%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818150514+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818150514+01'00') /Title (Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe: Alfred, Charles the Bald, and Others) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4434 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Rulers and Ruling Families in Early Medieval Europe: Alfred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Charles the Bald, and Others)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The appearance of a new collection of essays from Professor Nelson merely needs to be signalled for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to be apparent. The seventeen studies collected here range geographically from Spain through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres such as Frankfurt and Rheims to Wessex and Mercia; chronologically, they range from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Visigothic period to the tenth century; they all feature the profound knowledge of, and sensitive response to, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sources, the sharp insights into political structures and the lively but elegant prose that are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic feature of Janet Nelson's work and which have made her la doyenne of early medieval political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Despite the range of these papers, they share a common set of concerns accurately reflected in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title. Above all, they focus on the insecurity or at best, the constant fluidity, in royal families and what this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant for the structure of these families. This focus is a key feature of Professor Nelson's oeuvre and it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign both of that and of her awe-inspiring productivity that this collection could be expanded by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of her recent papers on Lombard princesses, early medieval masculinity and on Alfred Smyth's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King Alfred the Great. )] TJ ET BT 145.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their concern with uncovering neglected royal women, the role of gender and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('rivetingly complex character' of Alfred, these papers would fit well into this collection but must presumably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wait for another volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One's thanks to Ashgate for publishing this collection are perhaps tempered with mild irritation at the format )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Variorum series. The differing typefaces and the lack of continuous pagination detract from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of the book and make it slightly less easy to use than it might have been. It is also a pity that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles in French were not translated as it is most unlikely that undergraduates will be able to benefit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. These are, however, cavils. The photographic reprint format also means that there is no cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Janet Nelson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart Airlie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7054 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referencing between articles except where the author did so at time of writing. This, however, merely means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the reader has to stay on the alert to spot where the author has changed her mind on points \(for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her doubts as to the genuineness of Fulk's letter to Alfred in chapter I are rejected by her in chapter V\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can thus trace her evolving thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These studies of families are more than just political history of a narrow elite. Professor Nelson's concerns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, with gender and with ideology mean that she covers much more than 'court news. who's in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who's out', to cite King Lear's sublime dismissal of political faction \(though she has a keen eye for the )] TJ ET BT 526.436 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lear)] TJ ET BT 549.104 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like tragedies and tensions generated by court politics\). This collection is, among other things, a contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the history of the early medieval state, both in its conceptual framework and in its actual institutions. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus provides a different perspective from that offered by current work of German-language scholars such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johannes Fried and Hagen Keller which has stressed the absence from this period of politics and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories as we might understand them. In analysing the rivalries within the royal family and the aristocracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the end of Charlemagne's reign, Fried has stated that for contemporaries 'the empire as such was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a value in itself'. Certainly, contemporaries' political categories were not the same as ours but it is premature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to proclaim the end of ideology for the reign of Charlemagne. As Professor Nelson shows \(chs XII and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XIII\), arguments and plots about the succession were indeed articulated by interested members of the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house such as Gisela and Fastrada but were couched in terms of an imperial ideology that was to prove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potent. There was more than Hobbesian self-interest; there usually is. Further, some of Nelson's work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred and Charles the Bald here focuses on institutions and personnel and these kings' attempts to inculcate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of service and public office in their followings. In looking at what is more conventionally understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as institutions as well as at that key institution, the royal family itself, this collection can be seen as being as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much about political thought as about political history. As such it will benefit from being read again when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Nelson's Carlyle lectures are published and can be seen as in some ways a prologue to that work. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ever since her massive 1977 article on Hincmar of Rheims, in some ways the high-water mark of a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract, Ullmannesque approach, she has integrated the study of thought and action in her analyses and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection is no exception.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While we await that projected study of early medieval political thought, it might be appropriate here to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest ways in which this collection's insights and ideas could be supplemented. The very specific nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sites in which family tensions unfolded is important. This is more than geography, though as we shall see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is crucially important too. Occasionally the sources let us see this at a surprisingly intimate level that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enables us to recapture something of what must have been obsessive scrutinising of the ups and downs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships in the royal households. Professor Nelson brilliantly evokes the atmosphere of the Aachen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palace in the last years of Charlemagne's reign, a palace with many rooms, including those in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('crowned doves', Charlemagne's daughters, exerted their potent influence. Her vivid re-imagining of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sights and sounds of the palace casts a flood of light on the heart of the empire. Elsewhere, the architecture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of palaces could be put to sinister use as in the story of how the Lombard king Rothari had his wife, queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gundeberga, penned up in 'a single room in the palace at Pavia' . We need to know more about and visualise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more intensively the shape of palaces both as they existed and as they were conceived, from the gendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spaces of Amalasuntha's Ravenna to the Chinese box of Charlemagne's palace at Regensburg as imagined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notker of St Gall. The details of the stage-set of the court mattered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The small intimate world of the court reached out into a broader landscape. That places mattered to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries in this way emerges from examination of the career of Aethelwold, disenfranchised prince of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wessex and nephew of Alfred. As Professor Nelson remarks, he began his bid for support in Wessex after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred's death by 'seizing the )] TJ ET BT 175.976 68.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tun)] TJ ET BT 191.312 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where his own father was buried' \(ch. I, p.60\). This was Wimborne in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dorset. Asser noted that Alfred's brother and predecessor king Aethelred 'was buried at Wimborne Minster )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6952 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and awaits the coming of the Lord and the resurrection with the just'\). In death Aethelred was thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated in a religious site that was closely associated with the dynasty and lent lustre to Asser's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of Alfred as the God-fearing culminating point of that dynasty. This was what Aethelwold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred's nephew, was hoping to challenge after Alfred's death. In raising his standard at Wimborne he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely proclaiming a political resurrection of Aethelred who was now to be remembered, not as the brother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Alfred, but as the father of Aethelwold, a claimant to Wessex. Aethelwold was redirecting the channel of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory and association that flowed through such sites. He was also seizing an important economic centre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a strong defensive site. Further, the minster at Wimborne did not only offer liturgical or commemorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources; Aethelwold had seized a nun, presumably from there, and this was surely more than mere violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abduction. It points to a determination to realign familial alliances in Wessex as part of his strategy, just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis the Pious' heavy-handed confining of his sisters in convents on his accession in 814 was part of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy for establishing his regime as Professor Nelson points out in chapter XII.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wimborne was a relatively prominent feature on the West Saxon political landscape and Aethelwold's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance there is unsurprising, and was perhaps even predictable to contemporaries. Political landscapes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, could be 'activated' in more surprising or sinister ways, ways that reveal how conflicts within royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families could be articulated in sites far from the royal court itself . A particularly striking example of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes from tenth-century Germany. Here the disaffected prince was the son of the reigning king. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarriage of his father, Otto I, to the young heiress of Italy, Adeleheid, in 951 was a blow to the hopes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liudolf whose mother, Edith of Wessex, had died in 946. Angered and worried by the new constellation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father's family, Liudolf headed for Saalfeld in Thuringia and celebrated Christmas there. Saalfeld was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising choice of location. Lying in Thuringia, it was hardly in the heartlands of the Ottonian family; it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no royal mausoleum and cult centre as Wimborne was, though it was a defensible site. What it did have, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, was association with plots and rebellion for it was here, in 939, that Otto I's brother Henry had held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a great banquet for his supporters in his rebellion against Otto.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The significance of this was noted long ago by Karl Leyser who offered a vivid translation of Widukind's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of Saalfeld \('in loco consilis funesto'\) as 'the place of evil council' and who concluded that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liudolf's choosing of this place showed the ritualised nature of rebellion in Ottonian Germany. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aethelwold in his choosing of Wimborne, Liudolf was not seeking to resurrect a buried family line. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier rebellion launched at Saalfeld had been the work of his uncle Henry who was now one of the targets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Liudolf's wrath. Yet Liudolf chose it deliberately and did so as part of an overall strategy of proclaiming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his discontent with his father, an attitude he broadcast by leaving his father's court 'with sadness' according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Widukind. This sadness was itself an expression of hostility as was the celebration of Christmas at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saalfeld and the )] TJ ET BT 114.332 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(convivium)] TJ ET BT 163.652 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with his supporters there. It was all this that made Saalfed so sinister. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Widukind's testimony shows that Liudolf's actions made an impact it reveals the long-lasting nature of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact. Widukind wrote some ten years and more after the events and shows that Liudolf's broadcast had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been picked up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centres of royal power often had very specific political resonance, one might say party political. Wimborne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could function as a centre for the West Saxon royal line but could be seized for a very particular branch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that line. The great royal site of Frankfurt could act as a showplace for Charlemagne's kingship in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnificent assembly of 794 but, as Professor Nelson argues, the choice of Frankfurt was probably made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as much by Fastrada, Charlemagne's wife, as by the great king himself. She chose it because she had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family roots here but not everyone in her husband's entourage relished her influence and thus not everyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have seen Frankfurt in 794 as a 'neutral' venue of undifferentiated royal power rising above faction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saalfeld's history and reputation shows how places not associated with the court could be pulled into its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts and how these conflicts could be expressed and remembered in these sites. The difficulties of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6693 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlling or canalising royal charisma are reflected in the historical landscape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kings, their consorts and their children took care to ensure that they were 'presenced' in landscapes. One way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of doing this was by commanding prayers and liturgical commemoration in the great abbeys and palaces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these early medieval empires. Professor Nelson notes how Charlemagne, campaigning against the Avars on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the river Enns in 791, sent a letter to Fastrada in Regensburg, directing her to have litanies and fasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed there in order that royal victories could continue. \(The role of the queen here is noteworthy, as is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the written word as form of communication and Nelson has suggestive remarks on this letter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript preservation.\) She also notes how the memory of the Lombard kingdom's royal line was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivated after its fall at Salzburg by Liutberg, wife of Duke Tassilo of Bavaria and daughter of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lombard king. At this exalted level communication between husband and wife and a daughter's recall of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father and mother resulted in public activities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This does not mean that the political history of this period dissolves into the ups and downs of the family life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a few individuals. Rather, it means that the political life and culture of the period was informed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhythms of family life and that events and episodes in the lives of key individuals were the stuff of politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect, the epic poem )] TJ ET BT 177.656 520.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Waltharius)] TJ ET BT 230.996 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' exciting story of Waltharius and Hiltigund fleeing Attila's court in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a risky nocturnal escape is as much an expression of the political thought of the age as the weighty letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and treatises by bishops on the office of kingship. We can see this through brief contemplation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventures of Adelheid, wife of Otto I. These adventures claimed Professor Nelson's attention in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous collection )] TJ ET BT 128.672 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Frankish World)] TJ ET BT 226.004 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1996\) but there remains more to be said about how they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood and memorialised by contemporaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The adventures of Adelheid made a great impression on contemporaries. As the youthful widow of the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Italy she carried claims to that kingdom and for this she was imprisoned in 951 by Berengar who sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crown for himself. We have an extraordinarily vivid account of her escape in a poem by the Saxon nun, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hrotsvitha of Gandersheim. Hrotsvitha tells us how Adelheid dug a tunnel out of prison, went on the run by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(night and by day lay low in a field of corn as the enraged Berengar searched for her. As Professor Nelson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed out in )] TJ ET BT 103.688 325.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Frankish World)] TJ ET BT 201.020 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hrotsvitha, who dedicated the poem to Adelheid's son Otto II, has an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acute sense of the importance of claims to power transmitted by women and how such claims could open up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fault lines in a royal family. Hrotsvitha's epic story of Adelheid's great escape is not some free-floating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventure story but a precise reflection of how the court perceived the history of its members and thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the Ottonian Reich itself. Hrotsvitha complained that she had no written sources for her epic but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gandersheim's links with the court suggest that her account of Adelheid's Italian adventures owes much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court traditions. In fact we know from a very different source that the court, and presumably Adelheid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself, took care to see that the Italian escape was known and recalled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This source is a set of lapidary entries preserved in the necrologies of Trier and Merseburg. Here we can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read the following: '20th April: on this day the empress Adelheid was imprisoned by Berengar; 20th August: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this day the Lord freed queen Adleheid from her imprisonment'. Gerd Althoff has shown that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entries stem from Adelheid herself and from the Ottonian family which wished to recall these dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes and so that it was from the royal family that these entries were transmitted through centres such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quedlinburg and St Gall to Trier and Merseburg. These dates were to be known and recalled in the court and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the great centres of commemoration of the Reich at large. This was because they were not simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic episodes in the life of an individual but because they marked key stages in the rise of the Ottonians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Stefan Weinfurter has forcibly reminded us, Adeleheid personified the kingdom of Italy and her status )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2750 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and remarkable landed wealth offered Otto the key to Italy. Further, Adelheid was a new kind of queen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dynasty and Otto's marriage to her heralded a significant exaltation of Ottonian kingship. The drama of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adelheid's imprisonment and escape impressed contemporaries who conceptualised their politics in an epic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode very different from the managerial mode of our own culture but the way in which that drama unfolded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was recalled tells us much about the deep structures of tenth-century elite society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians who work on the genealogical ramifications and fluctuating fortunes of medieval ruling families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may sometimes uneasily recall the reading habits of Sir Walter Elliot of Kellynch-hall, father of Anne, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroine of Jane Austen's )] TJ ET BT 154.148 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 208.148 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. By depicting him as 'never taking up any book but the Baronetage', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austen delineates his snobbery and sterile values, though she herself has a good eye for what that book could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say about society and the individual. Professor Nelson's work puts her ruling families in a richer world than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Walter and his ilk could ever dream of. I have tried to suggest some ways of adding to her pictures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these families but the person who could reap the richest harvest from her work is Professor Nelson herself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and her next book is to be awaited with impatience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 541.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 524.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 524.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/150)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 522.729 m 322.316 522.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 497.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/781)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 523.0435 322.3157 534.9235 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/150) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000599 00000 n 0000000681 00000 n 0000005167 00000 n 0000005276 00000 n 0000005386 00000 n 0000005495 00000 n 0000009056 00000 n 0000009184 00000 n 0000009268 00000 n 0000009333 00000 n 0000016440 00000 n 0000016505 00000 n 0000023510 00000 n 0000023575 00000 n 0000030321 00000 n 0000030405 00000 n 0000033208 00000 n 0000033336 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33431 %%EOF