%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140901053916+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140901053916+01'00') /Title (Malay Kingship in Kedah: Religion, Trade and Society) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4293 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Malay Kingship in Kedah: Religion, Trade and Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malay Kingship in Kedah: Religion, Trade, and Society)] TJ ET BT 314.672 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Maziar Mozaffari Falarti offers a fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the study of local history and political models in Southeast Asia. As Falarti demonstrates, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality of Kedah holds a special place in Southeast Asian history, as the two Muslim graves at Kedah, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably of Persian individuals, are the earliest evidence of a presence of Islam in Southeast Asia. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first of these gravestone markers dates to between 826 and 829 CE and the second, of Syaikh Abdul Kadir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibn Syaikh Husin Syah Alam, dates to between 903 and 904 CE. The second grave was apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered in an archeological dig in 1963 and first cited by the Malay scholar Wan Hussein Ami in 1980 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 3, 28\). Thus, the author argues, it is natural to focus on Kedah, offering as it does traces of ?the oldest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving lineage in the Malay and Islamic world? \(p. 185\). Scholars of Islamic and Southeast Asian history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ought to be naturally interested in the nature of the dynasty and its resilience. In order to begin to answer this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line of inquiry Falarti centers his analysis on the )] TJ ET BT 268.328 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 414.980 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa )] TJ ET BT 205.328 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a traditional Malay text from Kedah that is thought to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compiled during the 17th and 18th centuries \(p. 21\). The foreword to the book, written by Carl A. Trocki, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts that the text has been ?largely ignored or denigrated by both colonial and more recent Malay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maziar M. Falarti)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780739168424)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(252pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lexington Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://rowman.com/ISBN/9780739168431)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William B. Noseworthy)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 10168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars? \(p. xvi\) thus, the text is a natural choice for Falarti?s focus. Furthermore, the text blended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptations of the )] TJ ET BT 122.336 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ramayana )] TJ ET BT 176.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with Persian texts )] TJ ET BT 294.656 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gheseyeh Soleyman va Simurgh )] TJ ET BT 451.952 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 489.944 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hekayateh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Simurg )] TJ ET BT 71.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(compiled during the Safavid era of 1501/1502?1722 CE\) \(p. 24\). In Falarti?s analysis the text is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to other Malay texts such as the )] TJ ET BT 239.312 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Inderaputra)] TJ ET BT 338.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 361.964 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai)] TJ ET BT 482.624 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 506.288 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tufat Al-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nafis)] TJ ET BT 59.360 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 100.352 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sejarah Melayu)] TJ ET BT 176.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as well as Buddhist Jatakas such as the )] TJ ET BT 371.984 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harita-Jataka )] TJ ET BT 442.976 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(431 CE\), )] TJ ET BT 493.304 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kumbha-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jataka )] TJ ET BT 72.008 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(512 CE\) and the )] TJ ET BT 157.328 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mahabhodi-Jataka )] TJ ET BT 254.648 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(528 CE\). The comparison with the Buddhist Jatakas is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly important as it is used to explain some of the moralistic implications within the )] TJ ET BT 475.004 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 98.684 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for instance regarding the ingestion of intoxicants, as Falarti asserts that the scholars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copyists responsible for the compilation of the )] TJ ET BT 259.664 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa )] TJ ET BT 409.316 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been familiar with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these earlier stories, which had been in circulation for more than a thousand years \(p. 46\). Nevertheless, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep roots of the )] TJ ET BT 117.332 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa )] TJ ET BT 266.984 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been questioned, like those of many other Southeast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian texts, since many scholars were long reluctant to admit that it had ?historical merit? \(p. 21\) and, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument of Maier )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.992 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.992 624.003 m 140.984 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.984 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the text represented a break between traditional forms of knowledge reproduction and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, partially as a result of the introduction of Western printing techniques \(p. 21\). This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the case with a version of the text published by Wan Yahya in 1911.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wan Yahya?s 1911 version of the )] TJ ET BT 199.976 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa )] TJ ET BT 349.628 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was criticized on the grounds of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited and compiled from uncited written and oral sources. As the author notes, although it is possible that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the variations present in Wan Yahya?s version could be information gleaned from these uncited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, that it ?? could further be argued that he attempted to disguise, omit or rewrite aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat )] TJ ET BT 75.008 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he felt were outdated and unrealistic, especially for a new breed of Malay readers?? \(p. 31\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the lack of available evidence to absolutely confirm the following suggestion beyond doubt, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furthermore likely that Wan Yahya was not the first scholar to create an edited version of the text. Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars in Southeast Asia were already creating critical reviews of local literature in the 17th century. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one particularly strongly worded critique of the )] TJ ET BT 264.308 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Inderaputra)] TJ ET BT 363.296 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the Gujarit Sufi from Aceh, Sheikh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nur al-Din Ali al-Raniri \(d. 1658\), the Sheik argued that the )] TJ ET BT 325.640 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat )] TJ ET BT 366.632 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was so worthless that the paper that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was written on could be used for ?washing parts of the body?, unless, of course, that paper contained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of Allah \(p. 22\). Nevertheless, as Falarti asserts: in both the )] TJ ET BT 351.632 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa )] TJ ET BT 501.284 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Inderaputra )] TJ ET BT 136.004 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are fewer references to ?pre-Islamic rulers, drinking of intoxicants and customs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient times? than in the Islamic literature \(p. 22\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The drinking of intoxicants, or rather, )] TJ ET BT 217.988 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(polluted )] TJ ET BT 260.324 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wine, is one of the first narrative that Falarti analyzes from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 198.332 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The question that is raised based upon the passage is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation. The central Sheikh Abdullah is clearly an Islamacist Sheik, who advocates the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idols and demonstrates ?religious zeal? throughout the narrative. However, he defends the pre-Islmic king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kedah against Satan \(Iblis\) who attempts to get him to drink urine. The question is: why? Falarti suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this is because the Sheikh would have seen Kedah as ripe grounds for conversion \(pp. 51?2\). Thus, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text becomes a juncture for Falarti to additionally open up the discussion of the nature of conversion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southeast Asian history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Falarti notes, Southeast Asian texts have tended to present a royalist view of conversion history. In texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the )] TJ ET BT 89.672 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sejarah Melayu )] TJ ET BT 168.992 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 206.984 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Raja-Raja Pasai )] TJ ET BT 330.644 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior Islamic figures such as the Prophet and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his descendants \()] TJ ET BT 116.000 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seyd)] TJ ET BT 138.656 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 143.984 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s)] TJ ET BT 148.652 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), saints or mystics arrive, appear in dreams and then visit local rulers, aid them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward profession of Islamic faith. The rulers are then generally circumcised and begin to wait for the arrival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of missionaries by ship from either Mecca or Jedah \(p. 35\). However, others contested this ?top down? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversion narrative, as they argued demonstrated that in many regions in Southeast Asia: such as Johor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patani, Pasai, Minangkabau, Java and even Cham polities that the process occurred from the merchant class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up, as Falarti notes, a large number of scholars have observed that the merchant class, known as the )] TJ ET BT 514.916 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaya )] TJ ET BT 59.672 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Malay, were present and already converted to Islam long before the conversion of either the elite or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peasant classes in many locations across the region \(p. 36-37\). The discussion of the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the elite and the )] TJ ET BT 215.984 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang kaya )] TJ ET BT 273.308 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually flows into Falarti?s introduction of a contesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral history of conversion in Kedah which disputes certain elements of the )] TJ ET BT 393.956 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 540.608 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The oral conversion narrative presented in Falarti?s book is drawn from the records of Sherard Osborne )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.9917 624.3175 140.9837 636.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 9892 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1838\) who noted that a Sumatran Batak known as )] TJ ET BT 280.316 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(serang )] TJ ET BT 315.980 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jadee gave his own discussion of the conversion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sultan of Kedah. According to Jadee?s account, hajis appeared from the island of Langkawi and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kedah very, very early, during the time of the Prophet. These hajis converted the raja and advised him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cease the sacrifice of virgins to the giant )] TJ ET BT 230.636 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ular-besar )] TJ ET BT 284.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boa. Despite the shifting at this juncture of Falarti?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion to broader points less apparently directly relevant to the )] TJ ET BT 357.308 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 503.960 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author does use Jadee?s account of conversion in Kedah to embark on a greater discussion of )] TJ ET BT 483.908 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(naga )] TJ ET BT 510.908 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mythical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snake/dragon-like-being narratives. ?)] TJ ET BT 212.300 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Naga )] TJ ET BT 241.304 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives?, as these plot cycles may be termed were, as Falarti )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, prevalent throughout South Indian \(Pallava\), Funanese, Khmer and Cham traditions and ?)] TJ ET BT 496.292 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(naga )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives? remain quintessential in basic presentations of Khmer cultural values, as narratives that involve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In garai )] TJ ET BT 82.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mythical dragon-serpents are prevalent throughout certain Cham story-telling traditions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, as Falarti notes, the ?theme of a Naga asking for tribute from the ruler in return for political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power is a popular one in South Asian, as well as Khmer, Cham, Burmese and Mon traditions? \(pp. 55?59\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 162.008 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ular-besar )] TJ ET BT 215.672 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Jadee?s account, which may represent a reconsideration of )] TJ ET BT 512.252 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(naga )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship, reminds Falarti that Jadee?s account is also reminiscent of certain elements of the Ramayana cycle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(where Hanuman gets ingested by Su-Rasa the ogre mother of the Nagas, or, in another case, by Sinhika, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another ogre\). However, the Ramayana comparison creates a question for Falarti, as generally the naga and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Garuda ? the natural enemy of the naga ? do not )] TJ ET BT 267.620 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both )] TJ ET BT 291.956 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come from the same place \(Langka, or ?below the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waves?\). Yet here both are said to come from the island of ?Langkawi?. Thus, the comparison of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative to the Buddhist )] TJ ET BT 156.008 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sussondi-Jataka )] TJ ET BT 237.668 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(360 CE\) is crucial to Falarti as are Mongolian, Japanese and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese versions of both )] TJ ET BT 156.008 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ramayana)] TJ ET BT 207.332 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-like narratives and )] TJ ET BT 302.972 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(naga-)] TJ ET BT 330.968 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like narratives such as the popular )] TJ ET BT 497.600 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Baishe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zhuan )] TJ ET BT 67.688 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? a Song Dynasty Chinese classic \(pp. 58?60\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the apparent digression away from the )] TJ ET BT 260.300 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa )] TJ ET BT 409.952 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented by Jadee?s account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conversion, Falarti does use the discussion of ?)] TJ ET BT 272.984 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(naga )] TJ ET BT 299.984 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives? to link back toward creating a view of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically ?Kedah model of Malay-kingship?, through the simple analysis of the title of the text. Falarti )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts that even the title demonstrates blending of Thai, Sanskrit, Pali and Malay titles, with Merong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning snake/dragon in Thai and Mahawangsa meaning ?great dynasty? \(p. 57\). Furthermore, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of this ?great dynasty? Falarti tries to determine if there was any form of social-contract between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler and the ruled. By liberally interpreting the idea of the social contract through the religiously charged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term ?covenant? Falarti does assert that there is a model in the Demang Lebar Daun and Sri Tri Bauna, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this ?covenant? was infrequently repeated in other Malay texts \(pp. 73?5\). Thus, referring back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 198.332 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Falarti demonstrates that in the case of rulers from Kedah, as was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case with other rulers in the Sejarah Melayu, ?violations of the covenant on the part of a ruler could cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his downfall? \(p. 84\). However, the fall from grace was not necessarily permanent. As was the case with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phra Ong Mahawangsa, one could fall and then reascend in favor \(p. 45\). Regardless, the idea of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covenant between the ruler and the ruled, in Falarti?s vision, justifies a reconsideration of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the raja and his main naval force during the 17th to the 19th century: the )] TJ ET BT 427.280 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang laut)] TJ ET BT 477.620 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 174.680 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang laut )] TJ ET BT 228.020 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set in combination with the ulu/ilir upstream-downstream networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kedah and the )] TJ ET BT 119.324 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(overland )] TJ ET BT 164.984 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade routes of peninsular Malaysia that Falarti combines to suggest that there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain tensions within the previously presented, relatively uniform, conceptions of Malay models of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship \(p. 19\). This, for Falarti, contests certain ?riverine models? put forth by Gullick and Milner \(p. 4\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly as Falarti?s conception of the ?Malay world? is quite broad, including the )] TJ ET BT 448.616 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang laut)] TJ ET BT 498.956 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 522.284 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(asli)] TJ ET BT 51.356 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( original peoples and ?the Cham people \(in contemporary Southern Vietnam\)? \(pp. 11?12, 97\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.612 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.612 186.579 m 520.604 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 520.604 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this conception one wonders, if )] TJ ET BT 187.328 173.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kerajaan )] TJ ET BT 232.988 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a state but the condition of having a raja, what sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions might have led to the circumstance of a )] TJ ET BT 278.984 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raja di raja )] TJ ET BT 337.328 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early modern Malay world? Or was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malay world during the early modern period completely absent of such a concept of a king of kings? Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this a notion that was erased with the arrival of Islam?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The above enquiries rise out of one of the greatest contributions of this volume, besides the unveiling of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 180.668 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, namely the excellent review of the theoretical tensions that exist in scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of the ?Malay world? model, through the examples of the )] TJ ET BT 370.640 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mukim )] TJ ET BT 405.632 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish structure demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Bonney, riverine models as presented by Bronson and maritime polities as per the discussion of classic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.6117 186.8935 520.6037 198.7735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 6726 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian of Southeast Asia O. W. Wolters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.660 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.660 795.075 m 253.652 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These notions are further complicated by the apparently nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identical glosses of )] TJ ET BT 129.008 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(negeri )] TJ ET BT 162.668 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as territorial units and )] TJ ET BT 270.656 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nagari )] TJ ET BT 305.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as villagers \(pp. 14?17\). Meanwhile, within these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nagari )] TJ ET BT 69.020 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 82.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mukim )] TJ ET BT 117.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units there were also systems of local administrators. On land, the )] TJ ET BT 435.968 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(penghulu )] TJ ET BT 483.632 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would preside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the )] TJ ET BT 76.004 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mukim )] TJ ET BT 110.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a )] TJ ET BT 143.660 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kweng )] TJ ET BT 177.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a )] TJ ET BT 198.644 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(toh kweng )] TJ ET BT 250.640 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that served as the district headman over one or more )] TJ ET BT 504.584 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mukim)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 145?6\). Meanwhile, at sea, the )] TJ ET BT 205.976 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laksmana )] TJ ET BT 258.308 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval admirals became the )] TJ ET BT 388.940 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raja laut )] TJ ET BT 433.616 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the senior rulers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea routes that were so critical in linking the Siak sea lords to the sultan of Kedah \(pp. 125?6, 131\). These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Laksmana )] TJ ET BT 86.348 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were critical in Kedah?s 1838?1839 revolt against the Siamese \(Thai\), as evidenced by the 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Thai )] TJ ET BT 98.000 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Phongsawadan Muang Zaiburi )] TJ ET BT 251.012 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s discussion of the maritime forces that were employed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both Tengku Muhammed Saad and Wan Mali \(or Che Mali\) \(p. 116\). Meanwhile, when Laksmana and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(orang laut )] TJ ET BT 87.356 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured booty or slaves it was distributed accord to )] TJ ET BT 340.316 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adat )] TJ ET BT 364.652 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary law \(p. 103\) as they shifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from port to port throughout Southeast Asia \(p. 125\). Thus, Falarti seems to support the suggestion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary tropes travelled along the sea routes of Southeast Asia, along with the admirals and the traders, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merbok/Kedah, Songkla/Patani, Funan and the Cham polities \(p. 149\) and thus it is clear that the crux of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falarti?s contribution rests not only on his )] TJ ET BT 239.684 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(complicating )] TJ ET BT 305.348 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also his )] TJ ET BT 363.020 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(broadening )] TJ ET BT 421.352 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Malay world, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing that this world was not )] TJ ET BT 210.008 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(solely )] TJ ET BT 241.004 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maritime in nature \(p. 184\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 561.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. M. J. Maier, )] TJ ET BT 140.672 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Center of Authority: The Malay Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa)] TJ ET BT 472.976 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 515.715 m 149.000 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Gullick, )] TJ ET BT 133.352 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indigenous Political Systems of Western Malaya)] TJ ET BT 366.332 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988 [1958]\) and A. C. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milner, )] TJ ET BT 102.680 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kerajaan: Malay Political Culture on the Eve of Colonial Rule)] TJ ET BT 405.680 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Tuscon, AZ, 1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.996 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.996 487.203 m 560.984 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Bonney, )] TJ ET BT 124.352 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kedah 1771?1821: The )] TJ ET BT 240.680 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Search for Security and Independence)] TJ ET BT 423.968 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1971\); B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bronson, ?Exchange at the upstream and downstream ends: notes toward a functional model of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(coastal state in Southeast Asia?, in )] TJ ET BT 235.028 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Exchange and Social Interaction in Southeast Asia)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. Hutterer \(Ann Arbor, MI, 1977\), pp. 39-52; O. W. Wolters, ?Studying Srivijaya?, )] TJ ET BT 496.976 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(JMBRAS)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, 52, 2 \(1979\), 1?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.008 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.008 415.923 m 215.996 415.923 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 400.591 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 382.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 382.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1500)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 381.417 m 328.316 381.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 356.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61187)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6597 795.3895 253.6517 807.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 516.0295 148.9997 527.9095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.9957 487.5175 560.9837 499.3975 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.0077 416.2375 215.9957 428.1175 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 381.7315 328.3157 393.6115 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1500) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004982 00000 n 0000005091 00000 n 0000005201 00000 n 0000005310 00000 n 0000008871 00000 n 0000008999 00000 n 0000009083 00000 n 0000009167 00000 n 0000019389 00000 n 0000019419 00000 n 0000019547 00000 n 0000019583 00000 n 0000019667 00000 n 0000029612 00000 n 0000029642 00000 n 0000029770 00000 n 0000029806 00000 n 0000029918 00000 n 0000036697 00000 n 0000036727 00000 n 0000036855 00000 n 0000036891 00000 n 0000037018 00000 n 0000037073 00000 n 0000037201 00000 n 0000037256 00000 n 0000037384 00000 n 0000037439 00000 n 0000037567 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37663 %%EOF