%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141002072855+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141002072855+01'00') /Title (A Social History of Disability in the Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4660 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Social History of Disability in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until Irina Metzler published her first volume on medieval disability in 2006 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.992 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.992 257.673 m 419.984 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 419.984 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the lives of the physically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impaired in the Middle Ages had received relatively little scholarly attention. Happily, in the past seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years the body of literature on this topic has increased substantially, and now includes a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 214.905 m 110.336 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.336 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and several essay collections.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.636 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.636 214.905 m 268.628 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.628 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In addition, Metzler herself has now produced a second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, )] TJ ET BT 76.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Social History of Disability in the Middle Ages: Cultural Considerations of Physical Impairment)] TJ ET BT 551.024 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which she sets out to explore the social and cultural factors which affected the lives of medieval crippled, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaf, mute and blind people through a detailed examination of four key themes: ?Law?, ?Work?, ?Ageing? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?Charity?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one \(?Law?\) examines the interrelationship between disability and the law. Particular attention is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to the significance of the use of mutilation as a punishment. Such practices had great impact on those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were unfortunate enough to receive such penalties for their crimes: besides the obvious physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering, their injuries served as a permanent reminder of their criminal status, and thus limited the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their reintegration into society. But the use of such corporal punishments also had wider social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repercussions; by this means the disabled body came to be associated with the criminal body, and thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irina Metzler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415822596)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(346pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415822596/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katherine Harvey)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.9917 257.9875 419.9837 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3437 215.2195 110.3357 227.0995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.6357 215.2195 268.6277 227.0995 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7206 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that an individual?s physical characteristics were representative of his or her moral qualities was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced. In practical terms, this meant that those who were disabled for other reasons were sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to go to extraordinary lengths to prove that they were not criminals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two \(?Work?\), Metzler first examines the role of work as a cause of disability. Soldiers were most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously vulnerable to work-related injuries, and the dangers of riding meant that messengers were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiarly vulnerable to accidents. Construction workers were often paid more if they were required to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a height, due to the risk of falls, and medieval people also recognised that individuals who worked with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemicals or fire \(for example apothecaries and some artisans\) were vulnerable to injury. The consequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such injuries was often unemployment and poverty, and thus Metzler also investigates the forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support which were available to the disabled. Guilds \(both parish and craft based\) were significant in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect, although there were limits to their role: such associations were intended to support short-term or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminal illness, not prolonged retirement, and some refused to admit disabled members. Employers might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also take some responsibility for employees who were injured in their service, and more prosperous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals might purchase monastic corrodies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second portion of chapter two focuses on the work of the disabled. Metzler draws attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing nature of work in the later Middle Ages \(in particular the rise of payment by the hour, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of labour from home to the workplace\), and suggests that this may have impacted on the ability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the disabled to find work. The theory is plausible, but Metzler struggles to find evidence to support it. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the types of work performed by the physically impaired rests on firmer evidence, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a pair of case studies. The agricultural labour of the disabled appears to have focused on gleaning. In late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval England, at least, this was a job reserved for the poor, elderly, and impaired, and manorial bylaws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured that no-one capable of reaping was allowed to glean. The role of the disabled as fools, dwarfs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?wonders? is also examined. Evidence for disabled people carrying out other types of work seems limited, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the chapter ends with the intriguing story of two students of ?exceptionally small stature? who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incepted at Oxford University in the mid-15th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three \(?Ageing?\) considers the disabling effect of the physical and mental changes experienced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval elderly ? changes which were widely viewed in a negative light. Metzler argues that it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old age itself, but changing physical and mental capacities which conveyed special status on the elderly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the modern notion of retirement as a time for rest and relaxation had yet to be invented; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval people usually only stopped work when their health was in serious decline. However, far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people lived into old age than has often been assumed, and many of them needed some form of care and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support. Whilst the wealthy could rely on their property to provide them with income, and their servants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look after their basic needs, the elderly poor might find themselves in a rather more precarious position. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children sometimes took responsibility for their parents, but support might also come from guilds, charity or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former employers \(including pensions\). Unsurprisingly, there was often conflict over who was responsible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for supporting a particular individual, and certain social groups \(including former mercenaries and widows\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were especially vulnerable to neglect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unemployment and poverty were not the only problems faced by the elderly. Certain social groups were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged to work when they were no longer capable of doing so, with the expectation that clergymen would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain in office until death being particularly problematic in this respect. Very few priests were allowed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resign, and consequently some became something of an embarrassment to the church; many others were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to rely on coadjutors and curates. Medieval thinkers recognised that old age was a difficult time for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many, as a time of suffering, and that many people longed for the release of death. With this in mind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metzler also explores the problem of mental disability in the elderly, focusing on dementia and depression. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Particularly moving are the sad tales of despairing elderly men and women who committed suicide. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, however, a great variety of experience amongst the medieval elderly: some old people remained fit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthy and active, whilst others suffered greatly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of recognising this wide variation of experience is reiterated at the beginning of chapter four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Charity?\), when Metzler reminds the reader that whilst the physically impaired were often recipients of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7511 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity, not all disabled people were poor. The chapter opens with an outline of medieval understandings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and motivations for charity, before proceeding to a study of the physically impaired as recipients of charity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ecclesiastical definitions of those in need of charity usually included the sick, the crippled and the blind. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those who were seriously physically impaired were virtually encouraged to beg, and were almost always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in the category of legitimate beggars. They were thus largely protected from the late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clampdown on begging, which was chiefly motivated by a concern to prevent the greedy and idle from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feigning disability in order to receive alms. Such fraudulent beggars provoked both fear and hostility, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation was used to limit their activities. Yet even the genuinely disabled were not immune from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism, and some 15th-century authors argued that even the very disabled could and should find work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very wide-ranging study, encompassing a vast chronological span \(from the fifth to the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries\) and a significant geographical range \(taking in much of Western Europe\). Whilst this approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows Metzler to draw on a wide range of material, it is not without problems, not least that it inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceals many of the regional and chronological variation which must surely have existed. The distribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the source material used suggests that the author is far more familiar with some bodies of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly that relating to later medieval England\) than with others, and in some ways a study which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more tightly focused \(both in terms of period and area\) might have been more fruitful. The grouping together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all types of physical impairment is to an extent unavoidable, but again produces generalisations: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of disabled individuals must have varied substantially according to the exact nature of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her conclusion, Metzler draws attention to two areas which reviewers of her first book suggested should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have received more attention: the question of gender, and the distinction between disability and illness. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas are given some consideration in this book, but this reader at least would have liked to see a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed case for why she considers these themes to be relatively insignificant; a longer explanation \(perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the introduction, rather than at the end of the book\) would have been helpful. Some consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disability in relation to the lifecycle would also have been useful; Metzler tells us about disability in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to old age, but what were the experiences of disabled children? How did parents respond to the birth of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physically impaired child? Could disabled people expect to marry and produce families of their own, or did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their impairments limit their opportunities to do so? And if such opportunities were limited then \(given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrality of marriage and parenthood to medieval gender roles\) how did this affect the social standing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled individuals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also some structural and presentational issues with the book, which make it feel rather unwieldy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the length of the chapters, some sub-division would be useful, particularly for readers who wish to dip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the work rather than reading it from cover to cover. Similarly, since it is extremely densely referenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter three has over 500 notes\), the use of endnotes is a strange choice; footnotes would certainly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been preferable. This impression is reinforced by the fact that the endnotes contain a considerable amount of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material. Indeed, in places the amount of information included here seems excessive ? but if it was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included, it needed to be either incorporated into the main text or at least printed on the pages to which it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates. Such considerations should not deter the academic reader, but will certainly render the book less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to the undergraduate audience, and indeed the general reader. Given the novelty of its subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter, and the lack of alternative readings in this field, this is a great pity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, however, this volume \(like Metzler?s previous book- the two should ideally be read as a pair\) serves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an important addition to the existing literature on medieval disability, and as an important corrective to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional assumptions that the medieval world was full of disabled individuals who lived lives of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 80.336 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 80.336 134.067 m 94.328 134.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.328 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In her introduction, Metzler states her intention to ?tease out from the many disparate sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some inkling of the ?lived experience?; she has certainly achieved this, and consequently this is a work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which will be essential reading for anyone interested in the experiences of the physically impaired in pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe, and will also be of value to historians whose work focuses on one or more of its key themes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, it provides thought-provoking context to modern debates about disability, work and benefits; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are certainly some interesting parallels between medieval fears about the fraudulent beggars who )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 80.3357 134.3815 94.3277 146.2615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 3736 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feigned disability to receive alms, and modern attitudes to suspected benefit cheats. Contemporary fears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the exploitation of funds intended for the needy by the work-shy clearly have a very long history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irina Metzler, )] TJ ET BT 132.992 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability in Medieval Europe: Thinking about Physical Impairment in the High Middle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ages, c.1100?c.1400)] TJ ET BT 164.000 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.324 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.324 701.043 m 299.312 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Including Edward Wheatley, )] TJ ET BT 205.316 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stumbling Blocks Before the Blind: Medieval Constructions of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability )] TJ ET BT 114.356 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ann Arbor, MI, 2010\); Tory Pearman, )] TJ ET BT 305.984 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Disability in Medieval Literature )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2011\); Kristina Richardson, )] TJ ET BT 248.000 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Difference and Disability in the Medieval Islamic World )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.672 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.672 644.019 m 209.660 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability in the Middle Ages: Reconsiderations and Reverberations)] TJ ET BT 479.300 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Joshua )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eyler \(Farnham, 2010\); )] TJ ET BT 179.996 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Treatment of Disabled Persons in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 448.976 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Wendy Turner )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Tory Pearman \(Lampeter, 2011\); )] TJ ET BT 245.972 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability and Medieval Law)] TJ ET BT 385.640 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Cory Rushton \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 586.995 m 149.000 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metzler, )] TJ ET BT 107.336 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 252.992 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 11?20, provides an overview of the historiography to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.2005.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.344 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.344 558.483 m 153.332 558.483 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 543.151 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 525.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 525.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1517)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 523.977 m 328.316 523.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/74550)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.3237 701.3575 299.3117 713.2375 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.6717 644.3335 209.6597 656.2135 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 587.3095 148.9997 599.1895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.3437 558.7975 153.3317 570.6775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 524.2915 328.3157 536.1715 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1517) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000005367 00000 n 0000005476 00000 n 0000005586 00000 n 0000005695 00000 n 0000009256 00000 n 0000009384 00000 n 0000009468 00000 n 0000009497 00000 n 0000009625 00000 n 0000009661 00000 n 0000009690 00000 n 0000009817 00000 n 0000009853 00000 n 0000009882 00000 n 0000010010 00000 n 0000010046 00000 n 0000010111 00000 n 0000017370 00000 n 0000017454 00000 n 0000025018 00000 n 0000025048 00000 n 0000025174 00000 n 0000025210 00000 n 0000025322 00000 n 0000029111 00000 n 0000029239 00000 n 0000029294 00000 n 0000029422 00000 n 0000029477 00000 n 0000029604 00000 n 0000029659 00000 n 0000029786 00000 n 0000029841 00000 n 0000029969 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30065 %%EOF