral Resource Activities, and the development of the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marine Living Resources and the Protocol on Environmental Protection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his epilogue, the author briefly recalls pertinent topics and points out that new nations, environmental and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific groups, tourism and resource companies with all their different interests and activities, mean that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antarctica?s ownership will be difficult to resolve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The principal theme of the book is the ownership of the Antarctic. It dwells on national politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international diplomacy concerning territorial claims and the establishment of sovereignty. It provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating insight to the reasons why explorers went to Antarctica and the ways in which governments )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6906 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose to interpret and use their explorations. As one might expect, governments were frequently somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economical with the truth while also quite prepared to embellish the truth to meet their requirements. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same can also be said of some of the explorers! Many of the famous, as well as the less well-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions, are given little coverage and this is largely in relation to the territorial and sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. This is a deliberately chosen approach, and it works well, although readers seeking tales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditionary heroism should look elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most interesting aspects of the book are where it deals with the internal activities of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments as they sought to make the most capital from the material to hand. In this respect, the accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the United States, British and Australian governments? efforts to make and bolster their territorial claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the most extensive. The author has delved deep into archives to tease out the interdepartmental rivalries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and portray the leading characters who were instrumental in developing Antarctic policy. Foremost among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter must be the American Richard Byrd who was forever seeking personal glory and power. It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be interesting to learn more of the internal wrangling that must have taken place within Argentina, Chile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Personally, I should have found a chronology very useful, listing the major events described in the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the various expeditions. This would have provided a ready reference as to who may have seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what and when in the later chapters, where the priorities of different claims are discussed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By any yardstick the Antarctic Treaty has been very successful. Perhaps more than anything else it has kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peace in Antarctica for more than 50 years. It has protected the Antarctic environment through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Environmental Protocol, and the Commission on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done much to conserve stocks of fish and krill. Any exploration and exploitation of mineral and hydrocarbon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources have been effectively postponed for at least another 35 years. The Treaty is not perfect but there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a general determination among the Treaty Parties to make it work. It has also provided blueprints for aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Law of the Sea and the Outer Space Treaty. It would have been good to have read more of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes in the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 16 pages of plates show 31 black-and-white photographs. These pictures range from explorers? portraits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contemporary newspaper articles. Together they illustrate examples of most of the topics discussed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. Inevitably the historic photographs are monochromes but some modern colour photographs would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been good, particularly those showing the landscape of the Antarctic to give the reader a better idea of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always-spectacular appearance. Contrary to what many people may think \(and this has been used as a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title\), the Antarctic is not simply a ?white desert?. However, I suspect that the publishers had a strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion on this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many books about the Antarctic suffer from a paucity or a complete absence of maps. The endpapers of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book show two historical maps. The front endpaper is ?A New Map of the World?, dated 1703, and marking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the positions of the South Pole and the Antarctic Circle but absolutely nothing else. This was, of course, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of knowledge at the time and made no concessions to the customary technique of allowing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartographer?s imagination to fill the blank spaces. The rear endpaper is a German map of the Antarctic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, c1910, which shows the state of knowledge at that time. This is obviously of historical interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates graphically how little was known just 100 years ago. What is missing is a modern map of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antarctic as it really is. Any reader unfamiliar with Antarctic geography will need a good reference map to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, preferably on a large scale, to locate many, if not all, of the place-names mentioned in the text. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not be the fault of the author as experience has shown that many publishers either do not recognize the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of maps or consider that their inclusion in unnecessarily expensive. Either way, it is a serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacuna for the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To write the history of an entire continent in a single volume is a bold undertaking, \(reviewing the book has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been a considerable challenge!\) even for Antarctica, with no indigenous population and unseen until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than 200 years ago. David Day has done remarkably well. The text is well-written, informative and very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readable. At 25.00 the book is very good value and provides an excellent and concise introduction to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 3022 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the Antarctic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NB. On page 123, in a quote describing Bruce?s departure from the Antarctic, there is an unfortunate error in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording a ?bargee? rather than a burgee hanging from the mizzenmast. It conjures an image of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate junior seaman receiving the ultimate punishment! The quote, which is absolutely correct, is from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Speak?s, )] TJ ET BT 107.000 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Log of the Scotia Expedition, 1902?04)] TJ ET BT 312.668 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 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