%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416075517+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416075517+01'00') /Title (Peasants and Landlords in Later Medieval England, c.1380?c.1525) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4408 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Peasants and Landlords in Later Medieval England, c.1380?c.1525)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Fryde's new study represents a substantive - and substantial - contribution to the history of land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenure, economic change and social development in later medieval England. The book is not, and does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purport to be, a general textbook: indeed, in its close engagement with material that is often highly technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and detailed, it makes few concessions to, and demands much of, its readers. Those who persevere will, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, uncover such richness that they will no doubt return many times over, guided by a good thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index, to draw both on the detailed evidence and on the wise judgements contained therein.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is organised in a coherent, if slightly unusual and at first unsettling format, progressing through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of general issues by means of focused case studies. Thus, the agrarian economy of the fourteenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fifteenth centuries is discussed in specific relation to the estates of the bishops of Worcester \(chapters 4, 9, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1\); the changes in pastoral farming are illuminated by studies of the Cotswolds and of central-southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England \(chapters 6, 7\); the phenomenon of deserted villages is explored through a discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depopulation and eviction in the midland counties \(chapter 12\); and so on. In developing these case studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fryde explicitly operates on two levels, by providing the fruits of his own research and summarising \(often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite extensively\) the work of other scholars in the field. His indebtedness to those who have trodden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallel research paths \(above all, to Christopher Dyer and Barbara Harvey\) is consistently and scrupulously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged by frequent citation within the text which is as well, since here, as so often nowadays, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographical references have been relegated to the obscurity of endnotes. The stylistic consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this approach are not always happy: some of the direct quotation seems redundant, and there are occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edmund Fryde)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780312163703)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(382pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Martin's Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Ormrod)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7817 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abrupt changes of subject. On the other hand, the attribution of material is never in doubt. Some of Fryde's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own contributions are, it should be noted, reworkings of material already published elsewhere: the sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the background to the Peasants' Revolt \(chapters 2, 3\), for example, represent revisions of earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications that do not, incidentally, always engage thoroughly with other relevant work published in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it takes time for the general thrust of the argument to become evident, Fryde's line is both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive and forceful. A century and more of scholarship, very much reinforced by recent historiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has tended to the view that the tensions evident in English society immediately before, and for at least a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation after, the Black Death were resolved in the fifteenth century as a result of a general redistribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of resources: while the population was low, and land and work were in abundant supply, there were ample )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for the peasantry to improve their lot, and particular opportunities for certain groups - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial yeomen farmers, agricultural and industrial labourers, women - to enjoy a notable, if temporary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('golden age'. Fryde's approach is very different, and in three particular respects. Firstly, he emphasises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance of the landed elite - both lay and ecclesiastical to accept a decline in its own share of total wealth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stresses the determination and persistence with which at least some elements within that elite fought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain their rights, and their income, as manorial lords. Although he is reluctant to argue in terms of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalised 'feudal reaction', even in the period between the Black Death and the Peasants' Revolt \(p. 32\), he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly portrays the great landholders of late medieval England as 'arrogant', 'proud' and 'contemptuous of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lower classes' \(p. 242\), generally heedless of the resentment generated by the often 'brutal' \(chapter 2, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passim\) methods they deployed in their campaign to maximise and maintain income. Margaret Marshall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countess of Norfolk, comes in for particular comment in this respect: Fryde consistently portrays her as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('mean, harsh and grasping' landowner \(p. 26; see also pp. 42, 248-9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second of Fryde's distinctive contributions is to highlight the fragility of the new economic dispensation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the late Middle Ages. While acknowledging the new opportunities that were accorded to certain groups of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants in the post-plague period, he also focuses attention both on the severe recession encountered in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle decades of the fifteenth century and on the eagerness with which the landed classes re-asserted their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights and enhanced their income as soon as the population and economy began to grow again in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century. This leads on to his third particular line of argument: namely, that insofar as social norms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were represented by the economic liabilities and legal disabilities contained in the terms of leases, what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most remarkable about the later Middle Ages is the degree to which servile tenures continued to represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential and real constraints on substantial numbers of peasant families. In this respect, Fryde's detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful study of the practice of copyhold in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries provides a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable and timely corrective to the rather cosier tradition that sees copyhold - and the acceptance by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal courts of cases dealing with copyholds - as the effective end of servility, if not indeed of 'feudalism' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself By emphasising the extraordinary variety of tenures that had developed in England by the late fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, Fryde resists either an easy explanation, or an early dating, for the decline of serfdom in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What are the wider implications of this important new study? Fryde is notably reluctant to place his work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a broader context by moving beyond the discussion of tenures, estate management and peasant farming. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a pity: while the author may have felt that this is precisely the kind of study that should not attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harmonise the tremendous variety of experience evident in the agrarian economy of later medieval England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(an attitude that presumably explains the absence even of brief concluding remarks at the ends of chapters\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader might at least have expected a final chapter that attempted to hint at some synthesis between this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other recent work on legal, social and economic change after the Black Death. For this reviewer, three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions particularly emerged. First, how does this new picture of the fragility of the late medieval peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy inform our understanding of contemporary attitudes to poverty and the poor? If, as Miri Rubin has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.668 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.668 117.555 m 83.660 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.660 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the later Middle Ages witnessed a hardening of hearts on the issue of poverty and a sharper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of the distinction between the deserving and the undeserving poor, it would surely be useful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask whether such attitudes emerged not from a jealousy at the acquisitiveness and prosperity of the peasantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but from a concern, partly political, partly humanitarian, at the survival and \(at times\) the actual increase in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the incidence of genuine poverty. Second, there are many suggestive parallels between Fryde's work and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.6677 117.8695 83.6597 129.7495 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 3695 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent major study by Robert Palmer on English justice in the era after the Black Death. Palmer argues )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.264 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.264 795.075 m 544.256 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the elite came, after the plague, to make much more active use of the royal courts as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcing social obligations: in an age of uncertainty and flux, it was the law that came to provide a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability and a test of normative behaviour. Fryde' s emphasis on the survival of feudalism, and thus, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implication, on the survival of seigneurial justice, raises intriguing questions as to whether Palmer's thesis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by evidence from manorial courts. Third, there is the question of how Fryde's view of post-plague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as essentially conservative bears upon our understanding of social mobility in the later Middle Ages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the work on this subject, by concentrating on the boundaries between the ranks of gentleman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yeoman, may have tended to exaggerate the opportunities open to the great majority of the peasantry in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period when not only social prejudice but also, as Fryde emphasises, economic status, militated so strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against upward mobility. If the 'golden age' thesis about the fifteenth century has long been under threat, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather looks as though the same century may also be about to lose its label as an sage of ambition' .)] TJ ET BT 34.016 604.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.M. Rubin, )] TJ ET BT 123.692 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charity and community in medieval Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 352.676 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.996 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.996 572.739 m 503.984 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. R.C. Palmer,)] TJ ET BT 136.688 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( English law in the age of the Black Death, 1348-1381. A transformation of governance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and law )] TJ ET BT 105.356 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chapel Hill, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.016 544.227 m 256.004 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 500.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 482.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 482.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/15)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 481.209 m 316.316 481.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/198)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.2637 795.3895 544.2557 807.2695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.9957 573.0535 503.9837 584.9335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.0157 544.5415 256.0037 556.4215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 481.5235 316.3157 493.4035 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/15) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005101 00000 n 0000005210 00000 n 0000005320 00000 n 0000005429 00000 n 0000008990 00000 n 0000009118 00000 n 0000009202 00000 n 0000009286 00000 n 0000017156 00000 n 0000017186 00000 n 0000017312 00000 n 0000017348 00000 n 0000017453 00000 n 0000021201 00000 n 0000021231 00000 n 0000021359 00000 n 0000021395 00000 n 0000021523 00000 n 0000021578 00000 n 0000021706 00000 n 0000021761 00000 n 0000021889 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 21983 %%EOF