%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221231006+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221231006+00'00') /Title (Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3942 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Panther)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the time that college students Bobby Seale and Huey Newton armed themselves and announced that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were going to patrol the police and fight police brutality, a cultural match was lit that sparked a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. In a matter of months, the organization that they helped to found, the Black Panther Party for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Self-Defense, managed to make enemies of the United States government, frighten ?White America?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fan the flames of racial tension and ?black power.? The Black Panther legacy has been largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstood; the idealistic notion of self-reliance and self-determination that was at the core of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panthers beliefs was too often lost in the public persona of an organization that was perceived as violent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racist, and anarchical, and the Black Panthers themselves did seemingly little to dispel that perception. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interpretations and reflections in subsequent years of recollection have often yielded uneven results, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying accounts rife with bias and inaccuracy, leaving their legacy and impact incomplete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With )] TJ ET BT 61.016 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Against Empire)] TJ ET BT 166.340 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Waldo E. Martin and Joshua Bloom have managed to produce what could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most thorough and detailed history of the subject to date. The authors note the difficulty in researching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1501)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 October, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joshua Bloom)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waldo E. Martin, Jr.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0520271852)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(471pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of California Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ucpress.edu/book.php?isbn=9780520271852)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkeley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott Midgley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7272 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Panthers, as previous work has often been clouded by public opinion, and the concerted and dedicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts of law enforcement and the government to discredit the Panthers throughout their short but influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence. The pair pushed forward, seeking firsthand accounts from former Panthers, researching Panther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, academic texts, and declassified police and COINTELPRO documents from the FBI, to piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together what Cord Jefferson has called the ?definitive? account of the Black Panthers. They have succeeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in providing a comprehensive, unvarnished examination of the Party itself, but also the Panthers? place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the larger scope of revolutionary and political tides swirling in the tumultuous 1960s, including their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively swift unraveling from both internal and external pressures and forces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite their quick decline, the Panthers had still had an enormous impact. They were shaped by and helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to shape the prevailing political and cultural mood of a country in the midst of an identity crisis and a social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war of sorts. A generational clash was firmly entrenched in the United States by the mid 1960s, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panthers certainly embodied that struggle within black America, but also emboldened young white activists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and drew constant fire from the federal and local law enforcement. In short order, they had managed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a national movement, embodying a spirit of defiance and right to self-determination that could no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer be denied, a concept that the Party leadership felt was being glossed over by the mainstream Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rights movement. And therein lies the story of the Black Panther Party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Against Empire )] TJ ET BT 142.340 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves as a compelling account of the Panthers, offering analysis from both ends of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spectrum. The authors? intention of dispelling the myth of the Panthers as merely armed thugs who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed white America as the enemy is counterbalanced by their efforts to avoid romanticizing them, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classifying them as simply another civil rights group. To be certain, Bloom and Martin strove to dig deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the history of the Panthers, in an effort to examine their legacy and contributions, both positive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative, and to analyze the actions and provide first-hand introspection of the motivations of the individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Black Panthers were remarkably successful at recruiting membership with a message that at its core had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent overtones, in an era that was otherwise marked by peaceful protests within the civil-rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. Bloom and Martin assert that much of the success can be attributed to the Panthers view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peaceful protests were proving to be powerless in addressing the poverty and ghettoization that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming increasingly common for blacks. White flight tended to leave pockets of urban black poverty, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those cities responded with containment-style policing, often brutal in nature. This poverty, exclusion from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political process in many areas, and lack of access to the same educational opportunities as whites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined to form a volatile mixture that threatened to explode. Into this morass walked the Panthers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to channel that rage and frustration. Based on the increasing number of riots and urban black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion, the Panthers saw an opportunity to organize new ways of achieving economic and political power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Panther rhetoric and actions were explosive and confrontational, as evidenced by Honorary Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister Stokely Carmichael calling the United States a ?nation of thieves ? that has stolen everything that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has?. The Panthers viewed the nation?s ghettoes as black territory that needed to be defended against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police and others intent on maintaining the status quo. Openly carrying loaded weapons, while legal in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(California, served to further exacerbate the fear and suspicion among opposition groups who held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemptuous views toward the Panthers. Perhaps in response, law enforcement, long the adversary in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominately black areas, and later the federal government, viewed and classified the Black Panthers as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrorist group, labeling them as ?the single greatest threat to the security of the United States?. At the behest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and direction of J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI, law enforcement engaged in subversive and disruptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviors to not only infiltrate, but to disrupt Panther activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, the Panthers sole aim was not to merely present a militant and aggressive agenda. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained an idealist and communal vision in the communities where they felt that help was needed. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Bloom and Martin call an ?impressive array of community programs?, the Panthers were responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for offering free health clinics, the Free Breakfast for Children program, free housing cooperatives, and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid, among many other programs. These programs meant little to Hoover and the FBI, as he determined that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the programs were formed ?by the BPP for obvious reasons, including their effort to create an image of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7172 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civility, assume community control of Negroes, and to fill adolescent children with their insidious poison?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historical record of the Black Panther Party is certainly marred in part by this continuous harassment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assault, which played a large part in the ultimate fracturing of the Panthers just a few short years later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to say that the Panthers recoiled in the face of this harassment. Despite proving to be part of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall amalgam that would undermine them and facilitate the undoing of the Panthers, for a time, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance served them well in growing the Party. Bloom and Martin reference this odd dynamic: the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance that the Panthers encountered at every level and by various means, the more support that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panthers attracted. They were seen as the only beacon of hope to a growing population of disenfranchised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and angry youth in the inner cities. The Panthers offered a way out of a life of gang activity and poverty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead channeling that rage into mobilization. In many ways, the Party?s momentum reflected society at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large. The uneven and unfair draft process served as a rallying point, pointing out the inequities that existed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Panthers used this to drive home the point that the United States government viewed black men as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expendable, that they were second-class citizens expected to do the ?dirty work? and fight its war. Opposing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sending the poor and disadvantaged to fight a war for a country that would deny them their basic rights was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a central principle of their Ten-Point Plan, a Bill of Rights for the Black Panther Party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloom and Martin assert that as the military draft was ended, much of the energy and commonality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed in opposing the Vietnam War began to erode across much of the landscape. Additionally, affirmative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action programs and more focused economic development in urban areas aimed more specifically at middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class blacks, created a rift within their ranks, as it became more difficult to speak to the lack of action and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention on their behalf. Coupled with the ever-present battles against the government and law enforcement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these actions served to derail progress in many cases. Increasing levels of internal strife further hampered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party efforts to maintain their momentum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the pressure from government and law enforcement continued, internal strife and fighting increased, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national mood and psyche was also shifting. A growing sense of fatigue was settling over a country that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endured unprecedented foreign and domestic conflict, racial and class strife, and hardening economic times. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Panthers, particularly in the wake of the much-publicized New Haven trials, began to splinter and fade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back into a local community organization in Oakland. What remained was the debate as to their legacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times, the sheer volume of information could prove overwhelming to the casual reader, as Martin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloom delve deeply into detail of seemingly insignificant facts, but one can assume that this was done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentionally to show the level of research supporting their narrative. Indeed, that attention to detail displays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a commitment to telling the story as it happened, but could to the casual reader be an impediment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding. This is by no means a scathing rebuke of their excellent work. This is an extraordinarily well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and well-written work, as authoritative and complete as any about the Black Panther Party that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been published.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Against Empire)] TJ ET BT 139.340 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fascinating work, and Bloom and Martin succeed in telling the story of what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still one of the more polarizing, controversial, and effective civil rights organizations in American history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with great skill. There is no ?catch-all? phrase to adequately describe the Panthers? influence during their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief time in the spotlight. 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