%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826054923+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826054923+01'00') /Title (Negotiating the Landscape: Environment and Monastic Identity in the Medieval Ardennes) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2045 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Negotiating the Landscape: Environment and Monastic Identity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Medieval Ardennes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1522)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 12 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellen F. Arnold)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812244632)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.upenn.edu/pennpress/book/15026.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Wolfe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7951 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not the usual kind of book review that I usually write. Instead, in the spirit of the IHR?s intention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a forum for serious, collaborative engagement, please consider me an )] TJ ET BT 401.576 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(agent provocateur)] TJ ET BT 489.896 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who will try )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stir things up for the sake \(I hope\) of our mutual edification. Ellen Arnold sets her sights on a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very ambitious goals in her fine new book, based on her 2006 dissertation at the University of Minnesota, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about monastic attitudes and behaviors in relation to their local landscape. Hers is a case study of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks in the abbeys of Stavelot and Malmedy viewed the formidable tangle of forests and waterways of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ardennes region over the period from their foundation in 648 by St. Remacle to the mid 12th century when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their most noted abbot, Wibald, died. These abbeys are located in the vicinity of present-day Belgium and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luxembourg. Dr. Arnold quite rightly follows the lead of historians, such as Elspeth Whitney and Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoffman, who over the past 20 years have moved the discussion far beyond Lynn White Jr.?s originally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative thesis that medieval society sought dominion over nature. More nuanced views, inspired by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of Americanists such as Donald Worster and William Cronon, now posit a multi-level, more dialectical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship that privileges negotiation with the natural environment, not its conquest, hence the title of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My first question regards this notion of negotiation, which largely revolves in Dr. Arnold?s study around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between people, in this case the monks, and a place, in this case the Ardennes. However, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study proceeds it appears the monks mainly negotiated over those lands where they contested rights with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other groups of people, be they woodsmen, peasant cultivators, local nobles, the Imperial court, the bishops, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or other monastic houses. Indeed, so many of the cartulary and hagiographical source materials which Dr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold uses reflect for the most part views from the late 11th to the mid 12th centuries, a time during which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monks of Stavelot-Malmedy attempted not so much to negotiate their relationship with the Ardennes but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather with the fasting changing world beyond the forest. This leads me to ask if the story Dr. Arnold is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling here is not just about nature per se but even more about the efforts of a set of eminent Benedictine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses to reinterpret their history and identity in a bid to forestall signs of their waning prestige and fend off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing calls for reform, from first the Cluniacs in the 10th century and later the Cistercians, to its mission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and position in post-Carolingian Europe. Neither of these Benedictine reform movements figure much in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, at least overtly. This becomes especially clear at the end of the book in chapter five, though it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been brought out earlier in the study to underscore what seems to have been an essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental use of nature ? both textually and economically ? to advance or protect the monks? interests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in the world, not just the Ardennes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While invoking the Annales School and devoting attention to social and economic factors, Dr. Arnold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily embraces a cultural approach to her topic, though whether that springs from her main source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials ? charters, )] TJ ET BT 133.316 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vitae)] TJ ET BT 156.644 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and miracle stories ? or her own predilections is not clear. I suspect it?s a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of the two. In her introduction, she makes a point of distancing herself from eco-criticism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which makes sense given its overtly engaged stance, but I wonder if her monks weren?t creating their own, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious-inflected medieval form of eco-criticism. Dr. Arnold frames her study around the twin poles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how nature shaped culture, and culture in turn shaped nature. More specifically, she asks how the monks? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious identity influenced how they acted in the landscape, and how features of that landscape ? the trees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rivers, the animals ? correspondingly affected this identity. Identity and landscape meet in a place she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls ?the environmental imagination?, unpacking it using a hermeneutics she calls ?environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exegesis?. I, for one, would have liked a more sustained and precise, even technical discussion of how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach works, though glimpses of that come through in those sections of the book dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreting charters and her literary analysis of evolving versions of the saints? lives and miracle stories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The imaginary landscape dominates the book far more than the actual ecosystem of the Ardennes. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes clear in chapter one, which explores the monks? view of their local environs as at once a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous, untamed wilderness \()] TJ ET BT 191.984 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(locus horribilis)] TJ ET BT 265.664 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and a pastoral paradise \()] TJ ET BT 389.288 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(locus amoenus)] TJ ET BT 460.280 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Long biblical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical literary traditions informed these )] TJ ET BT 238.316 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topoi)] TJ ET BT 262.988 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the monks regularly invoked them in a mixed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blurred manner, not a simple dichotomous one, she argues. Nevertheless, the next two chapters on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between these religious interpretations and the local landscape as a site for economic production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social conflict contrast these dualist views of nature that pit the spiritual over against the secular. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7324 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cartulary sources figure prominently, as one would expect, in these sections, and while Dr. Arnold does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the question of boundaries and perambulation narratives, the reader never gets a true sense of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the actual places over which the monks held jurisdiction, nor up against precisely whose property their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holdings abutted. Again, her reliance on the rich Urbar of Prm to extrapolate how the monks at Stavelot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malmedy managed their domesticated landscape suggest her sources just cannot vouchsafe this kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granular consideration of the actual landscape in the Ardennes. She also leans a good deal on Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rackham?s innovative studies in the forest archaeology of medieval Britain to explain the sylvan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management practices of the monks. Yet other studies of medieval forests in northern France and the Low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Countries exist in sufficient number, going back at least to the 1990 issue of the )] TJ ET BT 419.984 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Cahiers du Centre de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Recherches Historiques)] TJ ET BT 148.328 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(edited by Philippe Braunstein\), to provide some of the missing context on ways to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach the actual landscape under consideration. Finally, I also wonder if more discussion about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects of labor and wealth, drawing on work of George Ovitt or even Peter Brown?s recent book )] TJ ET BT 509.912 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Eye of the Needle)] TJ ET BT 135.992 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, might have deepened her discussions about value and conflict in relation to the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape. In part, I think my questions here goes back to Dr. Arnold?s deeper interest in the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of landscape, since chapter three is as much about memory and identity as the social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics fueling conflicts in the forest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two chapters of the book return squarely and go even more deeply into the cultural meanings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagined landscape and monastic identity. In chapter four, the conflicts now occur in the monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination through reinterpreting the past to address present interests and challenges. Dr. Arnold draws an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit connection between, for example, the Rogation Days stories and contests over wilderness resources, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the fascinating tale of the ?Fighting Forest of the Amblve? shows how a story of martyrdom from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days of Charles Martel served as a coda for rivalries between the two abbeys set against the background of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political fragmentation and conflict in the 11th century. Saints? lives, too, such as the )] TJ ET BT 446.312 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passio Agilolfi)] TJ ET BT 517.328 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the instrumental use of landscape motifs to defend and advance monastic interests. The final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter serves as an extended conclusion that integrates elements discussed earlier in the study with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abiding themes of religious landscape and monastic identity. Sections of this chapter read much like an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction as she works her way through recent scholarly work. It is also here that Dr. Arnold makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing reference to the ?inscription? of the landscape by the monks. That is, of course, a technical term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually associated with Paul Ricoeur?s theory of representation, which might well be expanded upon by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the notion of ?environmental exegesis? discussed at the start of the book. Even so, this final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is the strongest of the lot and ties up many but not all of the various strands in Dr. Arnold?s complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of arguments. At the end, it finally became clear, at least to me, that the imaginary landscape she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores was largely a product of that century of transition between 1050 and 1150, as the monks of Stavelot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malmedy dealt with their future mainly by looking backward into their past and the deep forest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ardennes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My final question concerns where Dr. Arnold thinks other scholars should take up the next stage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into the subject of medieval environments and identity. Here she seems torn between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underscoring the unique experience of the monks of Stavelot-Malmedy and the desire to present her findings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a model for investigating localized senses of place elsewhere in medieval Europe. It?s the classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem in microhistory of typicality, and I wonder again if she might be able to bridge the span between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local and the general by an expanded discussion of her hermeneutics, one that might help us all arrive at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the poet Marianne Moore described in her poem entitled ?Poetry? as ?imaginary gardens with real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toads in them?. In sum, this is a very good book to think with. I want to thank the IHR as well as Dr. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold for the opportunity to look for and find real toads in these forest glens, and I want to invite others do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 128.479 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 110.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 110.699 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1522)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 109.305 m 328.316 109.305 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 84.328 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.928 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55213)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 109.6195 328.3157 121.4995 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1522) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000002760 00000 n 0000002869 00000 n 0000002979 00000 n 0000003088 00000 n 0000006649 00000 n 0000006777 00000 n 0000006861 00000 n 0000006926 00000 n 0000014930 00000 n 0000015014 00000 n 0000022391 00000 n 0000022519 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 22615 %%EOF