%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722085316+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722085316+01'00') /Title (Militant Liverpool: a City on the Edge) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3970 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Militant Liverpool: a City on the Edge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For some the 1980s is within living memory; others are familiar with it as a piece of history. Whatever your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attachment to the decade that in many ways significantly shaped the Britain we live in today, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves to paint a great image of the contours of that bygone age. It covers the well-known story of Militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tendency and the Liverpool City Council, but it is the emphasis on Liverpool as a city that sets this work out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the other literature. The authors? ability to marry the political, through the forum of the marginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Militant Tendency, with the trajectory of Liverpool is worth recognition. Both authors are academics at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Liverpool, so they have a clear motivation to depict the story of the city, to which they are both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly attached. The book is also timely, published in May 2013 to coincide with the 30th anniversary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event that it documents. Of course, the fact that the book is written during a period of austerity adds to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poignancy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors set out their intentions, saying that they hope that ?readers from all persuasions will enjoy what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we recount? \(p. 5\). Of course, it is not possible for me to speak for all readers, but the authors certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeed in their ability to make the book accessible, and therefore enjoyable. The scope of their research also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1521)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 13 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diane Frost)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter North)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846318634)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(160pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=11&AS1=Militant%20Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheryl Buckley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6602 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows those with a more cultural interest in one of the North?s most varied cities to take some enjoyment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the book and the city of Liverpool is the red thread throughout the work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The methodology of the authors is crucial to making the book an enjoyable read for those who might not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly interested in history or politics. The selection and use of ?typical? historical sources, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature and a broad range of newspapers, is elevated by the collection and use of oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimonies. Often, particularly later in the book, it is these interviews that really carry the story. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors intended this, saying that they hoped to provide ?an account that lets the protagonists, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters and opponents, speak with their own voices? \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also intended is impartiality, with a clear decision to avoid joining the ?many voices that condemned, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the time and subsequently, the City Council?s overall stance? \(p. 5\). This stance is maintained admirably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book, although at the end the authors are forced to hint their own position, saying that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Liverpool Labour Council of the early 1980s was composed of ordinary Liverpool folk, with all their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passions and faults? \(p. 206\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with a sharp punch; Neil Kinnock?s infamous speech to the 1985 Labour Party annual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference, where he criticised the taxi deliveries of redundancy notices from the council, and which is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy way into the subject for those who might not be familiar with it. The authors then provide a succinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-history, explaining the problems that Liverpool Labour Council faced in the context of rampant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcherism and its associated cuts to public services.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best bit of the introduction, however, lies with the authors? ability to catapult us into the Liverpool of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years, with which we might be familiar. Historic, troubled Liverpool becomes the Capital of Culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2008\), the city which opened the Liverpool One shopping complex and generally ?got its mojo back? \(p. 3\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An element of popular culture is used to paint this image; the authors remind us of the ?Desperate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scousewives? and ?Big Fat Gypsy Wedding? TV shows, which have given Liverpool a sort of cultural street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cred previously lacking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet just when we are imagining that today?s Liverpool has recovered from the turbulence of the 1980s, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors remind us that, even today, North Liverpool in particular still faces problems. When we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considering that city might once again be suffering from the ?entrenched poverty, deprivation, criminality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and drug abuse?, with which it has often been demonised, we are reassured that the new mayor, Joe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anderson, is ?working with, not confronting, central government to address these problems? \(p. 3\). By this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point in the book it is impossible not to understand the trajectory of the city and \(at least for me, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northerner myself\), feel incredibly sympathetic towards it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers are then given some historical context to explain how the Liverpool of the 1980s came to be. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication of the book allows it access to documents released under the 30-year rule, and we are told that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tory government wanted to leave Liverpool to ?its own destiny? \(a ?managed decline?\) \(p. 4\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors do a great job of getting readers to understand the problems of the city in the context of the de-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation in the late 1970s and early 1980s, which Liverpool suffered terribly from.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one?s title is loaded with the imagery of decline; ?Liverpool from world case to basket case? sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city?s problems stemming from its lineage of global trade and the subsequent, highly casual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment patterns of dock labour. The authors describe what the implications for Liverpool?s working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class might have been as follows: ?Liverpool?s working class grew on a diet of casualised worked based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the docks that was poorly paid and notoriously volatile? \(p. 7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When we are once again imagining, and empathising with, the perils of being one of Liverpool?s working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class in the post-war period, the working environment of the 1960s changes. Better wages and culture were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a brief hiatus in the troubles of the city, and soon Liverpool was in trouble again. Government attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to solve Liverpool?s problems, mostly around housing, followed; the Liverpool Inner City Partnership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pledged additional funding, but such intentions were soon shelved by the Thatcher Government. The result )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5749 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that no social housing was built in the city between 1979 and 1983. By this point, Liverpool was set on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a path to be ?the Bermuda triangle of British capitalism? \(p. 17\), and we can understand why. Using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony of Jeremy Kyle?s predecessor, the 1990s chair of chat and MP for Knowsley, Robert Kilroy Silk, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we know that Thatcher bemoaned Liverpool?s lack of entrepreneurship, claiming that those living in the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ?no get up and go? \(p. 17\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors have done an excellent job of creating an image of the somewhat tragic Liverpool and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruthless Thatcher administration by this point in the book. In an attempt to further place this polarisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of class divisions, the authors reference the 1981 ?Peoples? March for Jobs? \(p. 17\). By page 29 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors suggest that Liverpool?s left networks went beyond Militant Tendency, challenging the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of Militant Tendency?s ubiquitous nature on the council, and reminding us that actually only 13 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of 47 disbarred councillors were paid-up members.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Liverpool responds to the crisis?, the authors draw on the political history of the city. The genesis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trotskyism in Liverpool is pertinent here, and it feeds into an assessment of what Militant Tendency could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer that other groups, such as the Socialist Workers? Party, International Marxist Group and Workers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary Party, could not. Mostly, the authors argue, it was Militant Tendency?s emphasis on being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to offer something to the working class that gave it credibility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By chapter three, the authors also begin what goes on to be a focal argument, namely that Militant Tendency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to engage with the ?new identity politics?, around gender and race, for example, debates which gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency within the left from the 1970s. The authors also argue that it was Militant Tendency?s ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopolise meetings through moving formulaic motions that helped it to do well and by 1983, the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim, Liverpool Labour Council was ?elected on a wave of militancy? \(p. 54\). This leads onto the authors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key argument at this point; that Liverpool was ?militant?, not ?Militant.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four conveys the sense that there was a general left-wing consensus across the Council that became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to fighting Thatcherism because of the Government?s attack on key services. The authors point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that Militant Tendency appealed on ?bread and butter? issues that the people of Liverpool could identify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with, and would need. The problem with this strategy was that it did not directly lead into a support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist politics. The authors later make the point that the failure to link daily issues with a political agenda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a massive problem for the Militant Tendency members on Liverpool Labour Council, because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were motivated by helping the people that the Council represented. The ?Merseyside in Crisis? meetings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were designed to build support for the case against obstructing central government cuts, were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent example of this,. Evidence of the Council?s actions is given, such as the refusal to implement the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required 1,000 job cuts and the creation instead of an additional 600 jobs \(p. 71\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The details in this chapter really allow the reader to understand the tensions around these events. By page 75, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are reminded of the role of Neil Kinnock and his belief that it was better to try and preserve essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services in the wake of the central government cuts, rather than risk being thrown out of office by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(District Auditor. Just when it looked like the Liverpool Labour Council was about to run into difficulties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was a breakthrough. Like with the National Union of Mineworkers in 1982, Thatcher realised that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984, during the miners? strike, that Liverpool Labour Council was not a battle she could take on. The result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that extra funding was given and the Council?s deficit was reduced by 20 million.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, which focuses on the 1985 ?budget crisis?, outlines the sense of optimism amongst the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council, based around the belief that they had forced Thatcher to back down. Again, Kinnock?s disapproval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is used to frame these events and by the September 1984 Labour Party Conference, it was clear that rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than being heroes, Council members were viewed by Kinnock as ?liabilities? \(p. 96\). The authors manage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketch in the details of the origins of the problems, whilst retaining their impartial stance. The situation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted is of a Council faced with either setting no rate or running a deficit budget. The second option, trying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to run a deficit budget, was the one that was initially chosen. Yet this failed, and the Council did not set a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rate. The ultimate situation, where no rate was set, launched the Council into illegality and caused the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(District Auditor to threaten it with bankruptcy, in wake of the financial losses incurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Council?s counter-tactic, to try and get the Labour Party to support them against the Government, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hugely backfired. The strategy is one that has been told time and time again; the Council, committed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserving jobs, issued redundancy notices, with some delivered in taxis. It is here that the collection of oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews, particularly Derek Hatton?s, elevates the work from what has gone before. For the reader the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance of the opening Kinnock speech is clear and by this point, its context fully appreciated. In fact, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party commissioned the Stonefrost Report, which called for rate increases and pushed the Council to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near-insolvency. By October 1985 Kinnock had ?lost patience? with the Council and supported the District )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Auditor, suggesting the use of troops if needed \(p. 119\). The Council had a reprieve, however, in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a generous loan from Switzerland. These details are presented in a clear, factual way, which allows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to understand the complexities of the incident.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six draws the focus back to Militant Tendency. It is a significant triumph that the authors have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained the key event, then added the political dimension, because it allows an independent understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both these intertwined factors. The authors make the point that the size of Militant Tendency was out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion with its influence and also that it was sometimes out of step with the broad left \(on issues like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race\) but clearly affiliated through its opposition to Thatcherism. The authors make the point that Militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tendency?s workerism caused it to miss opportunities to affiliate with other groups, one of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples being those seeking to fight racism in Liverpool at this time \(p. 130\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of racism is a window into the bigger problem with Militant Tendency. Much of this discussion is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based around the example of Sam Bond, who became Principal Race Relations Advisor in 1984, largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of his connections to Militant Tendency. This example is used again by page 147, but becomes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crux of chapter seven, particularly around p. 155. The example of Bond, designed to argue that his approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?backfired and fed into the undermining of Militant leadership in Liverpool? \(p. 155\) is a pertinent one, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that is repeated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this perhaps excessive repetition, it does provide a good case study of the inner workings of Militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tendency, which the authors explain has been perceived as ?bullying? in its style \(p. 172\). It is here that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, the use of interviews is particularly effective, and this image is contrasted with one that represents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Militant?s approach as a more organic form of working-class debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight is interested in the legacy of the event, particularly the expulsion and subsequent failed appeals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those Councillors who were expelled from the Labour Party. The notion of Militant Tendency being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cancerous growth? in the Labour Party is clearly evidenced through the party?s annual conference in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(September 1985, where delegates voted 20:1 to keep the expulsions in place. \(p182\)The story continues into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 1990s, albeit sparsely, but this is a useful scope.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the authors set out to avoid being drawn into the rights and wrongs of the Council?s actions, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do conclude from their interviews that the intention of Liverpool Labour Council was to protect the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Liverpool, rather than use the Council as a wagon for a revolutionary form of political change. They argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly that Militant Tendency failed to engage with the broader picture, such as racial oppression, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited its effectiveness They reject the view that Militant Tendency was ?messed up?; a view that is ?too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic? \(p. 206\). The work also concludes with a note of optimism, that the regeneration of Liverpool has )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2915 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated that lessons have been learned from the 1980s, insofar as the central government, local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority and wide government are more willing to work together \(p. 195\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors have produced what is an enjoyable and timely read; I read it twice in order to write this review, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the first time I found that I could not put it down. The work is also a good way into a subject that is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known, but perhaps not fully understood, by many. The only way that the book might be criticised is for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional repetition, but this is more than outweighed by its timeliness and by its use of interviews, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give a more detailed post-mortem of events than might have been gained from relying just on primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialist Party)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/17482)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 628.515 m 261.008 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.008 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catalyst)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.catalystmedia.org.uk/reviews/militant_liverpool.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 600.003 m 343.340 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.340 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Review 31)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://review31.co.uk/article/view/153)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 571.491 m 218.000 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.000 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 568.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 550.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 550.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1521)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 548.985 m 328.316 548.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 524.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/79298)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/17482)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.catalystmedia.org.uk/reviews/militant_liverpool.php)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://review31.co.uk/article/view/153)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 628.8295 261.0077 640.7095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.socialistparty.org.uk/articles/17482) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 600.3175 343.3397 612.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.catalystmedia.org.uk/reviews/militant_liverpool.php) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 571.8055 217.9997 583.6855 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://review31.co.uk/article/view/153) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 549.2995 328.3157 561.1795 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1521) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004652 00000 n 0000004761 00000 n 0000004871 00000 n 0000004980 00000 n 0000008541 00000 n 0000008669 00000 n 0000008753 00000 n 0000008818 00000 n 0000015473 00000 n 0000015538 00000 n 0000021340 00000 n 0000021405 00000 n 0000028413 00000 n 0000028518 00000 n 0000031486 00000 n 0000031613 00000 n 0000031712 00000 n 0000031839 00000 n 0000031953 00000 n 0000032080 00000 n 0000032170 00000 n 0000032298 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32394 %%EOF