%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 89 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140918002602+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140918002602+01'00') /Title (Margaret Thatcher: The Authorized Biography, Volume One: Not For Turning) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2814 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Margaret Thatcher: The Authorized Biography, Volume One: Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(For Turning)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Not For Turning)] TJ ET BT 114.032 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first of two projected volumes in the authorized biography of Margaret Thatcher. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Covering the period from her childhood in Grantham to the Falklands War of 1982, it offers the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive account yet published of Thatcher?s early life. Compellingly written, exhaustively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and impressively fair-minded, it propels its author, Charles Moore, to the front rank of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographers. )] TJ ET BT 96.668 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Not For Turning)] TJ ET BT 176.684 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is essential reading, not only for students of Thatcherism but for anyone with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an interest in modern political history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1515)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Moore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713992823)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(896pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Saunders)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7563 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite her magnetic attraction for the genre, Thatcher is not a straightforward subject for the biographer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the great majority of political leaders, Moore notes, she ?did not think autobiographically?. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheerfully threw away old letters and files, and only when she became leader in 1975 did the Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party begin archiving her correspondence. She viewed her diary strictly as a list of engagements; not, as for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone, as a private confessional or a hotline to posterity. Under pressure from journalists, she disinterred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a handful of ?small-town stories and paternal precepts? from her childhood in Grantham, but ?she did so in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to advance her cause, not in any spirit of autobiographical inquiry?. Her memoirs were largely written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by others, for even in retirement Thatcher ?hardly ever sat down to reflect upon the past?. This ?was a life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with no space for self-examination? \(pp. xi?xii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Thatcher had little taste for reminiscence, it was partly because her childhood was not an especially happy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 54.344 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 54.344 628.515 m 68.336 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 68.336 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She was born in Grantham in 1925, the second child of Alfred and Beatrice Roberts, and grew up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over her father?s grocery shop. It was a household dominated by hard work and duty; as Margaret later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recalled, ?I always got the books I wanted. But no pleasures?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.284 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.284 600.003 m 344.276 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.276 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Beatrice, according to her elder daughter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?a bigoted Methodist? who simply ?didn?t exist in Margaret?s mind? \(p. 9\), and even the sainted Alfred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a troubled relationship with his famous offspring. Margaret forgot his birthdays, grumbled at having him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the house, and there is some uncertainty over whether she attended his funeral.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.256 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.256 557.235 m 462.248 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.248 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Grantham myth? was precisely that; when she took a peerage in 1992, as Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she chose her title from her school, not her home town.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, the lessons and precepts absorbed at Grantham would shape Thatcher?s career. ?We were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodist?, she later recalled, ?and Methodist means method?. Her father?s sermons, dutifully recorded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his daughter?s exercise book, thrilled with proto-Thatcherite principles: ?There is no promise of ease for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful servant of the Cross?; ?God wants no faint hearts for His ambassadors?; ?We must avoid the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle of a Denominational Closed Shop? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this undoubtedly left its mark on Thatcher, both in her tendency to sermonise and in her extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appetite for work. Yet one of the real surprises of Moore?s book is the discovery of a very different side to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her character, which no previous biographer had really captured. The young Margaret who emerges from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these pages is passionate, romantic and even hedonistic; someone who loved dancing, adored dressing up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and was captivated by the glamorous world of Hollywood. When she went up to Oxford, in 1943, her letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home described a whirl of parties, dinners and sensational outfits. New costumes are described in minute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail, and their effect on her audience recorded with diva-ish glee. When Margaret?s first boyfriend, Tony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bray, gave her a carnation, she carried it to a friend?s house and watched anxiously as it was placed in a vase )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with water and aspirin. It was the first of many romantic conquests, giddily related in secret letters to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sister.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher was, nonetheless, often lonely: first at Oxford and then at Colchester, where she gained her first job )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a research chemist. Salvation came from the Conservative Party, which at its high point in the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed more than two million members. Moore captures superbly the social world of post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatism, which served its members as a dining club, social network and even dating agency. Like so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many others, Thatcher met her husband through the Conservative Party, as well as undergoing a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training of a kind her successors could barely imagine. Thatcher?s apprenticeship was served, not in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Research Department or as a special advisor at Westminster, but on a soap box in Colchester, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where she warmed up the crowd each weekend for the Conservative candidate ?Cub? Alport. There she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned to speak off the cuff and to deal with hecklers, while conceiving a dislike for Alport so powerful that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he would later resign from the party during her leadership. Above all, she formed an emotional attachment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her party ? and to ?her people? in the Tory grass-roots ? to which neither David Cameron nor Ted Heath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could ever lay claim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a woman from the provincial ?shopocracy?, Thatcher was always closer to the party membership than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masculine elite that dominated the upper reaches of the party. She had not attended public school. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not been captain of cricket or ?victor ludorum?, and knew nothing of the homoerotic culture of the male )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 54.3437 628.8295 68.3357 640.7095 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.2837 600.3175 344.2757 612.1975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.2557 557.5495 462.2477 569.4295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8251 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boarding house. She did not, like Jack Straw, spend her first day at secondary school learning that ?rubbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up? had nothing to do with furniture polish.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.344 780.819 m 257.336 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor would she have remembered Kesteven Grammar, as John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nott described his own alma mater, as a place of ?muscular Christianity?, ?cold baths? and ?homosexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.344 752.307 m 92.336 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 92.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She had not fought in the Second World War or done National Service in the Empire. She held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no military rank and knew nothing of the military codes and conventions that governed organisations like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whips? office. For Geoffrey Howe, who had served with the British Army in Kenya and Uganda, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second nature ?that you don?t rebuke officers in front of other ranks? \(p. 353\); yet this was a world to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher had simply never been exposed. Nor had she received the capacious sexual education on offer in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the armed forces. When Nott first joined the British Army, soldiers were given a haircut, a uniform and ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophylactic kit of condoms?. ?Sex?, he recalled wistfully, was )] TJ ET BT 340.628 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 346.628 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually the only topic of conversation?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly surprising, when ?the most beautiful young German girls were available for a packet of five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbines?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.004 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.004 638.259 m 110.996 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.996 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was no coincidence that the moral reform movements of the 1970s, such as Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehouse?s campaign to clean up national television, were staffed chiefly by women, or that the men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher?s cabinet were less prone than she to talk of traditional moral values.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The roles and characteristics thought appropriate to women were, of course, changing markedly over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of Thatcher?s career. She was born three years before the coming of universal female suffrage, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came up to Oxford at a time when all but a handful of colleges were closed to women. As a female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate, she was automatically barred from the Oxford Union debating society. Her first employer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BX Plastics, paid her 50 a year less than the men around her, and her search for a constituency in the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ran up against a constant tide of bigotry and condescension ? what she herself labelled the ?what a pity such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a charming girl ? such an unnatural life, should have stayed at home? mentality \(p. 79\). Running for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative nomination at Finchley, she predicted wearily that ?the usual prejudice against women will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevail and that I shall probably come the inevitable ?close second?? \(p. 134\). \(She may have been right ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chairman later claimed to have fiddled the votes to secure her the seat\). Yet her rise to the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership in the 1970s coincided with the emergence of second wave feminism, and even )] TJ ET BT 469.592 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spare Rib)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautiously welcomed Thatcher?s election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher herself disliked being pigeon-holed as a ?woman MP?. When invited to deliver the annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Political Centre lecture in 1968, she ignored her leader?s suggestion that she speak on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Women in politics? and delivered instead a wide-ranging address on the state of modern government. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Women, she noted dryly, had ?been around since Eve? \(p. 192\)\). Visiting the United States in 1969, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted on being listed as ?Mrs )] TJ ET BT 188.012 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Margaret)] TJ ET BT 234.008 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thatcher?, not ?Mrs D. Thatcher? ? ?although?, as a baffled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official reported, ?she is not a widow? \(p. 201\). In what it clearly imagined was a compliment, )] TJ ET BT 490.268 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Finchley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Press)] TJ ET BT 60.680 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( likened her performance in a speech on foreign policy to ?a housewife measuring the ingredients in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar recipe? \(p. 136\), and her clothes, hair and views on parenting were all considered legitimate matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The very existence of such a woman seems to have deprived some men of their faculties. One businessman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked that his notes be placed under her pillow, while Kingsley Amis wrote rapturously of her ?sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauty?. Alan Clark, whose appetites in this direction apparently knew no bounds, told Moore that ?I don?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want actual penetration ? just a massive snog? \(p. 436\). This must all have been rather tiresome; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher learned first to manage the problem and then to use it to her advantage. Her remarkable capacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the double-entendre ? she famously claimed to be ?always on the job?, and once told a finance debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she had ?got a really red-hot figure? \(p. 161\) ? provided ample scope for a form of sexual badinage that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had never really suited Ted Heath. Her capacity to switch between the flirtatious and the ferocious regularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disoriented opponents, both in Cabinet and in her dealings with the press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher was openly contemptuous of feminism, deploring its critique of marriage and the traditional family. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But she was equally dismissive of women whose horizons expanded no further than the home. After a dinner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party with Willie Cullen \(an early boyfriend, whom she subsequently married off to her sister\), she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed the women present as ?typical wives ? they know of domestic matters and nothing else?. ?I stayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the men after supper? \(p. 90\). Indeed, one of Thatcher?s great political assets was her ability to bridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic and the political, using conventional images of womanhood to establish her own political )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3437 781.1335 257.3357 793.0135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.3437 752.6215 92.3357 764.5015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.0037 638.5735 110.9957 650.4535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7754 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. As early as 1949, she told an adoption meeting that ?The Government should do what any good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housewife would do if money was short ? look at their accounts and see what was wrong? \(p. 81\). Mocking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the high language of economists and Cabinet ministers?, she urged women to ?think of politics at our own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household level? \(p. 87\), translating Conservative economics into the commonsense of good housekeeping. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When a Labour minister attempted to interrupt her, during a debate on household taxes in 1966, he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly rebuked. ?The right honourable Gentleman?, she growled, ?is not so good on clothes washing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dish washing machines as I am, so he had better sit down?. ?I am terrified?, the minister stuttered. ?I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only about to make a simple point?? \(p. 182\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher?s political positions, in these years, were founded on gut instincts rather than philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations, though she would later find support for them in the writings of Friedman, Hayek and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Popper. She was staunchly inegalitarian, convinced that ?Nations depend for their health ? upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of a comparatively small number of talented and determined people? \(p. 465\). The ?greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advances of the ordinary person?, she believed, were ?the products of the achievements of the extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person? \(p. 334\). Government, therefore, should always be on the side of the great individual: ?the person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is prepared to work hardest should get the greatest rewards and keep them after tax? \(p. 294\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher was not, however, an individualist in an atomistic sense. She believed in the family as the bedrock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil society, and in the peculiar destiny of the British nation across the world. She was an enthusiast for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the empire ? which she insisted in 1945 ?must never be liquidated? \(p. 53\) ? and her early speeches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified ?Imperial Preference?, rather than free trade, as ?the cornerstone of Conservatism? \(p. 80\). Yet she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed little troubled by the dissolution of the empire, seeing it as further evidence of the greatness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s imperial conception. The British, she boasted, had been ?the first imperial country voluntarily to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give up sovereignty ? There?s been nothing like it in history?. The story of Empire had been a ?marvellous? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing, which had made Britain ?one of the greatest, most fervent advocates of democracy ? of any country in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world?. In Thatcher?s view, what had made Britain strong was not its natural resources or its exploitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial populations, but the peculiarly English values of ?fairness?, ?equity?, ?individuality? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?initiative?. ?How else did this really rather small people, from the times of Elizabeth on, go out in the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world and have such an influence on it??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.300 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.300 400.419 m 244.292 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It followed that, in order to restore British greatness, ?we must firstly )] TJ ET BT 369.308 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(believe)] TJ ET BT 403.292 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Western way of life? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(112\). That conviction was fundamental to Thatcher?s career, explaining both her hatred of socialism, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she saw as morally corrosive as well as economically flawed, and her horror of inflation. It also made her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicious of consensus. Thatcher understood the necessity of compromise, but she disapproved of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who made compromise an objective in its own right. Politics, for Thatcher, was a moral arena, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise smacked of appeasement. ?The Old Testament prophets didn?t go out into the highways saying, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Brothers, I want consensus?. They said, ?This is my faith and my vision!?? \(p. 408\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all these respects, Thatcher?s sympathies were somewhat to the right of the Conservative leadership in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war years. She liked and admired Enoch Powell, and continued to associate with him even after his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notorious ?Rivers of Blood? speech in 1968. Yet Thatcher was also a party loyalist, in a way that was never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true of Powell. She only once defied the party whip in more than thirty years as an MP ?her solitary act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion coming not on an economic question or on the expansion of the state, but on a vote to restore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporal punishment for young offenders. She would defend her party?s record on the most unpromising of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects, insisting that Neville Chamberlain was owed ?a great debt of gratitude? \(p. 19\) for his handling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazi Germany and that Anthony Eden had been ?let down by others? during the Suez crisis \(p. 130\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor did she accept the charge of betrayal later pinned upon the post-war governments of the 1950s. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, Moore observes, she seems to have emerged from the war years with ?a fairly strong belief in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity of Whitehall men and ideas to run the country? \(p. 51\). She claimed credit, on behalf of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative Party, for both the founding of the National Health Service and the welfare state, and insisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it ?was the Tories who introduced the finest food-rationing system during the war? \(p. 87\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.280 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.280 79.299 m 504.272 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.272 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education Secretary from 1970 to 1974, she largely followed the orthodoxy of her department, promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher pay for teachers and doing little to obstruct the trend to comprehensive education. In public she even )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.2997 400.7335 244.2917 412.6135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.2797 79.6135 504.2717 91.4935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applauded the spread of progressive educational methods, though privately she thought it ?all rag dolls and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rolling on the floor? \(p. 227\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Until February 1974?, Moore argues, Thatcher?s ?career had been mentally conformist? \(p. 253\). How, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, did this rather unimaginative party loyalist become the radical leader who gave her name to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology? For Moore, the answer lies in the failure of the post-war settlement to deliver the things that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher demanded of it. With inflation rising, public expenditure escalating and the authority of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming increasingly into question, Thatcher concluded that the old gods had failed. As she broadened her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading under the influence of Keith Joseph, she found in thinkers like Milton Friedman and Friedrich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hayek the intellectual tools with which to challenge the post-war settlement. Yet this, Moore argues, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic accommodation to experience, rather than the implementation of an explicitly ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme. When Thatcher ?came to overturn the post-war economic consensus?, he concludes, ?she did so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because she believed it had failed, not because she had never believed in it in the first place? \(p. 170\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two possible objections to this approach. The first is that it endorses a specifically Thatcherite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the 1970s, in which the failure of the post-war settlement produced Thatcherism as its natural ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and inevitable ? corrective. This is a view with which Moore is clearly sympathetic, and in these chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone, the strict impartiality of the text slips a little.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.680 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.680 557.235 m 293.672 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.672 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The second objection is that it suggests a binary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice: between ?Thatcherism?, on the one hand, and the continuation of ?consensus politics? on the other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the ?monetarist? agenda of the New Right was only one of a dizzying array of new political strategies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer, as governments grappled with problems that had been largely dormant in recent decades. Tony Benn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Foot and Arthur Scargill were, in this respect, as much critics of ?the post-war consensus? as Mrs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher; and their prescriptions arguably lay further outside the political mainstream. The question, then, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not simply why Thatcher lost faith in Keynesian social democracy, but why she was drawn to the policies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neo-liberalism rather than to the many other options under discussion on the Right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer, as Moore shows, lies in the overlap between the technical prescriptions of monetarism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral values that drove Thatcher?s politics. Though she enjoyed debating the finer details of monetary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, her attachment to neo-liberalism was always instrumental. The attraction of monetarism was that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to reward hard work, encourage thrift, and tame the redistributive consequences of inflation. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(moral)] TJ ET BT 62.684 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( case for monetarism not only drew Thatcher to the policies of the New Right; it also gave her an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinary resilience in the face of adverse economic data. In a remarkable exchange in 1980, when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure to change course was most severe, Thatcher rebuked an interviewer for assessing her policies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely economistic terms. ?If we had ever looked at Dunkirk as a kind of balance sheet, as sometimes I am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked to look economically at this country, well I don?t think we would have gone on at that time. If you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked at it as a matter of the spirit of the people then it is totally different? \(p. 529\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect, ?Thatcherism? was never, at root, a policy programme. Rather, as Moore notes, it was ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disposition of mind and character embodied in a highly unusual woman? \(p. 536\). The task of translating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these dispositions into policy fell chiefly to others, and especially to Geoffrey Howe. Relations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Howe and Thatcher were always strained; he had stood against her in the leadership election in 1975, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cautious, lawyerly style ? reminiscent of a sheep engaged in philosophical contemplation ? sorely tested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher?s patience. Yet it was Howe, together with Nigel Lawson, who devised the economic policies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first term and who carried them through against the instinctive caution of the prime minister. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of exchange controls, the drastic cuts in income tax, the near-doubling of VAT and the Medium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Term Financial Strategy were all pushed through against a backdrop of scepticism and anxiety from Number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ten.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Moore cheerfully acknowledges, Thatcher was in some ways remarkably ill-prepared for the challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the premiership. As a minister, she had never risen higher than the Department of Education, and civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants were surprised to discover that ?she wasn?t terribly well briefed on the macroeconomic problems? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 456\). Her instincts on foreign affairs were simplistic and tinged with xenophobia. She distrusted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans, disliked the French and found European Commissioners ?tiresomely foreign? \(p. 488\). She was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also suspicious of black nationalism, though more because she suspected it of Marxism than from any racial )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.6797 557.5495 293.6717 569.4295 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 7198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudice. Her first Foreign Secretary, Lord Carrington, joked that she ?hardly knew where Calais was?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Jonathan Aitken suggested that she thought ?Sinai? was ?the plural of sinus? \(p. 365\). Nor did she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have much idea how to manage a Cabinet or run a private office. Even admirers complained of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to think strategically, and John Hoskyns told her openly that she lacked ?management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competence? \(p. 641\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How, then, did she survive in office for so long? Three particular strengths emerge from Moore?s account. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first instance, she was persistently underestimated by those around her. Whether from sexism, class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prejudice or sheer myopia, opponents routinely underestimated both her formidable abilities and her tenacity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of purpose. Just as Heath had failed to take her seriously as a rival, the Tory ?Wets? seem to have regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her as an accident of history, whose curious ideas would dissolve in the collision with reality. Thatcherism, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed, was to be endured, rather than challenged. This was an analysis shared by the SDP leadership, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was more interested in displacing Labour as the government-in-waiting than in challenging the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was actually in power. As David Owen later acknowledged, SDP strategists were already ?looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ahead to the next bit. They assumed that they would come through the middle when Thatcherism failed? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(549\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, Thatcher had a fixity of purpose that allowed her ministers to see through controversial policies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Towards the end of 1980, a particularly testing time for the government, Geoffrey Howe identified ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher factor? as one of the few assets of the administration. ?People do have a sense that this Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? more particularly you ? is possessed of a tenacity, which might just work, if only it?s sustained? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(535?6\). Once Thatcher was persuaded of a particular policy ? a process that could take considerable time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and energy ? she could usually be relied upon to stick to it, whatever the deterioration in the polls or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-term economic data. This not only won the loyalty of key ministers; it also made her the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention within the government for those who wanted to achieve fundamental reforms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, Thatcher was more willing to take advice and even to change her mind than her public reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would suggest. On Rhodesia, for example, she backed the multi-racial settlement favoured by the Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office in spite of her distaste for Robert Mugabe. At least until the final years of her premiership, she rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed her prejudices to overrule her caution. Here, as in other respects, the Thatcher that emerges from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these pages is more cautious, more pragmatic and even more willing to give way than is commonly believed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She is also more human, someone who found the pressures of high office often hard to bear. There are tears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and eruptions throughout these chapters, and even in the early years Thatcher seems to have been drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than was healthy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These strengths and weaknesses came together in the Falklands War ? the decisive test of her first term, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moment, for Moore, when Thatcher ?reached her zenith? \(p. xvi\). Like many of Thatcher?s ministers, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubts whether the decision to retake the Islands would have been made by a male prime minister, or one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had experienced the horrors and uncertainties of war. This is not to say that she was callous ? she wrote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally to the families of all those who were killed, and wept bitterly for the loss of ?my young men? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(735\) ? but that she was less conscious of the risks of failure. She was, however, acutely aware of her lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military experience, which made her more willing than in other fields to defer to her generals on the conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war. She also came closer to compromise than had previously been believed. As Moore demonstrates, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher was willing to make concessions that would have appalled many of her supporters. Under pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the United States, she reluctantly accepted a Peruvian peace plan that would probably have ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British sovereignty and that certainly compromised the right of the Islanders to decide their own destiny. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the last time, it was the intransigence of an opponent that compelled Thatcher to play for total victory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Success in the Falklands marked Thatcher?s apotheosis. It settled the question of whether a woman could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead her country in time of war, and gave her government a triumph of the kind that had been singularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking in domestic policy. It entrenched Thatcher?s reputation as a popular patriot, and gave her a global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation to which few British premiers can aspire. Ominously, it also deepened her confidence in a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of leadership, establishing what Moore himself calls ?the dangerous idea that she acted best when she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted alone? \(p. 753\). From 1982, Thatcher was far more prone to trust her instincts against the judgement of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 8211 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her Cabinet. As so often, the seeds of defeat were sown in victory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To celebrate the Argentine surrender, Thatcher gave a dinner at Downing Street for the Lord Mayor and 120 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those who had been involved in the Falklands campaign. Spouses were not invited, though there was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reception for them after the dinner; which meant that Mrs Thatcher was the only woman in the hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong gathering. After a speech hailing ?the spirit of the Falklands? ? ?the spirit of Britain which throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history has never failed us in difficult days? ? Thatcher pushed back her chair and smiled. ?Gentlemen?, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked; ?shall we join the ladies?? In the words of one of her ministers, Thatcher was now very definitely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?one of the boys?. As Moore wryly concludes, ?It may well have been the happiest moment of her life? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(758\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret married Denis Thatcher in December 1951, but I use her married name throughout this )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.668 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.668 589.251 m 153.656 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interview for )] TJ ET BT 129.992 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunday Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 217.652 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 October 1969.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.304 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.304 574.995 m 361.292 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore concludes persuasively that she did, but that she left Grantham before the cremation \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(206?7\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.340 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.340 546.483 m 154.328 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Straw, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Last Man Standing: Memoirs of a Political Survivor)] TJ ET BT 359.684 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2012\), p. 42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.344 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.344 532.227 m 546.332 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Nott, )] TJ ET BT 102.020 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Here Today, Gone Tomorrow: Recollections of an Errant Politician)] TJ ET BT 429.008 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), p. 32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 503.715 m 118.004 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nott, )] TJ ET BT 91.352 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Here Today)] TJ ET BT 148.340 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 33?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.668 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.668 489.459 m 252.656 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Newsweek)] TJ ET BT 114.008 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22 April 1992.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.340 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.340 475.203 m 244.328 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strikingly, Thatcher seems to have regarded the wartime government as a Conservative one to which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour lent its support, rather than as a coalition of the kind she would oppose in the 1970s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.640 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.640 446.691 m 559.628 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example: ?these humiliations proved the Conservatives right? \(p. 337\); ?it was a revulsion against )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selfishness ? which brought Mrs Thatcher into office? \(p. 399\); ?Events were proving [Howe] right )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ? ?There is no alternative?? \(p. 480\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.960 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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