%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150524080844+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150524080844+01'00') /Title (Cannabis Nation: Control and Consumption in Britain, 1928-2008) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4203 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cannabis Nation: Control and Consumption in Britain, 1928-2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Psychoactive drug restrictions and prohibitions have typically followed a reactionary pattern. From tobacco )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to LSD, the introduction of novel drugs has prompted therapeutic experimentation. Officials showed little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern until these substances also became popular recreational intoxicants. It was one thing for early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern physicians to apply tobacco as a wound salve, quite another for courtiers and sailors to smoke it in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taverns and bordellos. Reaction took the form of denunciations, bans, and punishments. Eventually, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bans gave way to taxed, regulated commerce, as also happened with tobacco. But then a new drug would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come along and the process would begin again. Psychoactive drugs were the barnacles of modern history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuously fouling the hulls of nation-states. Drug control was born of the impulse to scrape them off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cannabis Nation)] TJ ET BT 115.700 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, James Mills?s absorbing history of cannabis in Britain, reverses this familiar story. Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established cannabis control )] TJ ET BT 172.328 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(before)] TJ ET BT 202.988 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( significant domestic consumption. At the Second Geneva Opium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conference, convened in 1924?5 to tighten restrictions on narcotics and cocaine, the Egyptian delegation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted on bringing cannabis under international control. British representatives opposed the move ? taxed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannabis sales were still an important revenue source in India ? but, in the end, they reluctantly went along. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a signatory to the treaty, the government was obliged to control domestic consumption, which was how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Mills)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199283422)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199283422.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Courtwright)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7073 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Home Office Drugs Branch came to concern itself with nonmedical cannabis use.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem, such as it was, mostly involved Lascar seamen smoking cannabis while passing through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British ports. As a public health concern, it registered between minuscule and non-existent. The same might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be said of illicit drugs generally: Britain was little troubled by nonmedical narcotic or cocaine use during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s and 1930s. The inter-war drug landscape, dominated by alcohol and tobacco, remained as reliably duo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chromatic as men?s evening dress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The near-absence of cannabis traffickers and smokers did not prevent )] TJ ET BT 370.580 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ideas)] TJ ET BT 395.912 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( about cannabis from taking root. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newspapers occasionally ran sensational stories. Medical journals regarded the drug as a therapeutic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism, unnecessary in an age of synthetic analgesics and hypnotics. The same journals featured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Russell Pasha \(Sir Thomas Wentworth Russell, 1879?1954\), head of Egypt?s Central Narcotics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Intelligence Bureau and an authority on drug trafficking. Russell?s reports depicted cannabis preparations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?as nothing more than dangerous intoxicants traded by criminals who were willing to defy the authority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the last policemen of the Empire? \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills, who has an eye for inconsistency, shows that the left hand of Empire chose not to know what the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand was doing. While Egypt escalated its drug war, British authorities in India continued to permit taxed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannabis sales, including exports to South Asian workers who had migrated to the West Indies and Burma. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That the Government of India, rather than cannabis traffickers, should enjoy the revenue seemed the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prudent course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Raj?s accommodation to a drug with deep roots in Indian culture had few implications for Britain itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the first half of the century. In 1948, however, the British Nationality Act enabled colonial residents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to migrate to the UK without a visa. During the next 15 years half a million immigrants took advantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opportunity. They included ganja and hashish smokers whose presence made the British cannabis market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger and less transient. As early as 1951 the head of the Drugs Branch, F. W. Thornton, warned that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?invasion? of unemployed coloured men? threatened Britain with a ?serious hashish smoking problem? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76\). Though Thornton?s views were frankly nationalist and racist, it should be said that some anti-colonialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, such as Hans Derks, have framed the same phenomenon as a species of ironic justice. European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialists foisted drugs on their overseas subjects, until ?the snake bit its own tail? when nonmedical drug )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use came to the home countries via immigration.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.992 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.992 362.163 m 281.984 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If that is what happened in post-war Britain, it took roughly a decade for the effects to be widely felt. Mills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is careful with chronology. He shows that, aside from a few sensational cases, police files offer little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that cannabis smoking spread from immigrants to young white Britons until the late 1950s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1960s. Though drug control experts at the United Nations and the World Health Organization were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urging a hard line on cannabis, British control remained relatively independent and relaxed. Even during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s, when cannabis unmistakably emerged as a white countercultural drug, police surveys suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its use remained ?patchy? among British youth. ?Where it was consumed?, Mills writes, ?new users were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely to have tried the drug through association with migrant groups than with radical politics, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were as commonly workers or labourers as they were students or the offspring of the well-to-do? \(p. 125\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1965 Parliament enacted a new Dangerous Drugs Act. The law included prohibitions against cultivating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannabis or allowing it to be consumed on one?s premises ? the provision that led to Keith Richards?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated 1967 drug bust. But the cannabis story had two sides, and the press also began reporting stories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drugs Squad corruption and evidence-planting, mostly in London. Elsewhere police abuses were rare, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were cannabis arrests generally. Of the 72,000 persons prosecuted in Lancashire in 1967, the chief constable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Preston reported, just 80 faced drugs charges. ?Soft drug taking?, he wrote, ?is an adolescent aberration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which most of them will grow out of ?? \(p. 139\). Heavy press and television coverage encouraged imitation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worsening a situation that was, in his view, primarily a medical problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This sort of pragmatism informed the research of the LSD and Cannabis Sub-Committee of the Advisory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee on Drug Dependence. Its chair, Lady Wootton, was a reform-minded sociologist and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.9917 362.4775 281.9837 374.3575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6838 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminologist who observed that many medical authorities thought cannabis no worse than alcohol. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urged that penalties for cannabis be reduced and that mere possession should be treated as other than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal offense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The full committee?s report, released in November 1968, echoed these views. Conservative and Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians ? not least James Callaghan, the Home Secretary ? attacked the recommendations. Mills interprets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their criticisms as pre-election posturing, a free swing at the counterculture piata. Actual policy was less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combative. The 1971 Misuse of Drugs Act, the legislation that finally emerged, incorporated most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wootton Report?s recommendations. Thus was born ?the British compromise? that prevailed for the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarter century. Cannabis possession remained illegal, but with reduced penalties and greater circumspection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by police, magistrates, and judges. In 1989 three out of four British cannabis offenders received only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caution. In London, it was closer to nine out of ten.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills tells the control story in rich, convincing detail. It is hard to think of another book on drug history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes such a clear distinction between policy as framed in treaties and statutes and policy as administered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the street and courts. His archival research gives us a clear picture of when and why mid-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption patterns changed, though he is less explicit about why use kept spreading after the 1960s. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread it did. By 1983 a third of Scots aged 19 or 20 years said they had tried cannabis, a rate that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been unimaginable two decades before. British consumption continued to rise during the 1980s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the 1990s. It has since tapered off, but remains at a historically high level compared to the mid 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills?s thoughts on cannabis? staying power are mostly social in character. He cites, for example, a 2008 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rowntree Foundation report that ?young people tended to use cannabis for the purpose of being sociable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that it was a practice that was important in contexts of friendship and networking where acts of sharing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were significant? \(p. 213\). Cannabis had thus become a youthful rite of passage, though not necessarily one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of lasting consequence. But is there more to the story?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One possibility is that the British compromise itself encouraged use. Or, rather, that it failed to discourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use. Deterrence, criminologists argue, is a function of the swiftness, certainty, and severity of punishment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of these prospects troubled casual British cannabis users. It was otherwise in the United States, where, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1980s, federal and state governments pursued policies diametrically opposed to the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise. Rather than de-emphasizing marijuana, they made it the centerpiece of what came to be called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the drug war. The number of first-time cannabis users fell, from around 3 million in 1979 to 1.5 million in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990. Propaganda and punishment seemed to work. Then the situation reversed after 1992, as the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new marijuana users began rising again. Demography may have played a role: During the 1990s, ?echo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boom? children began entering their prime drug-experimenting years. They had little trouble finding pot, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drug war having proved better at filling prisons cells than shutting down illicit supply. Nonetheless, the rise-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall-rise pattern in the US during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, compared to the steady rise-rise-rise pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the British compromise, suggests that determined suppression could have at least a short-term effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on incidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to say that British priorities were mistaken. In America, the obsession with marijuana in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mid-1980s drew attention and resources from the explosive growth of cocaine consumption in the inner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities. In Britain, authorities had to confront their own urban crises in the 1980s and 1990s, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increases in heroin and cocaine use and street robbery and burglary. Brian Paddick, a no-nonsense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan Police commander quoted by Mills, observed that aggressive enforcement against cannabis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under those circumstances was simply a waste of resources, particularly when his department was so short of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a quondam presidential advisor, Harvard professor, and U.S. senator who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote on crime and drugs, coined a phrase for this dilemma. He called it ?defining deviancy down?. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the amount of deviant behavior in a society exceeded the institutional capacity to deal with it, deviancy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefined ?so as to exempt much conduct previously stigmatized, and also quietly raising the ?normal? level )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8380 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in categories where behavior is abnormal by any earlier standard?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.592 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.592 795.075 m 366.584 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.584 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That seems a fair description of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened with cannabis in Britain after the 1960s, and what is still happening today. Though the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour government upgraded cannabis from a Class C to a Class B drug in 2008, the year Mill ends his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, cannabis enforcement has remained a relatively low priority with police, who continue to exercise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide discretion over who is stopped, warned, and charged. Like pornography \(which once fell within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drugs Squad?s remit\), cannabis has been demoted from a major to a minor vice, in the process becoming a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent part of the social landscape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mills remarks that ?the story of cannabis and the British has been shaped by the wider history of twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Britain? \(p. vii\). That is apparent for immigration, diplomacy, medical science, and politics. But did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad cultural trends ? more specifically, the growth of permissiveness in an increasingly secular, affluent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intoxication-prone society ? provide cannabis with a tailwind? It is striking that per capita alcohol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption rose in tandem with cannabis consumption for most of the last half century. The police of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, whom Mills calls ?highly sensitized and constantly alert to the issue of intoxication and the law? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23\), would have been as little inclined to tolerate carnage nights as casual reefer smokers. Now both sorts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behavior are commonplace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there is the question of cannabis? intrinsic psychoactive properties. Mills acknowledges that expert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion has long been divided on the drug?s dangers and addictive potential ? a historical controversy that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he also described in a previous book, )] TJ ET BT 214.652 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cannabis Britannica: Empire, Trade, and Prohibition, 1800-1928)] TJ ET BT 532.328 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 535.328 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 535.328 528.723 m 549.320 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He nonetheless tends to view the drug as a benign social lubricant. For most people it is ? but not for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone. Cannabis is a dopamine-augmenting \(and, when smoked, fast-acting\) drug that affects some more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerfully than others, depending on their genetic makeup and social circumstances. Nor is the high the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only attraction. Users with symptoms such as nausea or insomnia can find relief in regular use. For whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason, at least one in 11 cannabis smokers will eventually become dependent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.948 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.948 457.443 m 424.940 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.940 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They account for far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than an 11th of the market, for cannabis or any other drug. The more dependent users there are, the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflexible the demand and the greater the incentive for traffickers. The greater the volume of traffic, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater the likelihood that neophytes will be exposed, and that some of them will eventually become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent. Drugs like cannabis create and sustain their own demand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This dynamic deserves closer attention, particularly in view of how swiftly and permanently Britain became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?cannabis nation?. Within a single lifetime ? within a single generation ? cannabis became Britain?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular illicit drug. \(Indeed, the world?s most popular illicit drug, catching on among groups such as middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class students that had been largely impervious to illicit drug use.\) What jumps out from the post-1962 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters is the speed of cannabis? spread. That speed suggests a drug with powerful reinforcing properties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properties that could be further enhanced by such practices as mixing cannabis with tobacco or using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannabis to enhance music or sex. If Mills were describing a car rather than a drug, it would be one with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capacity to accelerate from 0 to 60 mph in under 6 seconds. That should prompt a second look at the engine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the bonnet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hans Derks, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Opium Problem: The Assault on the East, ca. 1600?1950)] TJ ET BT 469.988 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leiden, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 180.339 m 118.004 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Patrick Moynihan, ?Defining deviancy down?, )] TJ ET BT 326.636 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Scholar,)] TJ ET BT 416.624 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 62 \(Winter 1993\), 19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.940 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.940 166.083 m 551.600 166.083 l S BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 151.827 m 90.344 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James H. Mills, )] TJ ET BT 142.352 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cannabis Britannica: Empire, Trade, and Prohibition, 1800-1928)] TJ ET BT 460.028 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.008 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.008 123.315 m 233.996 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan P. Caulkins et al., )] TJ ET BT 197.348 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know)] TJ ET BT 468.008 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012\), p. 58.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 94.803 m 179.000 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 69.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 41.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/books/book-reviews/cannabis-nation-control-and-consumption-in-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 40.035 m 546.956 40.035 l S BT 34.016 27.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(britain-1928-2008/2001062.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 25.779 m 199.664 25.779 l S endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.5917 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