%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819050037+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819050037+01'00') /Title (Free Trade and Sailors? Rights in the War of 1812) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4397 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Free Trade and Sailors? Rights in the War of 1812)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul A. Gilje, Professor of United States History at the University of Oklahoma and renowned expert on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of common people on the waterfront in early America )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.624 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.624 229.161 m 346.616 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.616 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, argues in his recently published book on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of 1812 that the U.S. declared war against Great Britain in 1812 in defense of neutral rights and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safety of American sailors. American foreign trade was threatened by the British orders-in-council, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established a naval blockade of Napoleonic France and its allies in Europe, and the British Rule of 1756, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which prohibited Americans from transporting goods from the French West Indies to France and back. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans in the United States who championed the principle that ?free ships make free goods? argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead that the United States should be allowed to take over the carrying trade between France and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies after the Royal Navy had swept the French merchant marine from the oceans, and took exception to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British blockades, which prevented the United States from selling its goods to most of continental Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Impressment ? the forced recruitment of sailors into the service of the Royal Navy ? was the second issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that led the United States and Great Britain down the path of war. Since the Royal Navy depended on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steady supply of able-bodied seamen to keep up naval superiority in the fight against Napoleonic France, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government considered it vital to impress British sailors who had deserted to enlist in the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1498)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Gilje)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107607828)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(437pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/early-republic-and-antebellum-history/free-trade-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-sailors-rights-war-1812)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jasper Trautsch)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 332.6237 229.4755 346.6157 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7777 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American merchant marine. British warships therefore frequently stopped American merchant vessels on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high seas to look for British subjects and ? given that it was difficult to distinguish between Americans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons ? would occasionally also impress American sailors by mistake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While discussing Anglo-American disputes over neutral rights and impressment in detail, Gilje?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph is more than a recount of diplomatic relations between both English-speaking peoples. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s primary purpose is an examination of the larger cultural meaning of the phrase ?free trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sailors? rights? in the early national period ? a political slogan that captured both the war aims of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republican elite leadership and the democratic aspirations of the common people and thus gave the war an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for American history that transcended the immediate issues at hand.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.948 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.948 669.027 m 430.940 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.940 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?Free trade? and ?sailors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights? ?represented important aspects of the Revolutionary heritage from the 18th century and reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melding of both high and low cultures in a unique way that rejected the traditional order of the Old World. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, by joining these two different strains in one phrase Americans demonstrated the success of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.676 612.003 m 105.668 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first section explores the various meanings of the term ?free trade? ? which could signify ?the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any market, ending colonial restrictions, establishing reciprocal agreements, eliminating tariffs, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protecting neutral commerce? \(p. 30\) ? and analyzes how the concept encapsulated both the Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopes that increasing free commerce between nations would lead to world peace and sailors? hopes that free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade would result in more jobs and higher wages?. Any banner with the words ?free trade? thus rallied those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the top as well as those on the bottom of society? \(p. 6\). As Americans believed their republic should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue a new diplomacy following Enlightenment principles, ?free trade? became deeply ?imbedded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American national identity? \(p. 44\). The second section traces the idea of ?sailors? rights? from the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period to the War of 1812. Gilje shows that opposition to British impressment was not only about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection of American seamen but also an assertion of democratic definitions of citizenship. While sailors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had traditionally been regarded as ?a breed apart, with different speech, values, and concerns?, forming a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctly lower caste than other people in the colonial period \(p. 76\), because of their contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Revolution they had become part of the American nation and were considered full citizens in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States. ?The fact that so many Americans fought on the high seas, and that the British captured many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these men, who then suffered as prisoners of war, furthered the sense that mariners played a special role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of the United States? \(p. 85\). The claim that sailors were citizens was a powerful indicator of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarianism that the American Revolution stood for, to the point that the sailor had become ?a symbol for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire nation? \(p. 339\). The issue of impressment was even mentioned in the Declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence, Gilje reminds us, such that the continued impressment of Americans into the Royal Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after American independence was seen as threatening the very success of the American Revolution. The fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the term ?impressment? originated in the United States in the mid-1790s bears witness to the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the issue for Americans in the early republic. Since the issue of impressment was immediately relevant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the lower strata of society, it was a significant addition to the problem of neutral rights, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more important to the top strata of society. ?The idea of sailors? rights spoke directly to the ability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual seamen to control their own lives and labor. Impressment [?] threatened this right? \(p. 69\). While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?free trade? was a concern of the Enlightenment philosophers and the Republican leadership, ?sailors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights? symbolized the democratic ideals of the American Revolution, a message to which the ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American could relate. The combination of free trade and sailors? rights thus summarized for the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society at large the meaning of the War of 1812.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section discusses the origins of the War of 1812 and identifies the protection of America?s foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and her seamen as the primary causes. Both issues combined to form a persuasive casus belli, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?patricians? like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison emphasizing the importance of protecting America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutral rights, and Republican editors and common folk stressing the ?plebeian? sailors? rights. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important than either expansionist imperatives or the problems with the Native Americans along the frontier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?as nearly every speech in Congress in 1811 and 1812 made clear, was the problem of commerce and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British practice of impressment? \(p. 147\). The next section traces the emergence of the phrase ?free trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sailors? rights? to the white flag which bore these words and which was hoisted on the mast of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.9477 669.3415 430.9397 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.6757 612.3175 105.6677 624.1975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7593 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States frigate Essex when it sailed out of New York harbor on 2 July 1812, under the command of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Captain David Porter. The maxim quickly caught the public?s imagination ? not only being used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republican newspapers and in congressional debates, but also in toasts and songs at Republican meetings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and among American sailors, held as prisoners of war in the Dartmoor prison compound in southwestern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England ? as ?a source of inspiration? and ?an explanation for the war that reflected national ideals? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(215\). It was both a rallying cry and an assertion of American identity, as Republicans connected America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutral rights to the heritage of the American Revolution, and ? given that America?s invasions into Canada )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed miserably whereas the United States staged impressive naval triumphs ? it found more resonance than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other slogans such as ?conquer or die?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section explores why the Treaty of Ghent, establishing peace once again, was hailed as a victory by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Madison Administration ? despite the fact that neither neutral trade nor impressment were mentioned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the document. By emphasizing British territorial demands made during the peace negotiations, Republicans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned the war, in terms of public perception, into a defensive one in which national survival was at stake. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the British were obliged to give up their offensive demands, it appeared as though the United States had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won the war. Republicans continued ? in vain ? pressing for a general solution to the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressment with Great Britain, even after the European war was over, which had created the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional tars in the Royal Navy and thus the problem of impressment in the first place, as Gilje )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates. By the 1840s, however, the issue ceased to be of importance and had gradually disappeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the diplomatic agenda. Like impressment, ?free trade? continued to be of primary concern to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans after the War of 1812. Since the European war was over, however, it became less associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutral rights and more with ideas of reciprocal trade and the abolition of mercantilist trade restrictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalent in Europe at the time. In this vein, the United States successfully negotiated a series of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions that reduced tariffs and removed trade barriers. The term ?free trade? would also be used by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging Democratic and Whig parties when they argued over tariffs, Gilje explains. By the time of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War, however, the phrase had become hollow and no longer carried much emotional appeal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilje skillfully analyzes Anglo-American diplomacy over impressment and neutral rights. Unlike most other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the War of 1812, he traces the roots of these issues back to the colonial period and also explains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these issues fared in the aftermath of the conflict. The major contribution to scholarship, however, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of the multiple meanings of ?free trade? and the explanation of the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressment for early America?s national identity. After the attainment of independence, American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats ? seeking to gain ?free trade? ? sought reciprocal trade agreements with European countries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When France and Great Britain ? America?s most important trading partners ? refused to embrace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reciprocity, Americans sought ?free trade? in a different way: by breaking up mercantilist restrictions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening up markets for American commerce. After the outbreak of war between Great Britain and France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?free trade? connoted primarily neutral rights. In response to the Embargo of 1807, Federalists used the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?free trade? to criticize the Republican administration?s restrictions of American trade. After the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1812, Americans used the phrase when discussing whether to impose, dismantle, raise, or lower tariffs. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term was such a powerful political catchword as it ?conjured up the heritage of the American Revolution? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was thus intrinsically tied to American national identity \(p. 339\). Gilje also convincingly demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that sailors became a major symbol for the new nation and that their freedom would thus be a standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against which the independence of the United States could be measured. Their service was not only required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for America?s rising prosperity, but they formed the first line of defense of the American nation. The nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was thus to honor and respect the sacrifices they made, such as when they fought against the French in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quasi War or against Tripoli in the First Barbary War and were taken prisoners by the Tripolitans. ?It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against this image of the sailor-citizen as the purveyor of commerce and protector of the nation, and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufferer under Barbary captivity, that we need to examine the issue of renewed impressment by the British in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1803? \(p. 174\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilje?s argument that the United States went to war in 1812 to fight for America?s neutral rights and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safety of American sailors is, however, not original but rather the standard explanation of the causes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of 1812.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.664 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.664 60.531 m 111.656 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 111.656 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The eminent historians of the War of 1812 ? Bradford Perkins, Reginald Horsman, Donald )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.6637 60.8455 111.6557 72.7255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Hickey, and J. C. A. Stagg ? have all convincingly shown these maritime issues to have formed the basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of America?s war declaration ? not the desire to annex Canada or the need for a pretext to subdue the Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Northwest.\(4\) Yet Gilje demonstrates, more clearly than probably anyone before him, that ?free trade? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?sailors? rights? were closely connected to the ideals and experiences of the American Revolution, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Republicans therefore regarded their rights being violated as an affront to American nationalism that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be ignored, lest America?s very experiment in self-government be jeopardized. His verdict that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of 1812 was not ?meaningless? is thus justified. Gilje?s claim that the War of 1812 was also not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mistaken? \(p. 343\) is, however, unfounded, since war would not have been the only way to assert the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles of the American Revolution. The recourse to war in 1812 can, to the contrary, be interpreted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betrayal of the Enlightenment hope that republics ? unlike monarchies ? would not wage war unless in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate self-defense.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.652 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.652 652.515 m 162.644 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 619.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His book )] TJ ET BT 110.684 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty on the Waterfront: Society and Culture of the American Maritime World in the Age )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Revolution, 1750-1850)] TJ ET BT 186.344 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 2004\) won the Best Book Prize of the Society for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of the Early American Republic for 2004.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.640 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.640 558.483 m 370.628 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is an extension of an article Gilje published in 2010. Paul A. Gilje, ??Free Trade and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sailors? Rights?: the rhetoric of the War of 1812?, )] TJ ET BT 309.308 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of the Early Republic)] TJ ET BT 451.964 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30, 1 \(2010\), 1?23.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 515.715 m 118.004 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald R. Hickey, ?1812: remembering a forgotten war?, )] TJ ET BT 344.288 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Military History)] TJ ET BT 475.292 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 76, 4 \(2012\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(969. Jasper M. Trautsch, ?The causes of the War of 1812: 200 years of debate?, )] TJ ET BT 449.576 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Military )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 77, 1 \(2013\), 277?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.336 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.336 472.947 m 257.324 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradford Perkins, )] TJ ET BT 152.336 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prologue to War. England and the United States, 1805-1812)] TJ ET BT 443.660 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 1961\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reginald Horsman, )] TJ ET BT 160.340 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Causes of the War of 1812)] TJ ET BT 309.008 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 1962\). Donald R. Hickey, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812. A Forgotten Conflict)] TJ ET BT 251.024 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana, IL, 1989\). J. C. A. Stagg, )] TJ ET BT 423.332 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812: Conflict )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for a Continent)] TJ ET BT 137.360 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.680 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.680 415.923 m 288.668 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A minor criticism of the book involves the cover. The author uses the painting ? ?We Owe Allegiance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to No Crown? by John Archibald Woodside ? an image which Nicole Eustace also chose for her recent )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph on the War of 1812. Since Gilje neither mentions nor analyzes the picture in the book, a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different choice of image could have helped avoid confusion. Nicole Eustace, )] TJ ET BT 439.592 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812: War and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passions of Patriotism)] TJ ET BT 172.700 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.028 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.028 344.643 m 352.016 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 289.875 m 240.992 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 286.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 268.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 268.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1498)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 267.369 m 328.316 267.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 242.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/68080)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=39006)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6517 652.8295 162.6437 664.7095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.6397 558.7975 370.6277 570.6775 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 516.0295 118.0037 527.9095 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.3357 473.2615 257.3237 485.1415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.6797 416.2375 288.6677 428.1175 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.0277 344.9575 352.0157 356.8375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 290.1895 240.9917 302.0695 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=39006) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 267.6835 328.3157 279.5635 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1498) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005090 00000 n 0000005199 00000 n 0000005309 00000 n 0000005418 00000 n 0000008979 00000 n 0000009107 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n 0000009220 00000 n 0000009348 00000 n 0000009384 00000 n 0000009475 00000 n 0000017305 00000 n 0000017335 00000 n 0000017463 00000 n 0000017499 00000 n 0000017529 00000 n 0000017656 00000 n 0000017692 00000 n 0000017776 00000 n 0000025422 00000 n 0000025452 00000 n 0000025577 00000 n 0000025613 00000 n 0000025746 00000 n 0000032594 00000 n 0000032624 00000 n 0000032752 00000 n 0000032788 00000 n 0000032916 00000 n 0000032971 00000 n 0000033098 00000 n 0000033153 00000 n 0000033281 00000 n 0000033336 00000 n 0000033464 00000 n 0000033519 00000 n 0000033647 00000 n 0000033702 00000 n 0000033829 00000 n 0000033930 00000 n 0000034058 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34154 %%EOF