%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818103731+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818103731+01'00') /Title (The Towns of Italy in the Later Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4656 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Towns of Italy in the Later Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the middle of the period covered by this book, one of the most resonant accounts of urban life ever written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was composed by the poet Dante. For all its startling vividness, however, Dante's evocation of the city in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Divine Comedy)] TJ ET BT 108.332 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not easy to interpret. Writing of the Italian cities of his own day, the poet oscillated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between extremes of optimism and gloom. His own birthplace, Florence, is described both as the virtuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter of Rome and new cradle of civilisation, and as the sinister and corrupting child of the devil. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation did the poet's rhetoric bear to the wider experience of life in the medieval Italian towns? What were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they really like to live in, those walled and towered cities of hill and plain, those republics and signories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Italy? With this collection of contemporary sources in English translation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Dean brings the modern reader directly into contact with many features of that urban experience. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse collection of over one hundred documents, all of them previously published but very few hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available in English, Professor Dean provides both the novice and the experienced historian with diverse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often fresh stimuli to reconsider the primary evidence. Accessible and lively, the anthology is greatly to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed and deserves wide sales and readership. Dante, paradoxically and a little disappointingly, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent, for the reason that translations are easily available elsewhere; Petrarch and Boccaccio are similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded. Included, however, is a considerable variety of texts, grouped into five sections: 'the physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment and social services', 'civic religion', 'the urban economy', 'social organisation and tensions', and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('political structures'. The whole is a mine of thought-provoking material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As any editor of historical documents is keenly aware, however, such materials are never as transparent as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they look. Lifted out of its context and translated into the language and modern idiom of the reader, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excerpted written source acquires a seeming directness and simplicity which only increase the dangers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(151)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 November, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trevor Dean)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(262pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gervase Rosser)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8238 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misinterpretation. Professor Dean's introductions to the sections of the book, and to the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, are assured and clear, but they are quite brief. One senses that this lightness of editorial touch is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reflection not only of the format of the Manchester University Press series to which the book belongs, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also of Professor Dean's personal preference. It is certainly refreshing for the reader to be given freedom to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret the historical evidence. None the less, at times the non-professional or the undergraduate user of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book might have welcomed a little more guidance. For example, the section entitled 'the physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment and social services' mixes together the more or less literary accounts of historians and poets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the relatively dispassionate records of civil administration. The opening document of the collection is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous description of Milan by Bonvesin della Riva, which appears to be well informed in the detail it gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the numbers of butchers and school-teachers and so forth, but which, apart from its value as a descriptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record, needs to be set in the context of a rhetorical tradition of )] TJ ET BT 339.284 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(encomia)] TJ ET BT 379.940 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of cities. The major article on that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition by Hyde is cited in a footnote, but Professor Dean chooses not to draw the reader's attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artificial and celebratory qualities of a number of these texts, which ask to be read in a different way from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the by-laws with which they alternate here. Of one passage, indeed, he warns that it 'needs to be handled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with care'; but the point is not only the need for caution, but also the fact that all of our sources, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetic, historical, legal, epistolary or religious, give in some sense an artificial image of the city. This is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to say that we cannot know these towns as their medieval inhabitants did, for they too made various uses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myths and idealised images of the city in order to give order and value to their lives. But the risk, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting such a collection as this of miscellaneous types of contemporary sources, is that it will be drawn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon for its many vivid descriptions of material, social and political life, while insufficient attention is given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the evidence of mental attitudes contained in the very rhetoric of the texts themselves. The rhetoric of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, the particular aims of their authors, and the identity and likely response of their audiences, receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little attention from Professor Dean. But perhaps this is a complaint directed not at this volume in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but at the entire )] TJ ET BT 112.004 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(genre)] TJ ET BT 139.328 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of published collections of extracted sources, one of whose conventions is the gentle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhectoring editor, of which Trevor Dean is a gracious exemplar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, the collection includes many telling examples of the use by communal governments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of collective identity and public space: language which is as eloquent as the detailed matters it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touches upon of the aspirations of many, at least amongst the citizenry of the medieval Italian towns. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salimbene tells how in 1283 the Parmesans 'enlarged the new communal piazza and bought up, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commune, all the buildings around the piazza'; and Agnolo di Tura records the construction by the Sienese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in the 1320s of houses to attract new residents. The more celebratory accounts give little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression of the large body of resistance encountered by communal ideals. However, some idea of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict is recorded in documents in which communes are recorded as attempting to suppress all other local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations bound by oath, including societies of knights and guilds of craftsmen. \(These references, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively to Ferrara p.132, Bologna p.162 and Perugia p.217, are dispersed into three different sections: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cross-referencing, here and elsewhere, would have been helpful.\) Of course, citizenship was never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived as a status available to all, and the texts printed here show how the urban 'community' was defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only inclusively, but in exclusive terms as well. Helpfully clarifying a point which continues to confuse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern students, the leading citizens of Naples in the 1330s announced, as a gloss on the text of a civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace agreement, that 'we intend by the )] TJ ET BT 226.124 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popolo)] TJ ET BT 259.460 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that which is commonly called the )] TJ ET BT 430.448 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popolo grasso)] TJ ET BT 498.788 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(popolo minuto)] TJ ET BT 103.688 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the artisans, who are not accustomed to be associated in such things...' And more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one civil regime is here quoted as restricting immigration from the countryside to the newly prosperous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities, 'lest all peasants should turn themselves into citizens'. A further consequence of the developing notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil society was the communal prison. City prisons, used not merely as temporary expedients but as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less long-term destinations of sentenced enemies of public order, appear in this collection at Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1297 and at Siena in 1330; though in the former case, at least, the smell of the poor prisoners in the )] TJ ET BT 525.296 142.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stinche)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was already at this period wrinkling the noses of the senators in the adjacent council chambers. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juxtapositions and tensions were of the essence of medieval Italian urban life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certain sources tend, by their very nature, to give a thoroughly positive image of the city commune in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action, which other records tend to throw into question. Thus this collection includes the extended and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colourful description by Goro Dati of the St John the Baptist's day procession at Florence \(previously )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8069 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in English in 1971 by Gene Brucker in )] TJ ET BT 272.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 293.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society of Renaissance Florence: a Documentary Study)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The text is undeniably one contemporary view of such events: pious, celebratory, and optimistic about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban 'community'. Yet these communal shows, for all that they offered to a variety of participants the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive opportunity to participate in the language of civic pride, also brought out the persistent tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within urban society. These are revealed in sometimes violent disputes over precedence in the Venetian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Corpus Christi procession, and in the more explicitly agonistic rituals of other cities, such as the battles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rocks fought between the various )] TJ ET BT 196.316 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contrade )] TJ ET BT 241.976 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Bologna, Perugia and elsewhere. Although these examples are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent, the present collection is by no means free of bloodshed: there are food riots and fist-fights in Siena, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and vendetta at Pistoia. But in its overall image of the medieval Italian city, the book perhaps errs a little on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the side of stability. A significant reason for this impression may be the focus upon published sources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst which, apart from civic histories, many of a semi-official nature, normative measures such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statutes and by-laws prevail. For the operation of such legislation in daily and controversial practice, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would need to spend more time in the law courts, and in the company of the civil notaries. As historians in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the field know all too well, that obscure army of thousands of lawyers has left, in most towns of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peninsula, an overwhelmingly daunting mass of evidence, not only of personal testaments, household and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shop inventories, and contracts relating to economic and social relationships, but also of conflicts and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiated resolution. The paucity of legal and notarial materials in this collection could be justified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of other sources more readily available in print; yet their better representation would have helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance the weight of official and governmental views of urban society and culture. The editor in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction anticipates criticism of exclusions from the range of sources in his volume, asking to be judged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather upon what has been included. This is entirely fair, except where the editorial selection process results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a cumulative image of the central subject - medieval Italian towns - which is significantly unbalanced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Dean's introduction also includes a welcome call to consider not only the well known cities, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also less familiar places, in order to broaden the perspective on the subject as a whole. To some extent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of towns represented in the collection lives up to the expectation thus engendered: here are not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence, Venice and Milan, but also Perugia, Parma and Ferrara. All the same, it is not just carping to point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that the net has still not been cast particularly wide. The peninsula south of Rome is represented only by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleeting visits to Brindisi, Barletta, Reggio and Naples; in the northwest, Genoa merits just one significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance. And something might usefully have been done here to include in the picture the smaller, market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, whose persistent absence from general discussions encourages a false impression that Italy knew only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great contrasts of big-town urbanity and utter rusticity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further point about the scope of this collection relates to its chronological range. This is nowhere very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely defined, but effectively extends from 1200 to 1400. The first of these dates presumably relates to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the availability of sources, although it would have been worthwhile to indicate that attempts to forge a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal identity, which figure largely in this volume, were anticipated in many towns during the eleventh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and twelfth centuries. In fact, the majority of the documents included in the section on 'political structures' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate to the replacement of communal solutions and the imposition, from the late thirteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards, of relatively narrowly based civic regimes or 'tyrannies'. The terminal date, on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to result simply from a reasonable desire not to duplicate existing document collections on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quattrocento. No clear message stands out from these chronological choices, and one might think this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentional, were it not that the cover blurb states that ')] TJ ET BT 295.148 214.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Towns of Italy in the Later Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 507.152 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully structured around the crisis of the fourteenth century'. This was perhaps an unwise claim, since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light which this collection sheds upon the particular social problems consequent upon demographic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic pressures in the fourteenth century is largely indirect. The book does implicitly underline the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity of the issues at stake, precisely because it is)] TJ ET BT 300.644 157.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( not )] TJ ET BT 321.980 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised to demonstrate the effects of a 'crisis'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, it includes a sample of the moralising literature which, in the wake of the population losses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1348, criticised newly prosperous survivors who affected dress and manners above their social station; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet also included is sumptuary legislation from Bologna in the later thirteenth century, demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidentally that the perception of social mobility was not brought in by the early fourteenth-century famines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the Black Death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One cannot review this collection of sources on medieval Italian towns without expressing disappointment at )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3122 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was presumably the publisher's decision to exclude visual material. There is, of course, so much to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned from the material evidence of urban culture; and the practical and financial difficulties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproducing black-and-white images on text paper are now very much smaller than they used to be. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absences consequent upon this decision are many: the plans and topography of cities; the structure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal disposition of town houses; the symbolic imagery both of the communes and of rival interests; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(costumes and trappings of religious and civic festivals; the evidence of artisan production and trade; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture and decoration of civic churches; all the material culture of everyday life. One realises, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressing this lament, how much good could yet be done by publishers to help break the exaggerated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance of written sources in historical research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of these reservations, however. detracts from the rich interest and value of the texts which Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dean has assembled and translated. It can be hoped that their publication will contribute to the better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of cities in general. Those which so many of us in the west inhabit today are the direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendants of those whose formative period is chronicled in the documents included in this book. Debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the traumas of life in our modern cities is generally all too lacking in a historical dimension; and rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions, such as Prince Charles's invocation of the supposed harmony of medieval Italian urban life, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear idealising for rhetorical effect. Read critically, these medieval texts can begin to yield a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/151)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 491.961 m 322.316 491.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 466.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/783)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 492.2755 322.3157 504.1555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/151) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000005336 00000 n 0000005445 00000 n 0000005555 00000 n 0000005664 00000 n 0000009225 00000 n 0000009353 00000 n 0000009437 00000 n 0000009502 00000 n 0000017793 00000 n 0000017858 00000 n 0000025980 00000 n 0000026064 00000 n 0000029239 00000 n 0000029367 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29462 %%EOF