%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722160651+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722160651+01'00') /Title (The Levellers: Radical Political Thought in the English Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4386 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Levellers: Radical Political Thought in the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may be hard to believe but there has been no single-author, book length study of the Levellers since H. N. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brailsford?s )] TJ ET BT 95.672 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Levellers and the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 293.996 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published in 1961. Rachel Foxley has ended this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interregnum in fine style, but before looking at her new work it is worth examining why its publication is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a rare occurrence. Firstly, the absence of a monograph about the Levellers is not the same as there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being no published work at all. The recent collection of essays on the Agreement of the People edited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Baker and Elliott Vernon was a substantial contribution to the history of the Levellers. Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mendel edited a similar collection about the Putney Debates in 2001. And there have been some collections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Leveller writings brought together by Geoffrey Robertson in 2007 and by Andrew Sharp in 1998.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.276 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.276 157.881 m 529.268 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond this there has been a mass of essays and articles in academic journals which have debated the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Levellers in the revolution. But taken all together this is still a relatively small amount of material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared to the rate at which books came from the presses between, say, the two collections of Leveller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracts published by Wolfe and by Haller and Davies in 1944 and Christopher Hill?s )] TJ ET BT 436.628 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Upside Down )] TJ ET BT 102.680 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1971. The dearth is all the more marked when the acceleration of the academic production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line in recent years is taken into account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1519)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Foxley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719089367)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719089367)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Rees)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.2757 158.1955 529.2677 170.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8077 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Foxley provides an explanation for this phenomenon in her introductory chapter on ?The Levellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the historians?. As she says, ?The revisionist historians who have rewritten the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century have questioned almost every aspect of the historical reputation of the Levellers? \(p. 3\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foxley argues that although the revisionist challenge produced some fruitful avenues of research its overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect was to push the study of the Levellers to the margins of what ?at its most extreme? this current saw as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unrevolutionary England? \(p. 3\). Baker and Vernon note a similar trajectory in studies of the Levellers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that the Levellers are less distinctive and original as a political force than they were thought to be by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an earlier generation of liberal and Marxist historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.628 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.628 683.283 m 306.620 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.620 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While this view is not a consensus, it is relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely held. To mention only some more recent examples, Jonathan Scott argues that ?any notion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Leveller party? is misleading? and that the ?movement never established a large-scale organisation of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own?, and Diane Purkiss says ?The term ?Leveller movement? used by historians is misleading ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levellers were not a party or a group ... certainly they did not have any kind of simple programme?. Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braddick is similarly sceptical of the Levellers' ?practical significance to the events of the 1640s?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.088 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.088 612.003 m 519.080 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 519.080 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt this view in part explains the absence of a book-length study. It is, after all, hard to write a book about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that is supposed barely to exist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.680 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.680 583.491 m 251.672 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all that Foxley pays tribute to revisionist scholars for their ability to challenge previously existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the Levellers she is herself an advocate of a post-revisionist approach. She argues that ?Even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most ardent defender of the cosy and consensual political world in early Stuart England must concede that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I was publicly tried and executed in 1649 ? not killed in a corner? \(p. 4\). She insists that ?revisionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatments of the later 1640s cannot wipe out the contribution of the Levellers to the radicalisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarian political thought? \(p. 4\). And again, while Foxley is appreciative of some recent scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has located the Levellers in the broader spectrum of radicalism in the gathered churches, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary opposition and the army, she makes the point that this should not lead us to ?dissolve them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into an undifferentiated part of that complex political world? \(p. 6\). This is an essential methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. The approach which Foxley criticizes runs the risk of producing the effect that the philosopher Hegel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes as ?a night in which all cows are black?, meaning that it is impossible to differentiate the object of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study from its background. Foxley?s book is a tour-de-force in that while it properly and carefully delineates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the Levellers owed to their background it is also demonstrates the ways in which they combined their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences in unique patterns and it outlines their specific, original contribution to the political ideas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1640s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foxley is predominantly concerned with Leveller political theory, perhaps the most difficult area in which to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the case for their coherence and novelty as a movement since they were at heart a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation responding to fast-emerging challenges. And it was in response to these that they developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their arguments. But Foxley makes a convincing case in a series of chapters devoted to popular consent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins of government, the Levellers'appeal to the people as the ultimate source of political authority, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilburne?s notion of the ?free-born Englishman?, the relationship between consent in the religious sphere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in political life and, in a final chapter, the Levellers and the classical Republican tradition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not possible to summarise all of Foxley?s arguments here, but two cases give a flavour of the approach. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, in two chapters on popular consent and the origins of government and on the Levellers? appeal to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people Foxley rejects the argument that the Levellers only inherited and extended arguments current among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the radical supporters of parliament at the start of the civil war. Instead she gives us a more complex picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the way in which the Levellers combined some of these views, associated with Henry Parker, with more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative parliamentary theorists keen to place limits on the authority of parliament. Thus she argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[t]he Levellers were creating a troubled but powerfully original synthesis of two aspects of parliamentarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought which had hitherto often been mutually exclusive? \(p. 45\). This leads her to reject the ?grander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims? made for Leveller ideas as the forerunner of social contract theory arising from the notion that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil war had returned the nation to a state of nature. In this she is surely correct. The Levellers did have an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology, but it was fashioned on the move and in the midst of a political crisis, not in the seminar room. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This makes it vital to place the emergence of the Levellers within the dynamic of the revolution. And while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foxley?s book is not a narrative of the Leveller movement she is careful to signpost the critical moments of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.6277 683.5975 306.6197 695.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.0877 612.3175 519.0797 624.1975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.6797 583.8055 251.6717 595.6855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7542 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition. So of the July 1646 )] TJ ET BT 181.688 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrance of Many Thousand Citizens)] TJ ET BT 385.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( she says this ?was the first Leveller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text to make a claim to a mass following, a significant moment in the genesis of the group?. It emerged from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role that the Levellers were playing in ?the increasing radicalisation of opinion on the fringes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independency, both against the Scots and the king? \(p. 36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second example of this approach comes in the chapter on religion. Foxley argues that Leveller ideas about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political consent cannot be divorced from, but cannot be reduced to, the influence of religious forms, either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in covenants or in gathered churches. As she says, ?There is simply no need to go hunting in covenant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology or congregational practice for Leveller political ideas of equality or ?democracy?, or for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prototype of the Agreement of the People?. Her case is that the ?contractarian and voluntarist elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentarian thought? combined with, and this is crucial in my view, ?the extension of natural rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking into justification for political action in extreme circumstances ? render hypothetical religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources for such ideas in the Levellers? writings redundant? \(p. 121\). This general stance does not, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent Foxley from examining the more general relations between politics and religion in Leveller thought. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her overall position is a useful corrective to the balance of recent scholarship. But at the same time it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that, for instance, the soldiers that Richard Baxter found arguing ?sometimes for state-democracy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes for church-democracy? were not drawing connections between the two. Even more radical forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of church democracy were being practiced in New England, and the connections to the Independents through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returning New Englanders like Hugh Peter and regicide Owen Rowe?s family, and to the Levellers through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Eyre and the Rainsborough-Winthrop family are worth further investigation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best chapter, in a book that has no bad chapters, is on the ?Levellers and the army?, because it is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Foxley?s approach of placing the Levellers in their context without obscuring their specific contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the revolution most fully combines ideological analysis with an examination of the effects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levellers' political activity. Foxley notes that the Independents, other army activists and the Levellers all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed on a political spectrum in which it is difficult to cleanly separate one set of ideas or personnel from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. Nevertheless she also insists that revisionist scepticism about the existence of the Levellers as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement is unjustified in the light of ?the petitioning campaign of the spring 1647, the pre-existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation between the core of Leveller leaders, and the growing consistency of concerns and demands in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sequence of joint and individual works associated with the Leveller leaders? \(p. 153\). She is careful to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trace Leveller influence on the Grandees of the army and the contacts between the ?civilian? Levellers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the army radicals. She concludes that ?the revisionist story about Putney and its aftermath cannot easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account for these continuing connections? \(p. 159\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my opinion the revisionist insistence that the Levellers were exterior to the army is overstated. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Levellers were )] TJ ET BT 107.984 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of)] TJ ET BT 117.320 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Army themselves. Lilburne had an exemplary and widely publicised military record. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Lilburne was not alone in this. Leveller William Allen served in Holles? regiment. Leveller printer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Larner served as a sutler in Lord Robartes? regiment. Thomas Prince fought in the London Trained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bands until he was injured at Newbury in 1643. John Harris ran an Army printing press. Leveller ally Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marten had close engagement in military affairs in London and eventually raised his own regiment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkshire. Thomas Rainsborough and his brother William were Leveller sympathisers. Edward Sexby was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central figure in the actions of the Agitators. Army chaplains Jeremiah Ives and Edward Harrison supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Levellers. This list is indicative but far from exhaustive. It does not include most of the figures directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in the mutinies at Ware in 1647, and at Bishopsgate and Burford, in 1649. These connections add )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight to Foxley?s observation that the Putney debates ?marked not the end but the beginning of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially fertile alliance between civilian Levellers and army radicals? and that this ?reverses the picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted by the standard revisionist historiography? \(p. 158\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Foxley?s book should be widely discussed in the academic circles which are its main audience. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its arguments also deserve wider circulation. Foxley notes that the Levellers retain a place in the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination sustained by events like the annual Levellers' Day event in Burford and Caryl Churchill?s play )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Light Shining)] TJ ET BT 99.032 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Buckinghamshire \(pp. 2-3\). And whatever might be said about the romanticism that attends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such popular cultural transmissions they have in some respects pictured the Levellers more accurately than )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 4223 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more extreme revisionist historians. Foxley?s book has the capacity to reset the debate about Leveller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought and restore it to a critical role in the history of the English revolution. It is an understatement to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this book is long overdue. It deserves to be the benchmark post-revisionist study of Leveller political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Agreements of the People, The Levellers and the Constitutional Crisis of the English Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. P Baker and E Vernon \(Basingstoke, 2012\); )] TJ ET BT 295.316 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Putney Debates of 1647)] TJ ET BT 431.300 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M Mendel )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2001\); )] TJ ET BT 161.672 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Levellers, The Putney Debates)] TJ ET BT 329.312 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G Robertson \(London, 2007\); )] TJ ET BT 498.296 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Levellers)] TJ ET BT 108.008 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A Sharp \(Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.316 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.316 644.019 m 322.304 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Agreements of the People,)] TJ ET BT 210.992 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pp. 17?20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.320 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.320 629.763 m 318.308 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J Scott, )] TJ ET BT 102.356 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England?s Troubles, Seventeenth-Century English Political Instability in European Context)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\), pp. 270?1; D Purkiss, )] TJ ET BT 268.004 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Civil War, A People?s History)] TJ ET BT 475.004 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 476; M. Braddick, )] TJ ET BT 167.012 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(God?s Fury, England?s Fire A New History of the English Civil War)] TJ ET BT 499.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\), p. 444.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 572.739 m 185.000 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed in some circles even the wider notion of radicalism in the 17th century has been called into )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. For an overview of this debate see )] TJ ET BT 278.312 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Varieties of Seventeenth- and Early Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Radicalism in Context)] TJ ET BT 210.356 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Ariel Hessayon and David Finnegan \(Farnham,2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.972 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.972 529.971 m 548.960 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 488.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 470.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 470.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1519)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 469.209 m 328.316 469.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/74414)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.3157 644.3335 322.3037 656.2135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.3197 630.0775 318.3077 641.9575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 573.0535 184.9997 584.9335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.9717 530.2855 548.9597 542.1655 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 469.5235 328.3157 481.4035 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1519) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005096 00000 n 0000005205 00000 n 0000005315 00000 n 0000005424 00000 n 0000008985 00000 n 0000009113 00000 n 0000009197 00000 n 0000009226 00000 n 0000009354 00000 n 0000009390 00000 n 0000009488 00000 n 0000017618 00000 n 0000017648 00000 n 0000017776 00000 n 0000017812 00000 n 0000017842 00000 n 0000017970 00000 n 0000018006 00000 n 0000018036 00000 n 0000018164 00000 n 0000018200 00000 n 0000018265 00000 n 0000025860 00000 n 0000025972 00000 n 0000030248 00000 n 0000030376 00000 n 0000030431 00000 n 0000030559 00000 n 0000030614 00000 n 0000030742 00000 n 0000030797 00000 n 0000030925 00000 n 0000030980 00000 n 0000031108 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31204 %%EOF