%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818091732+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818091732+01'00') /Title (Connections after Colonialism: Europe and Latin America in the 1820s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4564 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Connections after Colonialism: Europe and Latin America in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1820s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Brown and Gabriel Paquette?s )] TJ ET BT 228.980 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Connections after Colonialism, )] TJ ET BT 382.328 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as stated in the excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, aims to test the limitations of, as well as open new possibilities within, the Atlantic History and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age of Revolutions paradigms through highlighting the continued yet readjusted relationships between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and Latin America in the 1820s. In doing so the editors are building on previous work that opens up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new debates and tests received ideas and chronologies relating to the history of the Atlantic world and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age of Revolutions and more specifically the place of Southern Europe and Latin America within those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigms.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.008 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.008 136.497 m 101.000 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.000 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Paquette has edited a collection that took a fresh look at the Enlightenment and improvement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by placing Latin America and Southern Europe at the centre of Atlantic History.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.612 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.612 122.241 m 433.604 122.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.604 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Brown brought experts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together to reassess the usefulness of the idea of informal empire in Latin America.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.268 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.268 107.985 m 447.260 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.260 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Neither volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed to be a definitive study; instead they aimed to open the discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The collection in question combines a number of erudite, thought-provoking and original studies that begin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reassess and reinvigorate the study of Atlantic History and the Age of Revolutions. Brown and Paquette )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1518)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 5 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gabriel Paquette)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780817317768)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Alabama Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.uapress.ua.edu/product/Connections-after-Colonialism,5542.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuscaloosa, AL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosie Doyle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.0077 136.8115 100.9997 148.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.6117 122.5555 433.6037 134.4355 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.2677 108.2995 447.2597 120.1795 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7406 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their collaborators achieve this through a detailed analysis of the political changes in Europe and Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America in the understudied yet pivotal decade of the 1820s. The chapters in the collection range from broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly overviews to meticulously researched case studies all making original use of archival material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of which is used here for the first time. In highlighting continuities rather than focusing on rupture the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies clearly illustrate the nature of lasting connections between Iberia and the Americas in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial collapse. They contest the idea that the direction of the international exchange of ideas and political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and cultural practices was north to south or European centre to Latin American periphery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the revolutions of Latin American independence in the concept of the Age of Revolutions. Rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than seeing the 1820s as a moment in which nations of Europe and Latin America took divergent paths, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies collected in this volume shine a light on continued but changed relationships between Europe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin America and the mutual influence in terms of political ideas, constitutionalism, trade and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Hamnett?s overview of the changes in the period highlights the emergence of independent Ibero-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American states as a significant innovation in international politics. Focusing on the distribution of power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the states, the fiscal relationship between their component parts, and the distribution of wealth within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their territories Hamnett underlines the deep roots of the changes in internal politics and international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realignments that took place in the 1820s in what he calls the ?successor states?. He traces the roots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent innovations such as the development of Mexican federalism, the formal incorporation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor states? trade into the international economy, and the shift from textile manufacture to export )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture in Argentina, back to the late colonial period. He identifies the 1820s as being a period that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incubated crucial debates over free-trade versus protectionism, federalism and centralism and processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change that would run throughout the 19th century and, in some cases, into the 20th century. Hamnett places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Iberian revolutions of independence in their contemporary context of the weakening of the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire in the Balkans and the Mediterranean and compares the fall of the Iberian empires with later periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial collapse. He argues that the Latin American revolutions of independence were not simply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of the earlier revolutions in North America and France but had their own distinct contributions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of processes and ideas. They should be considered integral to the phenomenon of the Age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Case studies in the collection serve to illustrate Hamnett?s view of the formative nature of the 1820s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scarlett O?Phelan Godoy?s account of the life of the Chilean Bernardo O?Higgins identifies continuities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the colonial period as new dreams were confronted with limits and disillusionment. The influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European thought on O?Higgins? policies did not lead to any major social or political change in Chile under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, although Godoy argues that the process of reform credited to later leaders such as Diego Portales was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiated in the 1820s, which she suggests were important formative years in the development of Chilean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. Similarly, Ruben Zahler, through his discussion of attitudes to foreigners in Venezuela, suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the arrival of new actors on the political stage in the 1820s laid the foundations for more effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political change in the form of religious toleration in the 1830s. Jay Sexton?s contribution, the only one to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(look specifically at the relationship between the North American Union and Latin America in the 1820s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the roots of two opposing forms of US imperialism. The debates over James Monroe?s 1823 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address and the Panama Congress show how US foreign policy choices in this period were dictated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic concerns over an unstable union and the threat of secessionism. While US statesmen recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the need to keep economic and cultural ties with the Old World they were concerned that Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states should not do the same with their former colonial masters after independence. They agreed that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union would be best preserved by the US establishing a dominant position on the American continent. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools of thought that stressed US hemispheric dominance developed in the 1820s, Sexton argues. ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American system? saw involvement in the Panama Congress and internationalism as a way of defending the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union against British neo-colonialism; it saw internationalism as the best way of protecting national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. The alternative approach sought to secure the union and US dominance in the region through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of narrowly defined interests, especially expansionism. The latter would be the most influential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rest of the century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The influence of political practices and constitutional ideas is an important theme. Will Fowler considers the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7776 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared context of constitutional disarray, weak government and uncertain legitimacy in Spain and Mexico )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the analysis of a new political practice, the )] TJ ET BT 281.972 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pronunciamiento)] TJ ET BT 363.968 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He explores the influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pronuniciamiento)] TJ ET BT 119.348 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Rafael Riego of 1820 that restored the Cdiz constitution and with it representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government on the process of the consummation of independence in Mexico between 1820 and 1821. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riego?s )] TJ ET BT 75.680 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pronunciamiento)] TJ ET BT 157.676 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the first Mexican )] TJ ET BT 265.988 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pronunciamiento)] TJ ET BT 347.984 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the Plan de Iguala, which ushered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from Spain\) established a successful formula for bringing about political change with no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloodshed. It was a process by which after a series of extra-constitutional uprisings and representations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal army officers or groups of citizens were able to establish themselves as representatives of the ?will of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the people?, and eventually, ideally establish a liberal constitutional agenda. Fowler describes parallel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes in Spain and Mexico by which this form of ?controlled revolution? became one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular political practices in both Spain and Mexico, with the outcome that for the next 50 years the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of stable, legitimate governments that were not forcefully challenged would prove elusive in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries. Fowler?s is not the only contribution to note the importance of the example of successful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?controlled? revolutions in the exchange between European and American liberals. Maurizio Isabella?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of Italian exiles and Spanish American liberals emphasises the need to recognise the significant impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of revolutions of Spanish independence on non-radical democratic, federalist European liberalism. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions influenced the Italian Risorgimento because they demonstrated that regime change and the defeat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reaction and political transformation was possible without the extreme violence of the French revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dynamic Fowler describes is one of Spanish liberal influence on Mexico followed by parallel processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on either side of the Atlantic. Isabella on the other hand underlines the mutual nature of the exchange.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Fowler?s study looks at the liberals? need to create a new form of extra-constitutional politicking in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to adapt to the context of restored absolutism, Josep M. Fradera?s contribution looks at how liberals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapted their ideas to the new reality of the significant reduction in colonial territories. Fowler?s chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks at how Spanish liberal ideas and practices were influential in the New World, whereas Fradera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers liberals? reactions to the need to adapt to processes in the Americas that were beyond their control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His analysis of the way in which the ideas and policies of the Spanish liberals changed towards Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America between the Triennio Liberal and the restoration of liberalism under the regency in 1837 as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapted to a new period of colonialism for the reduced colonies in Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on the changes in the economic project, trade reform and the issue of slavery and the slave trade. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the necessary adjustments made to liberal policy to ensure the retention of the remaining colonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to be accepted as a European liberal power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isabella demonstrates how, after the failure of the Italian revolutions of 1820 and 1821, the Italian liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaspora, through exchange with Spanish American and other European liberals became part of a trans-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic and pan-European network of liberals and democrats or a ?transnational civil society?. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disseminated ideas of a new international order of self-determination and popular sovereignty and saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight for independence in the Americas as being the fight of civilization and freedom against the corrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ancien Regime. They helped to negotiate and create a new liberal culture. He emphasises the mutual nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the exchange and analyses the effect of this exchange on both Spanish American and Italian patriotism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and demonstrates the importance of European liberal ideas for the legitimization of the new governments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guatemala and Mexico as well as the significance of Spanish America in European eyes as laboratories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism. Isabella also looks the influence of the exchange between Italian and Mexican liberals on notions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of patriotism in both regions. The readers? attention is drawn throughout to exchanges between Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American and Italian liberals with their counterparts in Spain, Paris and London and the chapter effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the case for the development of a transatlantic history that takes a broader perspective than the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American or Hispanic-American focus to look at networks of exchange throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean, northern Europe and the Americas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gabriel Paquette looks not at extra-constitutional activities or the inspiration that European exiles gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Latin American experience but rather the direct influence of Brazilian constitutionalism on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese politics. Through his analysis of the Brazilian origins of the Portuguese constitution of 1826, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paquette makes the case for mutual influence in the exchange of ideas between Europe and Latin America )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7589 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more assertively than Isabella. His discussion of constitutions differs from the growing body of work about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influence of Spanish, US, French and British constitutionalism in Latin America in that it questions the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea that the general direction of the transmission of constitutional thought was from European centre to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin American periphery.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.648 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.648 752.307 m 175.640 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.640 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He demonstrates that the Latin American influence went beyond inspiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups of disgruntled liberals and there was a far more symbiotic relationship between the Iberia and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas. Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, heir to the Portuguese throne, and author of the 1826 Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution that was an adaptation of the 1824 Brazilian constitution, was seen in Brazil as an enemy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional government, the author of an anti-popular constitution and a possible figurehead of restored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutism. Paradoxically, the constitution was received in Europe as a rallying cry for Portuguese liberals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their supporters overseas and seen as a threat to royal legitimacy. This study shows that Latin American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics had a sometimes destabilising influence in Europe and he underscores the need, not only for Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americanists to study European History to fully understand the period but also for historians of Europe to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study Latin America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Matt Brown?s concluding chapter the political careers of some of Bolvar?s closest allies who, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Liberator?, survived well past the 1820s, are analysed. Bolvar was not unique among political leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his generation in being a member of the lite and follower of enlightenment ideas who, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence movements, backed radical revolutionary ideologies that apparently threatened the privileges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their class. These followers of Bolvar all eventually adopted more conservative political ideas and were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to develop close political and economic relationships with Britain or the US.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along with political ideas, cultural and commercial influences are also discussed. Iona Macintyre looks at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influence of European culture on South America in the form of print culture, specifically the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catechisms for the education of girls and women. She describes a context in which the circulation of ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the education of women, seen as central to the development of modern societies, involved exchange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout Europe with some reaching South America at the hands of the Spanish liberal Jos Joaqun de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mora. The texts expounded Eurocentric ideas. The authors of these texts and the educators who used them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly saw the education of women in Latin America as a way of bringing European civilization to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American periphery. David Rock explores the relationship between the British merchant community in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(River Plate and the reformist government of 1820?9 that was dominated by the liberal, Bernardino )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rivadavia. He emphasizes the mutual influence or even mutual dependence of the British merchants and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime. From the early 1820s the British sought to strengthen their influence in Buenos Aires but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incipient nature of the Argentine state meant the government had too little power outside Buenos Aires to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee concessions to new settlers. The decline of the regime towards the end of the decade coincided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the decline in Argentine tolerance of the British and a rise in Anglophobia. British enthusiasm for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things South American also turned to disillusionment. Formal diplomatic relations between Britain and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(River Plate did not survive the 1820s. The study effectively demonstrates, along with those of Hamnett, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isabella, Fradera and Macintyre that the period witnessed the expansion of transatlantic networks of trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print communication and utopianism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are reminded of colonial continuity with studies of the only territories in the region to resist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Carrie Gibson analyses the way in which the fear of Haiti ensured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities in the relationship between Spain and the colonies in Cuba and Puerto Rico. She demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the perpetuation of the myth of revolutionary Haiti served to ensure the continuity of the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Spain, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Although the Haitian government was struggling to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with internal crisis and division the fear of the Haitian threat combined with the economic opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided by reduced agricultural production in Haiti, ensured the continuity of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain and its remaining American colonies. It also ensured the continuity of slavery and the slave trade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Schmidt-Nowara?s analysis of the intellectual arguments that Cuban planters and their critics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to discuss slavery shows how, despite the supposed end of slave trafficking in a treaty with the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1820, the decade until 1830 saw a dramatic increase in the slave trade and a flourishing plantation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy. He highlights the contradictory processes of the 1820s when, just as some areas of Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America were freed from colonial domination and the slave trade was abolished internationally, others )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.6477 752.6215 175.6397 764.5015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7711 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed increased imperial control and with it the largest rise in plantation slavery in the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic system with Cuba becoming the largest slave society in Spanish America. Through his discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which the ideas and writings of Bartolom de las Casas were used by both the defenders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents of slavery in Cuba, Schmidt-Nowara demonstrates that the Cuban experience should not only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted as one of continuity due to the perpetuation of slavery, but also one of change due to shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes and the rise in opposition to slavery in the 19th century. Opposition came in the form of slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellions, increased pressure from Britain but most significantly for the argument here, from the Spaniards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Spanish Americans who used Casas to argue for the restoration of Spain?s historic distance from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schmidt-Nowara aptly refers to the 1820s as an ?axial age? and this speaks to the central theme of the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1820s saw the disintegration but not the total collapse of the Iberian empires, the formation of sovereign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states throughout Latin America and a change in the imperial balance of power from Southern to Northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. The roots of congress politics as well as many of the political issues that would define the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the new polities and societies of Latin America and Europe can be found in the 1820s. All of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contributions emphasise continuity and change rather than rupture and emphasise mutual influence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between Europe and Latin America. The cumulative effect is a nuanced analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution and the restructuring of the networks and relationships between the Old and the New Worlds in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1820s through a particular focus on transatlantic liberalism, Anglo-American involvement in Latin America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational connections between people and ideas and the transformations of slavery and the slave trade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of international events and transnational actors in the collapse of the Iberian Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empires is clearly illustrated as are the influence of those networks on the realignment of the powers and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic, social, political and intellectual changes that emerged in the pivotal decade of the 1820s. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear from these rich, new studies that ties between Europe and the Americas were not severed but rather the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the relationship was renegotiated. )] TJ ET BT 244.304 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Connections after Colonialism )] TJ ET BT 394.652 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutes a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to a growing body of historical research that emphasises the persistence of links between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe and Latin America in the wake of Latin American independence. It should inspire researchers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move beyond the boundaries of a nation-based or area studies-based analysis of the processes of change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early nineteenth-century and to reassess the 1820s as a key decade in the cultural, political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual evolution of Europe and Latin America in the Age of Revolutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An earlier collaboration on the theme is; Matthew Brown and Gabriel Paquette, ?Europe and Latin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America in the 1820s?,)] TJ ET BT 175.328 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European History Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 314.984 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 317.984 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Special Issue, 41, 3 \(2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.964 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.964 304.131 m 505.952 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gabriel Paquette, )] TJ ET BT 150.332 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enlightened Reform in Southern Europe and its Atlantic Colonies, c. 1750?1830)] TJ ET BT 536.996 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empires and the Making of the Modern World Series)] TJ ET BT 318.656 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Farnham and Burlington, VT, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.640 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.640 275.619 m 556.628 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Brown, )] TJ ET BT 148.340 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Informal Empire in Latin America: Culture, Commerce and Capital )] TJ ET BT 477.668 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 247.107 m 118.004 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Jaime E. Rodrguez O., )] TJ ET BT 265.976 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Independence of Spanish America)] TJ ET BT 450.608 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1998\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francisco A. Eissa Barroso, )] TJ ET BT 200.660 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolucin, independencia y la nuevas naciones de Amrica)] TJ ET BT 491.264 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Madrid, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\) or Francisco A. Eissa Barroso, ?Mirando hacia Filadelfia desde Anhuac: La Constitucin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estadounidense en el Congreso Constituyente mexicano de 1823-24?, )] TJ ET BT 400.304 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poltica y Gobierno)] TJ ET BT 495.632 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17, 1 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2010\), 97?125.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 175.827 m 194.324 175.827 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 160.495 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 142.715 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 142.715 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1518)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 141.321 m 328.316 141.321 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 116.344 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63454)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.9637 304.4455 505.9517 316.3255 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.6397 275.9335 556.6277 287.8135 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 247.4215 118.0037 259.3015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3357 176.1415 194.3237 188.0215 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 141.6355 328.3157 153.5155 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1518) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000578 00000 n 0000000681 00000 n 0000005297 00000 n 0000005406 00000 n 0000005516 00000 n 0000005625 00000 n 0000009186 00000 n 0000009314 00000 n 0000009398 00000 n 0000009427 00000 n 0000009554 00000 n 0000009590 00000 n 0000009619 00000 n 0000009747 00000 n 0000009783 00000 n 0000009812 00000 n 0000009940 00000 n 0000009976 00000 n 0000010041 00000 n 0000017500 00000 n 0000017565 00000 n 0000025394 00000 n 0000025478 00000 n 0000033120 00000 n 0000033150 00000 n 0000033278 00000 n 0000033314 00000 n 0000033426 00000 n 0000041190 00000 n 0000041318 00000 n 0000041373 00000 n 0000041501 00000 n 0000041537 00000 n 0000041664 00000 n 0000041719 00000 n 0000041847 00000 n 0000041902 00000 n 0000042030 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42126 %%EOF