%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819030749+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819030749+01'00') /Title (?She said she was in the family way?: Pregnancy and infancy in modern Ireland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3863 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(?She said she was in the family way?: Pregnancy and infancy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(modern Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection of essays in )] TJ ET BT 164.996 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?She said she was in the family way?: Pregnancy and infancy in modern Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a welcome addition to our knowledge of Irish women?s lives. Its use of a variety of sources in original and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing ways, its rigorous scholarly presentations and its overall knowledge of the field is truly of benefit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to all those interested in Irish history. Particular commendation must go to Elaine Farrell for editing such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive collection. From her ?Introduction? to each of the individual chapters, the breadth of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors display is indeed impressive. And I would be remiss if I did not mention the detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive footnotes which lead the interested scholar to more revealing sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is of great benefit not just to those in women?s history but to those in Irish history in general. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What I particularly appreciate is the way in which this volume challenges and expands our knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish women?s lives. I would like to focus this review on these two aspects ? the ways in which these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles broaden our knowledge of women?s lives and hence Irish women?s social history, and the manner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the evidence presented here confronts some of the commonplace assumptions in Irish history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1499)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elaine Farrell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781905165650)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/publications/family-way)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maryann Valiulis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6130 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the big questions that this collection deals with is: how sexually active were the Irish? This is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question for just social historians but for political historians as well, particularly as we move into the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th and early 20th centuries. It is a question wrapped up in the process of modernization. Current wisdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holds that the change in the land-holding patterns of Ireland which emphasized land consolidation rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than fragmentation was a key element in modernization and that the growth of the Irish economy was only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible because of the chastity of Irish daughters. As Tom Inglis points out: ?The economic strategy of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmer intent on improving his standard of living could be ruined by the transgressive action of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughters?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.000 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.000 683.283 m 102.992 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 102.992 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus, chastity was deemed to be the order of the day. This collection, however, argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise. What this speaks to is the discrepancy between ideology and reality, be it in the post-Famine era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the era of the Irish Free State. My own work in this latter period demonstrates how politicians wished to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislatively implement the ideology of purity, hence giving the lie to the idea that the Irish Free State was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtuous and pure.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.004 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.004 626.259 m 134.996 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What this collection does brilliantly is to challenge the commonplace assumption in Irish history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chasteness and therefore moral superiority of the population of Ireland. This is particularly true of the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, especially with establishment of the Irish Free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State. The mantra of politicians in the Free State period was that one of the unique characteristics of Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that it was pure and chaste. This was important because it was one of the justifications for independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what distinguished Ireland from other countries, especially the United Kingdom and to a lesser extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States. What this collection demonstrates in a very convincing manner is that there was a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal of sexual activity in modern Ireland. Outlawing contraception, banning abortions and censoring certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lewd newspapers did not seem to help at all. Infanticide ? when all else failed ? was the answer to sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity outside of marriage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of contraception raises some very interesting issues on the question of Irish moral superiority. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the one hand, the discussions about outlawing birth control seem to indicate that there was some demand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it. The high levels of prostitution and venereal disease in 19th-century Ireland seem to undermine the claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Ireland was a pure nation. However, the two articles on birth control by Ann Daly and Sandra McAvoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also come at this discussion from a slightly different perspective. In a very well written analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin medical press, 1850?1900, Daly demonstrates very clearly how issues of middle-class respectability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to the discussion on birth control. One of the points she makes is that the resistance to birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control was ?? linked to the middle class ideals upheld by the medical profession? \(p. 16\). In this article we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are given insights into how the doctors struggled to define medicine as a ?prestigious and reputable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession? using its opposition to birth control as one of the items upon which to stake this claim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The noted historian Sandra McAvoy, who has done outstanding work on issues of sexuality and reproductive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, traces the events that helped prepare the way for censorship and the prohibition of sales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraceptives. McAvoy traces the Pharmaceutical Society of Ireland?s quest to have the sale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contraceptives declared unethical and the work of social movement activists to strengthen obscene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitions of birth control. Both these movements operated within the shadow the Roman Catholic Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the individuals who were active in these campaigns smoothed the way for the Catholic Church to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertake a definite campaign against contraception and for censorship.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.9997 683.5975 102.9917 695.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.0037 626.5735 134.9957 638.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidence provided in the sections on infanticide, the evidence given in the sections on child abuse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baby farming, leads us to question the assumption that women fitted easily into a tradition which saw them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily if not solely as lovely mothers. What these sections demonstrate is that not all women were cut out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be mothers or looked forward to the birth of their sometimes 16th child. That is certainly one area in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the reality conflicts with the ideology of domesticity or the image of the ?angel in the home.? In fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the term ?baby farming? ? a term which denoted nurses who took in a number of illegitimate babies in return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for pay ? was not used in Ireland. The failure to use the term baby farming, Sarah-Anne Buckley points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?? appear[s] to be related to attitudes surrounding childhood, Irish women and the image of Ireland as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place where cruelty to children did not occur?. Buckley even unearths an editorial in )] TJ ET BT 442.256 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish)] TJ ET BT 488.924 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times )] TJ ET BT 520.592 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed ?baby farming? while it may happen in England, did not happen in Ireland \(p. 148\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another general theme that is clear in a number of these articles is the fear of the stigma that illegitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conferred not only on the pregnant woman but indeed her entire family. As the distinguished historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Kelly, argues: ?? Infanticide was ? a product first and foremost, of a code of sexual morality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspired to interdict sexual activity by women outside marriage by idealizing virtue and by imposing severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and legal sanctions on those who transgressed? \(p. 191\). It thus becomes comprehensible why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mothers, sisters and other relatives often became involved in the crime of infanticide. Kelly?s article on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infanticide from 1680 to 1920 highlights the importance of the fear of being stigmatized and the role it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played in contributing to infanticide. While the promulgation of a strict moral code was supposed to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish more reticent to engage in sexual activity, it also had the effect on encouraging infanticide so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no one would know of the sexual transgressions which did occur.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.636 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.636 500.211 m 361.628 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The article by Elaine Farrell on infanticide and class status in Ireland is good example on the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class impacted gender. She states that ? infanticide and concealment of birth were generally regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences committed by the lower classes ?? \(p. 206\), but she then goes on to cite an example of a middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class woman who committed infanticide and was caught. She discusses the reasons why this was so and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how this was the exception rather than the rule. Among these reasons was the fact that middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women often had less freedom and, perhaps more importantly, they had resources at their disposal that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class women did not have. For example, middle- and upper-class families with pregnant daughters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could often pressurize the putative father with the promise of large dowries. Abortions or abortifacients )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could also have been more available. Thus it was not necessarily a question of sexual morality and class but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather a question of means and opportunity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of class is also evident in Julie Anne Bergin?s article on the lying-in hospitals in Dublin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lying- in hospitals promoted themselves as ?safe places for poor women great with child? \(p. 95\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, they were also rampant with infection and disease which sometime resulted in death. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, Bergin makes it clear that both the Rotunda and the Coombe concealed the numbers of maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths. They hid their mortality rates by transferring patients to gynecological wards after eight days. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly, during the early years of lying-in hospitals, women were safer giving birth at home than in such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions. Middle-class women, while always under the threat of maternal death, were better off at home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in the Rotunda or the Commbe and hence had an obvious advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of purity and its reverse, the accusation that numbers of women became pregnant outside of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage and then took the boat to England, is a theme which runs through Jennifer Redmond?s well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched article on unmarried mothers in Britain from the 1920s to the 1940s. The accusation was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnant Irish women escaped to England to avoid the shame and stigma of being unmarried and pregnant in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Republic. The exact numbers are difficult to establish but as Redmond argues: ?The concern appeared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stem from a fear that Ireland?s reputation as not only a moral but an exemplary Catholic country was being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tarnished by the number of unmarried pregnant Irish women coming to the attention of the British Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy, charitable organizations and health authorities? \(p. 183\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As I noted, this collection of essays also expands our knowledge of women?s lives. These articles build on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catriona Clear?s groundbreaking social history of Ireland from 1850?1922.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.284 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.284 53.043 m 410.276 53.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 410.276 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A number of these articles )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.6357 500.5255 361.6277 512.4055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.2837 53.3575 410.2757 65.2375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6780 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(add to the discussion which Clear inaugurated about women?s lives as mothers. A sterling example of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Rosemary Raughter?s article based primarily on the spiritual journal of Elizabeth Bennis. As she notes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title of this article, she examines pregnancy, childbirth and parenting. It is a fascinating glimpse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of a non-elite Methodist woman who revealed much about herself, her feelings and her trials on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual path. It is also a useful juxtaposition to Clodagh Tait?s more theoretical article entitled ?Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources for the study of infant and maternal mortaility in later 17th Century Ireland?. Tait demonstrates how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use sources such as parish registers effectively, to ?look at issues such as rates of infant and child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality, pre- and post-marital pregnancy levels, maternal mortality and, indeed deaths of fathers? \(p. 5\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raughter?s article works nicely to give us the particulars of one woman who experienced childbirth ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times in 17 years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From a historiographical point of view, Raughter?s article adds yet another voice to challenge Lawrence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone?s contention that affective relations between parents and children were relatively weak in the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. On the contrary, we read of her ?heavy heart? at the death of first and only son, exclaiming that ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss of my child is ever before me? \(p. 83\). When yet another child died, she proclaimed that she could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pray. This estrangement from her god did not last and she continued her dual roles as faithful Methodist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loving parent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other articles which engage with social history directly and demonstrate what we can learn from various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources concern the role of the mother as healer and the material culture of the cradle. Emma O?Toole?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article on the role of mothers and medicinal care provides a fascinating insight. O? Toole, working on family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers, argues that mothers played ?an active? role in children?s health in the 18th and early 19th centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 117\). Mothers made the medicine, often traded cures with their contemporaries and availed of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing number of cookbooks that were becoming available during this time period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elaine Murray?s article very interestingly uses the history of the cradle ?? as a means of exploring attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward infants in Ireland in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? \(p. 129\). Cradles came in a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shapes and were inundated with various blankets, coverings and the like. Murray makes the point that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the cradles marks the point ?of turning an infant?s sleeping practice from a social to a solitary affair? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 129\). What I found particularly interesting was that cradles came to be the receptacle of prayers, chants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holy water and crosses, all to protect the child. Stories of changelings and the abduction of children by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairies also surround the cradle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne O?Connor picks up on this point, among others, in her article entitled ?Beyond cradle and grave: Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(folklore about the spirits of unbaptized infants and the spirits of women who murdered babies?. O?Connor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the folklore surrounding the issue, raised in the previous articles, in a manner which helps tie them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together. In relating folklore to issues of infanticide, the author speaks of the legend of the damned wherein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spirits of the women who have murdered their child return. She also notes the return of the spirits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbaptized children who returns from the dead to accompany their mothers? souls to heaven in the legends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the blessed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, one point I would like to emphasise is that Irish women?s history has pushed the boundaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social and political history through its work on sexuality. It has demonstrated that sexuality is indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and that consigning issues like pregnancy, childbirth and infanticide to the purview of women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues is simply inadequate. The emphasis on these issues reflected the concerns of government and society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in relation to purity and chastity. The facts of the matter contradict the image which male Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities wanted to portray.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certain very interesting sub-themes run though this text. One which stands out to me is the lack of value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed on women and children by a patriarchal society. In all these instances, for example, there is very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention of the ?father?. Moreover, it seems the Roman Catholic Church and local officials reveal an attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bordering on contempt for mothers and children. Pregnancy and infancy in modern Ireland were, in fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous states of being, made even more so by the misogyny running rampant through this society.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 3334 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Inglis, ?Origins and legacies of Irish prudery: sexuality and social control in modern Ireland?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eire-Ireland,)] TJ ET BT 127.004 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 40, 3 and 4 \(2005\), 9?37, 17.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.652 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.652 729.555 m 322.640 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, ?Virtuous mothers and dutiful wives: the politics of sexuality in the Irish Free )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State?, in )] TJ ET BT 111.680 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and Power in Irish History)] TJ ET BT 280.004 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Maryann Gialanella Valiulis \(Dublin, 2009\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100?14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 686.787 m 156.332 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a general discussion of infanticide in the 20th century, see Cliona Ratigan, )] TJ ET BT 443.636 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?What Else Could I )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Do? Single)] TJ ET BT 120.680 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mothers and Infanticide, Ireland 1900?1950)] TJ ET BT 335.000 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2012\). For a discussion of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular case in the 20th century, see Tom Inglis, )] TJ ET BT 310.304 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Truth, Power and Lies- Irish Society and the Case )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Kerry Babies)] TJ ET BT 157.676 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.004 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.004 629.763 m 288.992 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caitriona Clear, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Change and Everyday Life in Ireland, 1850?1922)] TJ ET BT 415.652 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.624 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.624 615.507 m 555.620 615.507 l S BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 601.251 m 78.008 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 559.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 541.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 541.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1499)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 540.489 m 328.316 540.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 515.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/49801)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.6517 729.8695 322.6397 741.7495 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 687.1015 156.3317 698.9815 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.0037 630.0775 288.9917 641.9575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.6237 615.8215 555.6197 627.7015 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 601.5655 78.0077 613.4455 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 540.8035 328.3157 552.6835 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1499) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004584 00000 n 0000004693 00000 n 0000004803 00000 n 0000004912 00000 n 0000008473 00000 n 0000008601 00000 n 0000008685 00000 n 0000008776 00000 n 0000014959 00000 n 0000014989 00000 n 0000015116 00000 n 0000015152 00000 n 0000015182 00000 n 0000015310 00000 n 0000015346 00000 n 0000015437 00000 n 0000023075 00000 n 0000023105 00000 n 0000023233 00000 n 0000023269 00000 n 0000023299 00000 n 0000023425 00000 n 0000023461 00000 n 0000023526 00000 n 0000030359 00000 n 0000030478 00000 n 0000033865 00000 n 0000033993 00000 n 0000034048 00000 n 0000034176 00000 n 0000034231 00000 n 0000034359 00000 n 0000034414 00000 n 0000034542 00000 n 0000034597 00000 n 0000034723 00000 n 0000034778 00000 n 0000034906 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35002 %%EOF