%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150802061112+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150802061112+01'00') /Title (Poor Relief and Community in Hadleigh, Suffolk, 1547-1600) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4687 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poor Relief and Community in Hadleigh, Suffolk, 1547-1600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie McIntosh, Distinguished Professor of History Emerita at the University of Colorado Boulder, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respected social and cultural historian of late medieval and early modern England. This book, volume 12 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the well-established )] TJ ET BT 132.668 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Regional and Local History)] TJ ET BT 316.340 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series published by University of Hertfordshire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, which has developed a reputation for producing high-quality works of local and regional history under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general editorship of Nigel Goose, in many respects complements her recent national study of poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in late medieval England.\(1\) It provides a micro-study of the operation of a system of poor relief prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poor Laws of 1598 and 1601 in the small Suffolk market town of Hadleigh, a settlement of between 2,400 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 3,300 inhabitants. In his preface to the volume and his review of her other work )] TJ ET BT 439.940 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1350-1600 )] TJ ET BT 89.012 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for )] TJ ET BT 106.004 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 196.664 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Goose remarks that McIntosh is ?without doubt one of the foremost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and cultural historians of her generation, and has done so much to advance the cause of later medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early modern English history? \(p, xiii\).\(2\) Furthermore, he points out that she is ?one of those rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who have the capacity to produce broad general studies as well as micro-histories? \(p. xiii\).\(3\) Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Controlling Misbehaviour in England, 1390-1600 )] TJ ET BT 276.692 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?pathbreaking study?.\(4\) In keeping with her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous work on the manor and liberty of Havering, which produced two full-length studies: )] TJ ET BT 484.952 59.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autonomy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 45.227 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200?1500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1505)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 7 November, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie Keniston McIntosh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781907396922)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Hertfordshire Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.herts.ac.uk/about-us/our-structure/subsidiary-companies/uh-press/history/regional-and-local-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies/poor-relief)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hatfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James P. Bowen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Community Transformed: The Manor and Liberty of Havering, 1500?1620)] TJ ET BT 425.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, her work on poor relief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England adopts a similar approach.\(5\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book, which draws on 30 years of research conducted by McIntosh and other scholars, outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the needs of the poor inhabitants of Hadleigh in the second-half of the 16th century \(1547?1600\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a period which saw numerous crises, including four consecutive poor harvests, notably between 1594 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1597. Conventionally, historians of early modern poverty and welfare have been concerned with national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative provision for the poor.\(6\) It has been recognised that many of the large incorporated towns and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban centres \(such as Bristol, Hereford, Southampton, Ipswich and Leicester\) introduced some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest and most complicated comprehensive poor relief schemes in England prior to national legislation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the relief of the poor, specifically the Acts for the Relief of the Poor 1598 and 1601.\(7\) Less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work has considered market towns in rural areas, a view further hampered by the focus on the allocation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief in rural parishes. In order to provide a longer view of the history of poverty from the medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, McIntosh?s own previous work and that of other historians has begun to explore the sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare such as the introduction of collections for the relief of the poor, prior to that offered by the parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(through the levying of a compulsory poor rate\) during the period of the old poor law which has long been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the focus of early modern social historians.\(8\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considerable emphasis has been placed on the changing economic conditions in England.\(9\) The late 15th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 16th centuries saw a trend towards larger scale agricultural and craft production, a greater reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage labour, a rising birth rate, a relatively high rate of inflation corresponding to a decline in real wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and increased geographic mobility especially among the poor. At the same time, medieval hospitals were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufficient in meeting demand for care even before the religious changes of the 1530s and 1550s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly almshouses which were frequently founded between 1460 and 1600, were inadequate given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of poor people seeking assistance. In the case of Hadleigh, the impact of the decline of the town?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staple textile industry had the effect of creating demand for poor relief as the structure of the local economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not provide sufficient livelihoods for the majority of the poor. By 1600, the end of the period under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, the textile industry was in severe decline, exacerbating the extent of poverty and underemployment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point that by 1618 Hadleigh was filled with ?an abundance of poverty?, with perhaps 15 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town?s population being in receipt of relief by the mid 17th century \(p. 148\). Analysis reveals how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town?s society was divided in terms of the distribution of wealth and that the shared belief in the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social welfare helped to validate the town?s social and political structure, with such a local study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complementing national surveys which have shown the social polarisation of early modern English society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is logically structured as follows: ?Introduction?, ?The context of poor relief in Hadleigh?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Hadleigh?s system of assistance?, ?Recipients of relief and their households?, ?The care and training of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor children?, ?Aid to ill, disabled and elderly people? and the concluding synthesis chapter titled simply: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Why?? The appendices are detailed and reconstruct the substantial body of data on which the study is based.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By way of background, chapter one, ?The context of poor relief in Hadleigh? \(pp. 9?39\) introduces the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location and physical setting of the town, the pattern of manorial lordship and the town?s urban form, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the presence of public and religious buildings \(such as the guildhall, market hall and parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church\) and the market place and the neighbourhoods according to which poor rates were collected. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows an estimate of the population and other demographic information, after which attention turns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic activity with discussion focusing on the town?s cloth-manufacturing function and the substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion of clothiers in the community and the implications this had in terms of the community?s wealth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupational distribution and gender differences. Hadleigh?s religious life, in particular the impact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation, is discussed in detail \(pp. 30?6\) as is the form of town government \(pp. 36?9\). After this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary background context, the subsequent chapters are essentially analytical in approach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapter, ?Hadleigh?s system of assistance? \(pp. 40?62\), describes the officers that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for administering assistance, their duties and the sorts of decisions they made. Of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest to this reviewer is the discussion of the officers involved in decision-making, a theme returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in chapter six when it is assessed in relation to occupational status and religious denomination \(Tables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.1 and 6.2, pp. 122 and 124\). Also outlined are the multiple and overlapping forms of aid which were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7773 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided, whether in-kind or services received at the town?s expense \(pp. 44?8\). The financing of poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is explained. In addition to the income received by churchwardens from rents of charitable properties, money )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is recorded from charitable endowment of landed property, gifts and bequests and money levied from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compulsory poor rates, the latter being analysed in-depth \(pp. 48?62\). Shifting from how Hadleigh?s poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief system was organised, chapter three considersthe individuals and households who were in receipt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief, analysing surviving poor relief accounts as well as other source materialand the provision for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two groups, namely poor children and teens, and the sick, disabled and elderly are examined in detail in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters four and five respectively. The key results are described, and illustrated by relevant figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including several maps and accompanying tables which relate closely to the text, whilst there are further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological and quantitative appendices.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three \(pp. 63?82\) examines the individuals who received relief and how assistance functioned for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households, with a minimum of 603 people being assisted between 1579 and 1596, the recipients of relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being 31.7 per cent adult men, 35.5 per cent adult women and 32.7 per cent children \(p. 63\). Clearly, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh?s research has revealed, Hadleigh was providing various types of relief for a large number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and households depending on their situation, including children and young people who were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typically relieved in many early modern communities. Regarding individual recipients of assistance, useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons are made with the larger county towns of Norwich \(Norfolk\) and Ipswich \(Suffolk\), it being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found that at Hadleigh 91 people received relief, whereas in Norwich 165 people received relief \(amounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to only 7 per cent of the census of the poor for 1570\), and that those in receipt of assistance in Hadleigh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received 1.8 times more relief each week \(p. 74\). No children or teens were supported in Norwich, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women receiving relief being largely described as ?unable to find work?, widows or women having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been abandoned by their husbands, and a quarter of the older people in receipt of relief being disabled or ill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 74\). Again, by comparison Ipswich provided larger amounts of relief to a smaller group, giving relief to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only 46 poor people \(p. 75\). Despite it being a much larger town, Ipswich provided no direct assistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children or teens and like Norwich gave relief to older people, largely widows and married men unable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work and, compared to Hadleigh, there was a greater concentration of elderly who were disabled or ill \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75\). As McIntosh points out, the survival of extensive records for Hadleigh means that it has been possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to place those that received relief into their household contexts. This greatly aids understanding, providing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?rare opportunity? to consider the number of households of which recipients of relief were members and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of family relationships in terms of the amount of relief granted at the household level \(p. 75\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the availability of a full set of accounts, her in-depth analysis of the year 1582 provides a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of the individuals and households who received support, 149 people being assisted as well as several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnamed poor \(p. 80\). She points out that of the 109 households receiving relief, more than two-thirds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained a single recipient, with 31 and four households containing two and three people respectively \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80\). Unsurprisingly, it is calculated that 61 per cent of households received only occasional assistance, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28 per cent and 14 per cent receiving household goods and occasional money \(p. 81\). Furthermore, analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of family relationships shows how relief was distributed amongst households made up of a variety of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships, including husband and wife \(42 per cent\), man and a child \(23 per cent\), woman and a child or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teen \(19 per cent\) or two child siblings \(16 per cent\) \(p. 81\). Also there were four three-recipient households, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which included two married couples with one child each and two women with two children each \(p. 81\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discussion in the next two chapters examines specific sections of the community who received relief. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, chapter four \(pp. 83?105\) focuses on ?the care and training of poor children? within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, highlighting the unusually high number of poor children and teens in Hadleigh and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance by the town in one of the following five ways: by disbursing money to poor children whilst living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their families, or alternatively receiving money, household goods, clothing or medical care; by giving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid to their parents or by placing children with another local family; by providing a set of clothes and shoes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a child who was due to become a servant in another household; through poor relief officials arranging for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boys to be apprenticed and enter service; and, from 1589, by sending children and young people to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workhouse during which time they were given basic training in occupational skills such as textiles. Each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these approaches is examined in turn. As the title of chapter five \(pp. 106?18\), ?Aid to ill, disabled and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elderly people?, suggests, Hadleigh?s poor relief officials gave assistance to the ill, disabled and elderly in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8108 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the form of goods or money while they lived in their own homes. The recognition that people should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged to remain in their own home as long as possible and be part of the familiar community setting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows striking parallels with today?s principle of )] TJ ET BT 272.996 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(encouraging)] TJ ET BT 333.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and supporting the elderly to remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent. However, an effort was made to place the sick in a single home, in effect imposing according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to McIntosh a policy of quarantine ? this was also used in 1592 when contagious people who had contracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bubonic plague were housed in the Guildhall \(p. 107\). The elderly, defined as those aged over 50 \(p. 110\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were accommodated in almshouses, which have been the focus of much recent historians? attention, the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to those at Hadleigh being in the 1430s.\(10\) She points out that in addition to providing basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance, more specific forms of relief were directed at vulnerable residents as required, with poor relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials responding to those that were in need and deemed deserving \(p. 118\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final synoptic chapter: ?Why?? \(pp. 119?49\), addresses the three main research questions of the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. Firstly, ?Why did this relatively small town feel the need for such an elaborate network of relief?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondly, ?Why did the Chief Inhabitants of Edward?s VI?s reign decide to invest the proceeds from the sale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of church and guild goods in a landed endowment to support the poor, and why did subsequent donors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(augment those resources?? and lastly, ?Why were Hadleigh?s more prosperous residents willing to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessed for poor rates \(and in most cases to pay those sums\), and why were the town?s leaders prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spend considerable time administering assistance to the needy, time that had to be taken out of their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business activities?? \(p. 119\) Indeed, the overall impression which emerges is that Hadleigh?s system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief was complex, and arose from five factors which McIntosh highlights: the teaching of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant clergy, in particular Dr Rowland Taylor and the emphasis on charity as an essential component of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a community?s godliness; the changing nature of relations between clothiers and workers; the concern or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worry about idleness and misbehaviour and the control and cost of poor relief; the town?s civic identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic competition with surrounding communities, namely the neighbouring wool towns of Sudbury, Clare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Long Melford; and lastly the on-going influence of Christian social teachings \(pp. 119-149\). Clearly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion played an important factor in the establishment of a system of poor relief, lending support to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the Protestant Church placed emphasis on charitable provision for the poor as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spirituality.\(11\) Whilst there is evidence that the chief inhabitants and officeholders tried to control idleness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vagrancy and the influx of poor people who were viewed as disruptive and of whom it was feared they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would later require relief, corresponding with the notion of a ?culture of local xenophobia?, an impression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges that it was a combination of economic, social and religious reasons which encouraged the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperous members of the community to operate and pay for the costs of the poor.\(12\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidential basis for the conclusions drawn in chapters three to six is impressive and includes guildhall or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town hall accounts of the churchwardens, collectors and sub-collectors for the poor, bonds and wills, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as printed manuscript and secondary sources. The accounts for the poor 1535?1620 are summarised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix introduction one \(pp. 151?3\). Appendix introduction two \(pp. 154?5\) provides an overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type and amount of assistance given between 1579 and 1596 to individuals \(?poor folk?\) and to residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions namely almshouses and the workhouse, the names and numbers of which are not given. It reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the total amount received by the collector \(in pounds\) increased dramatically from 73.58 in 1563 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(167.19 by 1620 whilst the amount disbursed to the poor by sub-collectors increased from 64.20 in 1563 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(77.83 in 1620, but typically ranged between 60.00 and 80.00, peaking in the 1590s \(105.26 in 1593 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(101.29 in 1595\) with the lowest figure being 56.58 in 1599 \(pp. 151?3\). The total amount disbursed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor, including the almshouses and workhouse, increased from 100.86 in 1580 to 154.16 in 1596 \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(152?3\). Her methodologies and decision-making are discussed in the introduction to appendix )] TJ ET BT 488.960 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.948 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([J1])] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.948 172.323 m 531.608 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 534.608 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 548.600 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically the way that the databases were constructed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(SPSS\) and she recognises the potential inaccuracies, resulting from subjective judgements made in the data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection process. The extensive body of data, upon which the study is based, is presented in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendices, providing demographic information regarding the number and ratios of birth, marriage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths \(baptism, marriages and burials\) which is used to estimate Hadleigh?s population \(appendix 1.1, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(160\). Additionally, the distribution of wealth \(appendix 1.2, p. 161\) is given based on the 1524 lay subsidy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the situation at Hadleigh is contextualised through comparison with 16 country towns in the counties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckinghamshire, Rutland and Sussex and the suburban market town of Romford and its surrounding )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.9477 172.6375 531.6077 184.5175 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http:///U:/Publications/Reviews/current reviews for editing/publishedreviews/bowenonkenistoneditedfinal.doc#_msocom_1) >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural hinterland. Consideration is also given to the occupations given in parish records \(appendix 1.3, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 162?3\), the relationship between grain prices, seasonality, high mortality and poor relief \(appendix 2.1, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 164?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendices 2.2 and 2.3 \(pp. 166?7\) outline the goods or services occasionally given to individual poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, the bequests to the poor by religious testament based on an analysis of wills between 1500 and 1599 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lastly the total amount bequeathed to the poor in wills. Analysis reveals that 56 of the 96 wills included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bequests to the poor \(58 per cent\), and also apparent is a clear distinction on the basis of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denomination with a higher percentage of protestant testators than traditional/catholic testators leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bequests to the poor. Appendix 2.4 \(p. 168\) develops this religious dimension further, breaking down the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bequests made in the 56 wills by period \(1500?33, 1534?47, 1547?53, 1553?8, 1558?79 and 1580?99\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiating between ?local people? \(56 wills\) and ?outsiders? \(6 wills\). Her data indicates that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest number of wills with bequests to the poor made by local people was in the early Elizabethan period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1558?79; 18\) with a cash value \(in pounds\) of 388.25 and in total between 1500 and 1599, 1193.36 cash )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was given to the poor, 1100.03 by ?local people? and 93.33 by ?outsiders.? The costs of burying the town?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor \(Appendix 3.1, p. 169\) are given, but perhaps most interesting is the data outlined in Appendices 3.2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 3.3 \(pp. 170?1\) which shows the recipients of poor relief in Hadleigh in the 1570s and 1590s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiated on the basis of age, sex and marital status, with useful comparisons being made with findings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Norwich and Ipswich. Appendix 3.4 \(pp. 172?4\) shows the types of relief received by individuals in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year 1582 by sex and age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix 5.1 \(pp. 175?6\) provides insight into the human experience of poor relief. Parish reconstitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(poor relief)] TJ ET BT 105.344 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( records have been used to reconstruct mini pauper )] TJ ET BT 352.280 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(biographies)] TJ ET BT 409.616 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 12 residents of Hadleigh?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almshouses between 1582 and 1602, a technique frequently employed by historians of poverty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare.\(13\) One example is that of John Cromer, the oldest almshouse resident, who in 1594 was aged 90 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was married to Katherine aged 63. McIntosh has managed to sketch Cromer?s life, the couple receiving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional support between 1580 and 1594 in the form of blankets, canvas and clothes whilst living in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home in Benton Street and later when resident in the almshouse. Initially they received 6d a week but this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased to 9d by 1594. Katherine died in April 1595 aged 64. Subsequently John aged 92 married Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berdwell his neighbour in the almshouse before he died in 1598. Another notable example is that of Father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Gedge, who was already resident in the almshouse in 1579 and was given 1s per week, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvas, cloth and clothes for four years. In 1582 he was temporarily boarded out with another poor family, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dying two years later. It is highlighted that the Gedge family were one of the poorest families in Hadleigh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving the greatest amount of poor relief, with nine recipients receiving relief across three households and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over three generations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, McIntosh?s book provides an important micro-study, being at the forefront of new social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic history, offering a model which future historians may wish to employ and replicate elsewhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which goes alongside national surveys of poverty and social welfare in early modern England. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique in that it provides an analysis of poor relief in a specific community in the second-half of the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, demonstrating the value of a local case study approach. Significantly it sheds light on a transitional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in how care was provided with the formal assistance of the poor by the town supported in part by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates, considered in relation to the strong and on-going tradition of informal aid and voluntary help given by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals and households. Moreover, McIntosh?s book offers a new perspective ? or, at least, further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develops an existing methodological approach that is already becoming readily adopted by historians of poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief and social welfare, termed ?new demographic history? ? in the way that such an in-depth case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents individual human experiences. It identifies the causes of the demographic patterns which records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of poor relief administration document, successfully utilising both quantitative data and narrative sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provide insight into the lives of specific individuals. As Professor Richard M. Smith \(University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge\) has observed in his review on the reverse cover, ?McIntosh?s ability to reconstruct the family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and other demographic attributes of those receiving relief is unparalleled in any study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor poor relief?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study of Hadleigh, for which surviving documentary evidence is rich, shows how a comprehensive poor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8505 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief system developed, although as with any micro, local or regional study, the question remains as to how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical it is and, the extent to which it is representative of experiences more widely. Consequently, it will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of interest to both local and national historians. It builds on her previously published findings not solely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning poor relief, but also charity, neighbourliness, networks of care, poverty and conceptions of civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and local identity, providing an exemplar for many other Elizabethan rural market towns, for which there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the comparable level of surviving source material.\(14\) Hopefully this study will act as a stimulus for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar work. However, to what extent is evidence of Hadleigh replicated elsewhere in England and Wales? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is through the accumulation of further local case studies where surviving documentary evidence exists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as that outlined in the case of Hadleigh, that we gain a fuller understanding of how, at a local level, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities in a variety of economic and social circumstances sought through various mechanism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleviate the problem of poverty prior to the introduction of the Poor Laws of 1598 and 1601. Finally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of this volume is even more timely given current political debates regarding welfare reform and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the balance between forms of public and private assistance, providing an historic account of how, even in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second-half of the 16th century, prosperous people sought with a degree of tenacity to alleviate the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which confronted the most vulnerable within communities, whether that be children and young people, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ill, disabled or elderly, or those without sufficient work to live.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\) M.K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 131.336 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief and Community in Hadleigh, Suffolk 1547?1600)] TJ ET BT 422.000 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hatfield, 2013\); )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.herts.ac.uk/about-us/our-structure/subsidiary-companies/uh-press/history)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 540.723 m 442.304 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.304 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 459.296 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 17 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 2013]; M.K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 203.000 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England, 1350?1600)] TJ ET BT 374.000 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\) N. Goose, ?Review of )] TJ ET BT 160.316 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England, 1350?1600)] TJ ET BT 331.316 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, \(review no. 1404\), <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1404)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 485.955 m 257.660 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.660 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 274.652 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 17 September 2013].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\) Goose, review of )] TJ ET BT 136.316 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England)] TJ ET BT 247.316 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\) M. K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Controlling Misbehaviour in England, 1390?1600 )] TJ ET BT 379.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\) M. K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 408.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autonomy and Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200?1500 )] TJ ET BT 477.644 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1986\))] TJ ET BT 62.012 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 69.008 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 152.336 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Community Transformed: The Manor and Liberty of Havering, 1500?1620 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1991\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\) P. Slack, )] TJ ET BT 96.344 353.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and Policy in Tudor and Stuart England)] TJ ET BT 330.008 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\); T. Wales, ?Poverty, poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief and the life-cycle: some evidence from seventeenth century Norfolk?, in )] TJ ET BT 412.580 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land, Kinship and Life-Cycle)] TJ ET BT 554.588 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. R. M. Smith \(Cambridge, 1984\), pp. 351?88.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\) McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 103.004 299.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England)] TJ ET BT 214.004 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 146; )] TJ ET BT 256.340 299.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Act for the Relief of the Poor)] TJ ET BT 411.332 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39 Elizabeth I, c. 3 \(1598\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Act for the Relief of the Poor)] TJ ET BT 189.008 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 43 Elizabeth I, c.2 \(1601\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\) McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 103.004 258.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England)] TJ ET BT 214.004 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; C. Dyer, ?Poverty and its relief in late medieval England?, )] TJ ET BT 503.960 258.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past & )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Present)] TJ ET BT 70.676 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 216, 1 \(2012\), 41?78; S. Hindle, )] TJ ET BT 234.668 244.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Parish? The Micro-Politics of Poor Relief in Rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England c.1550?1750)] TJ ET BT 140.012 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\) McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 103.004 203.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief)] TJ ET BT 158.000 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.115?138,141?269.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\) N. Goose, ?The English Almshouse and the Mixed Economy of Welfare: Medieval to Modern?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Local Historian)] TJ ET BT 110.360 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 40, 1 \(2010\), 3?19; N. Goose and H. Looijesteijn,?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.996 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almshouses in England and the Dutch )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.996 161.859 m 547.316 161.859 l S BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic circa 1350?1800: a comparative perspective)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 147.603 m 291.620 147.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.620 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 308.612 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.940 148.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.940 147.777 m 441.608 147.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.608 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 458.600 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45, 4 \(2012\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1049?73.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\) I. Archer, ?The charity of early modern Londoners?, )] TJ ET BT 311.924 108.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of the Royal Historical Society)] TJ ET BT 524.924 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2002\), 223?44.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\) K. D. M. Snell, ?The culture of local xenophobia?, )] TJ ET BT 303.632 67.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 372.632 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 28, 1 \(2003\), 1-30 reprinted in K. D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Snell, )] TJ ET BT 81.356 53.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parish and Belonging: Community, Identity and Welfare in England and Wales, 1700?1950)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 541.0375 442.3037 552.9175 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.herts.ac.uk/about-us/our-structure/subsidiary-companies/uh-press/history) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 486.2695 257.6597 498.1495 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1404) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.9957 162.1735 547.3157 174.0535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/almshouses-in-england-and-the-dutch-republic-circa-13501800\(16b3e708-a5a3-4350-a169-96f79a62a98b\).html) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 147.9175 291.6197 159.7975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/almshouses-in-england-and-the-dutch-republic-circa-13501800\(16b3e708-a5a3-4350-a169-96f79a62a98b\).html) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.9397 160.4023 319.9397 160.4023 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/journals/journal-of-social-history\(d20167aa-457f-4cf1-960b-cb1383b614b9\).html) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.9397 147.9175 441.6077 159.7975 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/journals/journal-of-social-history\(d20167aa-457f-4cf1-960b-cb1383b614b9\).html) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 4111 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2006\), pp. 28?80.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\) For example, S. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 186.008 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty, Gender and Life-Cycle under the English Poor Law, 1760?1834)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Woodbridge, 2011\); S. A. Shave, ?The dependent poor? \(Re\)constructing the lives of individuals ?On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parish? in rural Dorset, 1800?1832?, )] TJ ET BT 212.984 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rural History)] TJ ET BT 279.320 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20, 1 \(2009\), 67?97.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\) For example: M. K. McIntosh, ?Local responses to the poor in late medieval and Tudor England?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity and Change)] TJ ET BT 146.024 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 \(1988\), 209?45; M. K. McIntosh, ?Negligence, greed and the operation of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charities, 1350?1603?, )] TJ ET BT 145.328 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continuity and Change)] TJ ET BT 257.336 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27, 1 \(2012\), 1?29; M. K. McIntosh, ?Poverty, charity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coercion in Elizabethan England?, )] TJ ET BT 201.644 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Interdisciplinary History)] TJ ET BT 373.976 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 35 \(2005\), 143?63; M. K. )] TJ ET BT 505.964 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh)] TJ ET BT 551.288 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 39.344 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Networks of care in Elizabethan English towns)] TJ ET BT 264.692 658.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 268.688 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the example of Hadleigh. Suffolk?, in )] TJ ET BT 455.660 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Locus of Care: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Families, Institutions, and theProvision of Welfare since Antiquity)] TJ ET BT 355.352 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Horden and R. M. Smith \(London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\), pp. 71?89; M. K. McIntosh, ?Locals, outsiders, and identity in English market towns, 1290-1620?, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Local Identities in Late Medieval and Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 328.664 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. N. L. Jones and D. Woolf \(London, 2007\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 71?91.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this thorough summary and valuable commentary and feels no need to reply.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 558.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 540.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 540.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1505)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 539.241 m 328.316 539.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 514.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/59289)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 471.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http:///U:/Publications/Reviews/current%20reviews%20for%20editing/publishedreviews/bowenonkenistoneditedfinal.doc#_msocom_1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.herts.ac.uk/about-us/our-structure/subsidiary-companies/uh-press/history)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1404)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/almshouses-in-england-and-the-dutch-republic-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.752 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circa-13501800\(16b3e708-a5a3-4350-a169-96f79a62a98b\).html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.467 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://researchprofiles.herts.ac.uk/portal/en/journals/journal-of-social-history\(d20167aa-457f-4cf1-960b-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cb1383b614b9\).html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 539.5555 328.3157 551.4355 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1505) >> endobj xref 0 43 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000005402 00000 n 0000005511 00000 n 0000005621 00000 n 0000005730 00000 n 0000009291 00000 n 0000009419 00000 n 0000009503 00000 n 0000009568 00000 n 0000017329 00000 n 0000017394 00000 n 0000025220 00000 n 0000025304 00000 n 0000033465 00000 n 0000033495 00000 n 0000033623 00000 n 0000033792 00000 n 0000033857 00000 n 0000041451 00000 n 0000041570 00000 n 0000050128 00000 n 0000050255 00000 n 0000050390 00000 n 0000050517 00000 n 0000050613 00000 n 0000050741 00000 n 0000050956 00000 n 0000051083 00000 n 0000051298 00000 n 0000051426 00000 n 0000051603 00000 n 0000051731 00000 n 0000051908 00000 n 0000051992 00000 n 0000056156 00000 n 0000056284 00000 n trailer << /Size 43 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 56380 %%EOF