%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150724195258+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150724195258+01'00') /Title (The Republic: The Fight for Irish Independence, 1918-1923) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4105 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Republic: The Fight for Irish Independence, 1918-1923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 20th century saw the triumph of the nation-state. It is hard to imagine it ever having passed by without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, which Britain never succeeded in assimilating, joining the ranks of sovereign nations. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner in which she won self-determination was not preordained. Ireland fought the British crown under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banner not just of the nation, but of the republic. That this was no mere semantic distinction is perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central lesson of Charles Townshend?s splendid book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians are only now working through the voluminous insurgent service memoirs from the Irish war of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence and civil war, formerly confidential, which have recently been made available to researchers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Townshend has pre-empted his peers by seamlessly integrating them into a fascinating survey of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. That he does so with witty panache and unflagging acuity means that )] TJ ET BT 423.968 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Republic)] TJ ET BT 487.628 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will stand as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a classic in the years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence for Ireland was always likely. Townshend quotes the opinion of Michael Davitt, a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader of the late 19th century, that ?millions of Irishmen were ? separatists in conviction and aspiration? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xiii\). This was unquestionably so. Though the stated political demand of nationalist Ireland before 1914 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Home Rule, no-one sang maudlin songs around the hearth pining for provincial autonomy within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1516)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Townshend)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713999839)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(560pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.penguin.co.uk/nf/Book/BookDisplay/0,,9780713999839,00.html?strSrchSql=9780713999839%2A/The_Republic_Charles_Townshend)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Mulholland)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6646 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom. The unofficial anthem of the Home Rule movement was ?God Save Ireland?, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialisation of Fenian separatists hanged by British justice. When it was displaced after 1916 by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Soldiers? Song?, this was indicative not so much of a new final goal as a sterner militancy in its pursuit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The attraction of Home Rule was strategic rather than principled. Ultimately, it was hoped, a British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government could be brought to concede such a moderate measure, and that Irish Unionists could be brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to acquiesce in it. But these calculations went awry. In 1914 the British Government finally legislated for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Rule. But it simultaneously made clear that Protestant Ulster, which steadfastly refused conciliation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not be forced to go under a Dublin parliament. The constitutionalist compromise, it turned out, came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the price-tag of partition. Worse still, with the outbreak of the Great War, Home Rule within the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom now seemed a standing peril to Irish life and prosperity, for who knew how long the wars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British global succession would continue?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first the Irish parliamentary party lent support to the imperial war effort. A group of Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irreconcilables were horrified by this cementing of the British-Irish link in blood, and in 1916 they rose in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion. At best, they hoped to stand with a victorious Germany in a post-war settlement; at worst they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that even a failed assertion in arms of Ireland?s national claims would counter the blood-sacrifice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trenches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1916 Rising was a failure, but while most Catholic Irish believed the rebels to have been deluded, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also considered them chivalrous and undeserving of the criminal status accorded them by the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government, who executed sixteen leaders and interned thousands. The Irish Volunteers, a nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militia, was reconstituted and enjoyed its greatest ever appeal in 1917?18. A young man who declined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(join the army in Great Britain was liable to be ?white feathered?: branded a coward and deprived of feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amours. In Ireland, one could enjoy camaraderie and demonstrate manly patriotism without having to hazard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one?s life against the Germans simply by joining the Volunteers and identifying with the heroes of 1916. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalist principle and prosaic self-preservation combined to the advantage of separatist radicals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both Britain and Ireland anticipated that the planned introduction of conscription in Ireland would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantamount to a virtual declaration of war. Lord French, the British supremo, pondered the feasibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using aircraft to harry the Irish into the recruitment centres. Irish nationalists flocked to Sinn Fin, who stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against conscription, for separatism and, a little ambiguously, championed the republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the post-war general election held in December 1918, Sinn Fin sucked up nationalist support, securing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every constituency outside Ulster but four. The cultural nationalism espoused by Sinn Fin took little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the traditions of the Protestant community who traced their lineage from British roots. Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins stated that the ?extent to which we become free ? will be the extent to which we become Gaels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again?. Most Protestant families, as far as they were concerned, had never been Gaels to begin with. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Ireland, including its growing labour and women?s movements, stood by Sinn Fin.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sinn Fin MPs proceeded to meet in Dublin as the self-constituted Irish parliament, Dil ireann. On 21 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1919 it declared an independent Irish republic to be in existence, though it was dated from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion of Easter 1916. Democracy, this implied, only ratified an indefeasible right to national sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defended through thick and thin by a self-selected elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Dil hoped to present Irish independence as a mandated fact to the victors of the Great War. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundered on the rocks of international realpolitik. Nonetheless, a parallel government ? including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministries, a national loan and ?republican courts? ? began to function. The Irish Volunteers considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to be the army of the republic, and they became widely known as the Irish Republican Army. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their primary loyalty was to the ideal of the republic, and the elected Dil only took full responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their actions in 1921.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the end of the World War and the threat of conscription, volunteer ranks had thinned out. The cadre left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind were by definition the best motivated and determined. Hardened militants went on the run and an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground developed. This was a molecular process rather than a sudden phase-shift. The Volunteer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin)] TJ ET BT 72.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( itself recalled that ?eighteen months ago the Irish Volunteers were a volunteer reserve rather than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army in the field. But when a price was placed on the heads of its more active members, these men went into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent active service, determined to defend their liberty with their lives? \(p. 299\). Of course, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militants now had an occupation security-apparatus to confront and a democratically elected government to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend. The IRA?s war was consistently depicted as defensive in its own, very effective, propaganda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Townshend rightly highlights the first and perhaps most important stage of the IRA?s campaign: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic defamation, boycotting, and isolation of the native and predominantly Catholic police force, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Irish Constabulary \(RIC\). The RIC were the mainstay of imperial rule in Ireland, and their re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition as legitimate targets was crucial to any sustained insurgency. A cycle of republican provocation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and crown force reaction set in. amonde Valera, president both of Sinn Fin and Dil ireann, said in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1917: ?England pretends that it is not by the naked sword, but by the good will of the people of Ireland that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she is here. We will draw the naked sword to make her bare her naked sword?. This indeed was the historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function of the IRA military campaign.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slowly collisions between the two rivals for governmental authority escalated. An editorial in the IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weekly paper, )] TJ ET BT 104.324 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An t'Oglach)] TJ ET BT 161.888 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, on 31 January 1919 declared that a state of war existed, but episodes of armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action were sporadic at first. The first major and co-ordinated IRA action was on 4 April 1920, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary of the 1916 rebellion, when incendiary raids destroyed income tax offices and 315 \(evacuated\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RIC barracks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The IRA conducted a guerrilla campaign that was highly localised but with important organisational and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligence direction from the Dublin centre. Because the IRA consciously organised itself as a hard-headed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army, Townshend is able to make excellent use of its numerous field reports. These frankly evaluated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions without bluster, both successes and failures. If anything, Townshend seems to find more delusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and puffery in British records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain tried to treat the crisis as merely an escalation of political criminality. The predominant mood of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin Castle, the centre of British administration, was one of bewildered frustration with the incorrigible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish. ?I almost begin to believe that these mean, dishonest, insufferably conceited Irishmen )] TJ ET BT 476.612 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 492.608 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an inferior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race and are only sufferable when they are whipped - like the Jews?, the normally unflappable official, Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sturgis, confided to his diary. By the summer of 1920, Britain had reinforced the RIC with levies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demobilised British soldiers: the notorious ?Black and Tans? and ?Auxiliaries?. Though rarely matching the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality of the German Freikorps there?s little doubt that they operated by intimidation. British officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported with satisfaction that after ?reprisals? against civilians, locals would once again tip their hats and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duck their heads as soldiers passed. Prime Minister Lloyd George positively welcomed extra-legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassinations of IRA volunteers by crown forces. King George V, to his credit, was much more disturbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by reprisals than were any of his ministers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Catholic Church never backed the IRA?s campaign: its doctrine of Just War could hardly allow it. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by characterising British rule as collapsed into lawlessness, the hierarchy were able to argue for a restoration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of legitimate government on the basis of consensus. Given the overwhelming mandate that SinnFinhad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won in 1918, consensus could only be on its terms. To hostile observers, this looked like typical Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic sophistry, but it was realistic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Led by Tom Barry, a ?flying column? of IRA men permanently on the run ambushed elite Auxiliary forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Kilmichael, County Cork, in November 1920, killing 17. Since Peter Hart?s brilliant if controversially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconoclastic study of 1999, a storm has raged over the credibility of Barry?s claim that he ordered no-quarter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only after auxiliaries had used the cover of a false surrender to shoot down members of the flying column. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Townshend sensibly declares the extant evidence to be indeterminate, whilst pointing out that IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to risk deliberately sparing enemies was more likely the exception than the rule. As Britain did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not recognise the codes of war as applying captured IRA volunteers were liable to be hanged even if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaped battle-field execution. Dan Breen, another IRA militant, recalled that there was not much incentive )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6581 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to leave enemy witnesses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the orchestrated shooting of suspected British agents in Dublin on Bloody Sunday of November 1920, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was certainly no question of taking prisoners. But any nationalist revulsion at IRA ruthlessness was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately effaced by the crown forces? reaction on the same day, firing into civilians at Croke Park sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground. The IRA also used exemplary executions to deter civilian informers. Research has failed to prove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many thus targeted were actually spies, though the IRA?s counter-intelligence capabilities seem to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been sufficiently robust to suggest that they were not always victimising outsiders entirely innocent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1921, there was in south west Ireland what the British defined as the Martial Law Zone and the IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called the War Zone. In March 1921, the IRA stormed and destroyed Rosscarberypolice barrack in Cork, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which cleared a 270-square mile district of the war zone of permanent crown garrison. De Valera, who spent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the conflict in America seeking support and funds, pressed the IRA command ? notably Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulcahy and Michael Collins ? to risk prioritising large-scale engagements over small-group operations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassinations. De Valera no doubt had a poor grasp of what was militarily practicable, but his political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instincts were sound. Clear-cut acts of war did most to undermine British pretensions that it was simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining law and order against ?murder gangs?. In May 1921, in a very substantial coordinated IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action, a key administrative centre for the Government, the Customs House in Dublin, was rushed and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records torched \(dozens of IRA volunteers, however, were captured\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain finally accepted that negotiations with Irish republicans were inescapable. Having spent years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shedding blood to defeat Prussian militarism and the frightful Hun, the brutishness of British rule in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an acute embarrassment. The IRA, unquestionably, had given substance to the republic?s claims of de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jure authority. Perhaps even more importantly, with the recent establishment of unionist-controlled Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, partition was now a fait accompli. Britain was saved from having either to coerce the north into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting Dublin rule, or fighting a war against the Irish majority to dismember their nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A truce was agreed in July 1921. The IRA flooded into public spaces, presenting itself as the legitimate army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the republic. There was not the wholesale retribution against loyalists one might have expected. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that IRA commandants felt the need to post guards at the homes of Protestants in some areas is evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough that the ?national minority? had real reason to feel fear. Some loyalists were indeed murdered, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great many more readied to emigrate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Negotiations for a settlement took place in London. The Irish knew they had to compromise, and the biggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstacle proved to be British intransigence over symbols. Britain insisted, with a self-righteousness now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to respect, that imperial prestige demanded formal Irish obeisance to the crown. Few episodes of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule in modern Ireland do it less credit than its manner of taking leave.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd George led the British negotiators, but de Valera remained in Ireland. Probably de Valera was keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his personal intervention in reserve, the better to reassure IRA fighters that his Dil government had gone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wire and taken every risk to get as close to the republic as possible. Taking advantage, and unabashedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wielding the threat of all-out war, Lloyd George pressed the Irish negotiating team to sign a treaty on 6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December, without referring back to Dublin. Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith, the dominant Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiators, agreed because they believed no significant improvements could be secured, and they saw no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason to hand de Valera credit for cutting a deal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish negotiators had conceded the republic in the hope that they could secure at least the prospect of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united Ireland. Lloyd George convinced them that he too was willing to secure an end to partition so long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland remained under the crown. He was convincing in this because he was in earnest, even if he declined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to coerce the Ulster Unionists. In effect, the Irish accepted a dominion-status Free State in return for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s benevolent interest in the end of partition, an interest which, as it happened, did not out-last the fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lloyd George?s coalition government in 1922.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The treaty presented an excruciating dilemma for republicans. The Free State?s leaders were required to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swear an oath of fealty to the British monarch. It was one thing to admit the limit to force of arms. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another thing to abandon history and principle by willingly deferring to a paternal British monarchy. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liam Lynch, it would mean that ?for the first time in our history the people would have, by their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate act, accepted foreign domination? \(p. 369\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the treaty, the IRA had occupied barracks as British forces evacuated and the RIC stood down. Now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had three options: they could hold the barracks as republican bulwarks against the will of the pro-treaty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electorate, convert themselves into the army of His Majesty?s Free State, or simply de-mobilise. De Valera, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who opposed the Treaty, agonised over this impossible choice ?between a heart-breaking surrender? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic, and repudiation of ?the keystone of democracy ? majority rule? \(p. 438\). It was enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitate a temporary nervous collapse in de Valera himself. Probably most IRA volunteers simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dropped out of service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Collins tried to rally republicans of all shades by organising a joint IRA offensive against Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, but the proposed campaign?s complete absence of strategic or political sense only exposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopelessness of trying to square the circle. It served only to escalate the ?crossness?, as it was sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tellingly called, of inter-communal conflict in Ulster. 1922 saw the peak of violence in Northern Ireland, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholics were pummelled into acquiescence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The anti-treaty IRA hoped that moral clarity could be restored if their provocations led to a renewed war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Britain, but London was not to be drawn. Instead the British government pressed for and equipped a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Free State offensive to clear the anti-treaty strongholds, starting with the Four Courts in Dublin. Almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly strong action by the ?irregular? republicans at the outset of the civil war of 1921?2 could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured a putsch, but they lacked the self-certainty to impose dictatorship. The irregulars fought a losing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly unpopular rear-guard action against a grimly determined Free State. Commanders on both sides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complained of the unwillingness of their men to fight to the knife and despite outbreaks of terrorism )] TJ ET BT 517.628 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pour)] TJ ET BT 540.296 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(encourager les)] TJ ET BT 105.668 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 108.668 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(autres )] TJ ET BT 141.668 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(causalities in Ireland?s civil war were, by international standards, slight)] TJ ET BT 492.020 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Tragic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it was, the civil war at least broke up Sinn Fin and ensured that one-party domination of nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, a constant since the 1870s, would not disfigure the independent state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain was smug, sure that it had manoeuvred the Irish into accepting de facto dominion status in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuity. But the Irish did not feel so bound ? they had signed up to the crown only under duress. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years following 1923 they progressively dismantled the treaty. The British were outraged, but unless they re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invaded there was little they could do. They discovered that they had lost the Irish war after all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the republican ideal remained elusive. In the civil war, Townshend argues, the Free Staters mobilised a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language of ?nation? to counter loyalties to the lost republic. Its precise meaning was vague, but it clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implied settled social conservatism. Significantly, the republican courts legal system that had dispensed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheap, efficient and relatively egalitarian popular justice during the war of independence was allowed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lapse. Though the new state avoided such British archaisms as a hereditary upper chamber and established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, it was nonetheless socially hierarchical, conformist, and oppressively religiose. The wheel had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turned and, for good or ill, it was not the idealistic republic but its shadow in the nation that had triumphed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tablet)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.google.co.uk/url)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 140.835 m 175.016 140.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.google.co.uk/url)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 112.323 m 175.016 112.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 108.991 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 91.211 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 91.211 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1516)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 89.817 m 328.316 89.817 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 64.840 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 50.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/80773)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 141.1495 175.0157 153.0295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&ved=0CHEQFjAH&url=http://217.8.242.153/issue/1000383/booksandart&ei=UlSgUrO1JeWK7AaBsICAAg&usg=AFQjCNF458-RDKyTrSa53D62ndDf7HFAhQ&sig2=kxm37xHuWJyuXXfpMinbdw&bvm=bv.57155469,d.ZGU) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 112.6375 175.0157 124.5175 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&ved=0CHwQFjAJ&url=http://www.independent.ie/opinion/analysis/johnpaul-mccarthy-collective-silence-on-key-issues-has-roots-in-birth-of-free-state-29618449.html&ei=UlSgUrO1JeWK7AaBsICAAg&usg=AFQjCNH1VRMDQcYXh_t1K8HJKJ4VH_Z6Jw&sig2=0zR09H7Op9R9pp7XiTxWZQ&bvm=bv.57155469,d.ZGU) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 90.1315 328.3157 102.0115 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1516) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 1090 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&ved=0CHEQFjAH&url=http%3A//217.8.242.153/issue/1000383/booksandart&ei=UlSgUrO1JeWK7AaBsICAAg&usg=AFQjCNF458-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.842 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RDKyTrSa53D62ndDf7HFAhQ&sig2=kxm37xHuWJyuXXfpMinbdw&bvm=bv.57155469%2Cd.ZGU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&ved=0CHwQFjAJ&url=http%3A//www.independent.ie/opinion/analysis/johnpaul-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mccarthy-collective-silence-on-key-issues-has-roots-in-birth-of-free-state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29618449.html&ei=UlSgUrO1JeWK7AaBsICAAg&usg=AFQjCNH1VRMDQcYXh_t1K8HJKJ4VH_Z6Jw&sig2=0zR09H7Op9R9pp7XiTxWZQ&bvm=bv.57155469%2Cd.ZGU)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004813 00000 n 0000004922 00000 n 0000005032 00000 n 0000005141 00000 n 0000008702 00000 n 0000008830 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000008979 00000 n 0000015678 00000 n 0000015743 00000 n 0000022951 00000 n 0000023016 00000 n 0000029650 00000 n 0000029748 00000 n 0000036782 00000 n 0000036909 00000 n 0000037214 00000 n 0000037341 00000 n 0000037741 00000 n 0000037868 00000 n 0000037964 00000 n 0000038029 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39172 %%EOF