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Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7406 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the medievalists might say when they think you?re not listening, 20th-century European history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard, and post-1945 history can be the trickiest bit. The decades after 1945 are much less precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood, in historical terms, than the decades before. They are more subject to unchallenged platitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and uninformed controversy: they are surrounded by white noise. Post-1945 historians must deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative absence of perspective, the patchiness of official sources amid otherwise vast surviving traces, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vexed question of what to do with the people who want to tell you how it really was. Yet few tasks in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanities are as urgent as providing clear historical explanations of recent events. The two books under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review demonstrate the powers and shortcomings of historical research ? and also of research which is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical ? into post-war Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are grand works of scholarship. Hartmut Kaelble?s book is an imposing overview of social trends in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European history between 1945 and 2000. The view is from such a height that individual people are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invisible: his version of social history is one with the people left out. Kaelble looks for three broad patterns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in what he sees: how much European societies changed; how much European societies became similar and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how much they differed; and how European societies were distinctively European \(and not, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American or universally modern\). Even when looking down on Europe from this precarious height, Kaelble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retains a consistently historical approach. He focuses rigorously on the empirical, takes full account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions and complexities, and does not make use of simplifying models or theories, though he inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikes the occasional wrong note. The author?s first question, which leads him precisely to probe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization and change over time, is profoundly historical, but he also brings a historical sensibility to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other two questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These three questions run through every chapter of the book, so the analysis is bracingly consistent. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three questions are asked of three broad issues, which make up the three sections of the book. First are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?basic social constellations? of which everyday life is composed: family, work, consumption and material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard of living, and moral values and religion. The second part concerns the social groups ? the milieus ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into which Europeans have divided themselves, and the mobility between them, modulated by inequality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration. Thirdly, Kaelble addresses the ways that state and society have moulded each other, with chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the media, civil society, the welfare state, urban life, and education. The book is a synthesis of secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, with chapter bibliographies containing works in German, French and English; Kaelble also draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively on reports from organizations such as the OECD and publicly produced statistical compendia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Easily comprehensible graphs and useful tables are included throughout the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Containing 36 chapters by different scholars \(and some chapters are co-written\), the handsomely produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Handbook of Postwar European History)] TJ ET BT 265.676 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is inevitably a looser book. Its considerable contents are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided into seven imaginatively conceived sections. The first, entitled ?What is post-war Europe? sets the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the debate and opens with salvoes by the big guns of Geoff Eley and Richard Overy; part two, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?People?, offers a social history approach, while part three is more explicitly political, and part four concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics; part five, on ?Fear?, examines violence and anxiety, innovatively bringing together essays on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear culture, decolonization, life in the dictatorships, and the Yugoslav wars; part six is about cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history; and the final section is devoted to memory of the Second World War. Plainly, many of the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been placed in different parts of the book, but the structure tightens rather than loosens the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s coherence. It allows particular arguments to be foregrounded, which in turn ensures that the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than the sum of its parts. This is an impressive achievement in itself. The great strength of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Handbook)] TJ ET BT 121.004 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is of course the scope of its coverage, but the quality of the editorship, with its original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization of the material, and the authority of some of the contributions, allows important points about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization, memory and identity to be emphasized. The )] TJ ET BT 317.312 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook)] TJ ET BT 367.304 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is at its best when it is fulfilling its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifesto: when it is most explicitly historical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps three major structural issues determine the way that we think about the European past since 1945. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First is the significance of 1945 itself. What do we mean by ?post-war?? Was it a zero hour? How much did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War transform Europe? How might this transformation be compared to that wrought by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the First World War? Sometimes this discussion is arcane, but it throws light on questions of ongoing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7786 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political importance. Second, what did the division between East and West that characterized Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe amount to? How impermeable was the Iron Curtain? How different were the dictatorships and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracies? How did ideology affect universal processes of modernization? How should we study those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of Europe that fell outside the East/West blocs? To what extent did the ways of the communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorships persist after 1989? And third, how meaningful is European history ? both the )] TJ ET BT 470.300 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European)] TJ ET BT 517.628 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(history)] TJ ET BT 67.352 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? after 1945? What sense does European history make outside of the history of superpower rivalry or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American power? Does European history effectively end with the German declaration of war on the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States in December 1941? After that, is the history of Europe just the history of a territorial zone rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a coherent political, socio-cultural or economic space? And what exactly can historians bring to the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a period which large numbers of other specialists are still trawling for their raw material?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the required ways of imposing an historian?s order on the recent past is to focus explicitly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of periodization, addressing precisely when things change. )] TJ ET BT 366.632 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 387.632 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Handbook)] TJ ET BT 474.620 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is about )] TJ ET BT 518.288 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post-war)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European history; the subtitle of Kaelble?s book is ?recovery and transformation after two world wars?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given its multi-author status, the )] TJ ET BT 194.684 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook)] TJ ET BT 244.676 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cannot make a single point about what historians mean when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they debate the timing of ?post-war?, but it can ensure that these debates are clearly articulated and central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the presentation. Dan Stone, who has written about historical memory of the Holocaust and who is therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly attuned to how the war and its aftermath have been remembered and constructed since the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Berlin Wall, argues in his introduction that ?we are only now living through the postwar period? \(p. 33\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other words, it is in the last 20 years that proper discussion about the War has been possible in the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere across Europe: that people have stopped living the legacy of the war on a day-by-day basis and have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(started, instead, coming to terms with it. Expressed differently, by a cold warrior, the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively continued in new forms until the demise of Communism. Geoff Eley, however, emphasizes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of a ?post-1945 settlement? whose most important characteristic was ?the centrality acquired by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organized labour? \(p. 38\). In this way, the impact of the Second World War on European life was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally different from the impact of the First. Only after 1945 was ?it possible for popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness to identify with the state?, legitimizing democratic reformism and generating social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvements \(p. 40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focusing on the welfare state, Ido de Haan?s very stimulating chapter makes a similar point about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental shift after 1945. If Stone argues for a great European turning point in 1989, and Eley in 1945, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Overy makes the case for 1917-18. He probes the arguments for and against the existence of a zero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hour in European history in 1945, showing that ?1945? was a ?convenient alibi?, and that historians must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously study the whole decade between 1939 and 1949 in order to understand precisely what changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what stayed the same as an immediate consequence of the Second World War. For Overy, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zero hour issue is subordinate to the bigger point that 1917?18 was ?the real dividing line of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?, creating ?upheavals? that determined the course of European history through to 1989 \(76?7\). Dan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stone effectively extends this point in his discussion about the dynamics of memory. Plainly, the arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these three historians overlap and might easily be synthesized, but the different emphases they opt for are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet precisely defined issues of periodization tend not to structure the book as a whole, and its treatment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual chapters is uneven. Hence Philipp Ther?s interesting chapter on ethnic cleansing discusses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail the situation before 1945 and between 1944 and 1948, but does not adopt the kind of clarifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939?49 lens that Overy vouchsafes. Rosemary Wakeman mentions the 1945 watershed in her chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumerism, but only briefly. Vladimir Tismaneanu has, as ever, important things to say about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?national Stalinism? on which he is the leading authority, but by focusing on this brand of Stalinism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing primarily as it did in Romania and Albania, he makes a point about the static nature of Stalinism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these countries that does not extend to the more dynamic evolution of Stalinism and post-Stalinism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in Eastern Europe. For example, he omits ?late Stalinism? \(1945?53\), which many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue was a different type of Stalinism from its pre-war incarnation, from the discussion of the Soviet Union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his introduction. Tismaneanu?s chapter is cleverly positioned in the section on ?Fear?, allowing Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anxieties in Western Europe to be juxtaposed with violence in Ceau?escu?s Romania: but this very )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7915 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization of the material seems to make a point about geographical similarity at the expense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological change. The chronology of economic history, however, is precisely probed in two outstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters by the leaders of the field: Nicholas Crafts and Gianni Toniolo sharply delineate the chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markers of the post-war ?golden age?, and Ivan T. Berend charts change over time in the European economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1973 and 2009. Similarly, Martin Evans?s impressive survey of decolonization precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrogates the 1945 disjuncture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, controversies about periodization are deeply embedded in the structure of Kaelble?s )] TJ ET BT 501.248 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The book is organized thematically, but each thematic chapter asks precise questions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodization, broadly distinguishing between the immediate post-war period, the 1950s to 1970s, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period since the 1980s. Kaelble?s analysis is therefore predicated on the problem of how to measure and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret change over time: it evaluates turning points and assesses how widespread particular changes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at particular moments. Thus Kaelble addresses the level of trust in European societies across watersheds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as 1945 and uses this as a basis for explaining changes in moral values. Charting distinct changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of urbanization helps Kaelble to explain the evolution of the welfare state. Even so, Kaelble opens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself up to the dangers of generalization. In his chapter on the family, he suggests that ?Comparisons in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys from different points in time show that after the 1960s the family home was increasingly opened up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to family friends and neighbours or friends of the children and teenagers?. This bold comment offers little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hint of variety across region, class and culture. Kaelble is also fixed on the notion that when people came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the family home, they took their place on the ?corner sofa?, an item of furniture that crops up repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the text and is perhaps of greater cultural specificity than he \(or his translator\) acknowledges.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaelble is similarly attuned to the division between Eastern and Western Europe, consistently debating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative impact of common phenomena on both halves of the continent, probing the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in economic and sociological data. On the one hand, this was a historic difference, based on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East?s apparent lag in political and economic development. On the other, it was the sharp ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast that marked life on either side of the Iron Curtain. Kaelble explores the significance of both layers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of difference in most of his chapters, giving the reader an opportunity to reflect on the fundamental question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whether ideological difference or underlying ?modernization? most caused historical change. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to popular prejudice, the difference between East and West was sharp and enduring, but historians of Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe now emphasize similarities as well as differences across the Iron Curtain, especially in such matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as consumption, domestic life, work habits, and cultural proclivities, while economic historians and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernists have long shown the futility of positing a narrow East-West interpretations of Europe?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development. Integrating the more recent findings of this first group of historians into a single history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe would allow readers truly to evaluate what was European about Europe in this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such a question is always close to the surface of Kaelble?s analysis. Unlike most authors of general accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Europe in this period, his attitude to the East is subtle. ?It is astounding,? he remarks with reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East-West divide, ?how weak the differences turned out to be in light of decades-long communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, education in other non-Western values, and the massive transformation crisis after the collapse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Soviet empire? \(p. 101\). Nevertheless, the East is the poor relation in his research. Sometimes it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omitted, as in the discussion of trade unions, or viewed in two dimensions, as in the related discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil society \(ch. 9\). At other times its distinctiveness is blurred: in his analysis of East European education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, the complexities of social mobility and social exclusion are hardly considered, producing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distorted and partial picture. Kaelble is not entirely consistent with regard to the European status of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union, sometimes including the Soviet lands west of the Urals \(itself an arbitrary choice\), sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting life in ?Europe? with life in ?Russia?. The historiography of Central and Eastern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including the Soviet Union\) had been transformed by the time of this book?s original publication in German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 2007, let alone by its English edition of 2012, though one would not really know it from reading Kaelble.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, in a general sense, the analysis of the East-West divide is integral to Kaelble?s book. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less obvious in )] TJ ET BT 108.356 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook)] TJ ET BT 216.344 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, whose readers are given little consistent help in reflecting on how and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why Eastern and Western Europe developed in similar and different ways after 1945)] TJ ET BT 439.916 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 445.916 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Kaelble spends less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time on the East, he at least interrogates its significance. In )] TJ ET BT 319.640 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook)] TJ ET BT 427.628 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, its significance is usually )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7890 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear. Only four chapters out of 35 are authored by historians whose primary specialization is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of any of the regions that once fell behind the Iron Curtain, though these include the late Mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittaway, a most innovative historian of Hungary, and the distinguished pairing of Ivan T. Berend and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vladimir Tismaneanu. Even the useful chapter on ?living under Communism? is written by the editor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose published research is in other areas. Challenges to popular East-West orthodoxy can sound like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversimplifications, such as this in the introduction: ?communism managed to sustain a standard of living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable with the West for the first decade and a half after the War? \(p. 17\). The latest research into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war-ravaged Soviet Union suggests the opposite. Rigorous chapters that make some claim to pan-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance, such as Geoff Eley?s, usually focus overwhelmingly on the West, and it remains mysterious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Stalinist societies could possibly, in Eley?s formulation, depend on ?a recognizable social contract? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55\), for the Stalin-era dictatorships governed in an arbitrary manner. Meanwhile, Rosemary Wakeman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise on the West shines through in her chapter on leisure and consumption: but her moralizing comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?Eastern Europeans made a Faustian bargain with repressive regimes? \(p. 431\) bypasses twenty years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cool-headed empirical scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True, Martin Klimke?s chapter on 1968 is brilliantly transnational and emphatically European, but it is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often the less historically engaged chapters, such as that written by Catherine Lee and Robert Bideleux, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are more self-consciously concerned about questions of regional difference. The place of the Soviet Union / )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia is uncertain. Only one chapter is written by a Soviet specialist: a low yield for the biggest country in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world \(and one with such a highly developed historiography\). Writing about ethnic diversity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationhood before 1945 \(in a chapter on immigration\), Stephen Castles omits Russia, that most diverse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, whose policies concerning ethnic and national identity throw much light on Europe more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally. In his excellent essay on decolonization, Martin Evans deliberately but regrettably sidesteps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of whether the Soviet Union was an empire. Meanwhile, those areas that fall outside the East-West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigm receive inconsistent treatment: a good chapter on Spain, Greece and Portugal is matched by more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scattered references to Scandinavia and the neutral Alpine enclaves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is not to suggest that each region or group of similar countries should have its own chapter. The art of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing a successful history of post-war Europe surely lies in the capacity to integrate the different regions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, especially the fraught categories of East and West, into a single analysis. But what exactly is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe)] TJ ET BT 69.344 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that is the target of this analysis? And in what does its history consist? European history after 1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(perhaps after 1941\) seems to be a much less stable concept than the European history of preceding periods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors of both books reflect on what was particularly European about Europe during this period. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern is to show whether modern life brought similar changes in all societies, European and non-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike, or whether it produced particular effects in Europe. Kaelble is typically the most methodical, drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out precise measurements about how, for example, Europeans? experience of leisure differed from that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans. In the )] TJ ET BT 122.660 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook)] TJ ET BT 172.652 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, the European content of European experience, in fields such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure as well as in the abstract, tend to be interpreted in present-day terms. An example is Uli Linke?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderful chapter on gender, where she develops the controversial notion of a contemporary ?European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial state?. Her analysis has no historical content and is entirely presentist, yet one cannot argue with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion in this volume: its offers a stimulating framework with which historians might engage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In other hands, however, an unrelenting grip on the present strangles any historical discussion. Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bideleux?s idiosyncratic chapter on European integration, full of italics and angry asides \(?England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europhobes? are one of his targets\) is stylistically and temperamentally quite different from the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook)] TJ ET BT 142.004 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. His judgements are aimed directly at the present and future \(he includes an urgent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postscript, dated April 2012, as if this were an article in the )] TJ ET BT 321.308 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 440.300 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than in a history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book of record\). Some of the other chapters are also emphatically presentist, avoiding historical explication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or providing two-dimensional, descriptive historical backdrops to their analysis of the present\). While such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters do not in themselves offer historical explanations, some of them do provide analytical frameworks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which historians might learn \(though others do not\). Is this multidisciplinarity, or is it uncomfortable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading? )] TJ ET BT 78.332 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford Handbook)] TJ ET BT 186.320 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( promises to be a history, and it is difficult to see what some of the present-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded essays add to historical understanding, though they can teach us plenty about the present, and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 5448 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise and talents of their authors are not in doubt. In the )] TJ ET BT 323.636 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook)] TJ ET BT 373.628 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, multidisciplinarity risks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining the historical enterprise, reducing the potency of historical explanation by increasing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distracting level of white noise, whereas in histories of earlier periods, multidisciplinarity can so often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen the power of historical explanations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is that a typical aspect of the historical study of the recent past? What do these books tell us about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historical)] TJ ET BT 80.024 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( character of post-1945 history? Kaelble introduces structures into his analysis which seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociological: in his chapter on the family, he claims that ?eight marriage models gradually came into being? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the Second World War \(p. 21\). This approach is not so different from that which a historian of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period could follow. And in any case, he is profoundly concerned with historicizing the recent past rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in constructing theoretical visions about it. His rigorous focus on periodization demonstrates this: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole plank of his analysis is a subtle discussion of change over time. But when it comes to the extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent past \(yesterday rather than the day before\) any writer?s judgements date quickly and can scarcely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said to be historical. Can anyone really make an historical judgement about the relative optimism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European societies around the time of the Millennium? We have plentiful evidence from opinion surveys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a decade ago, but does it need a historian to examine it? Here it seems that Kaelble?s powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical analysis machine runs out of gas. Perhaps historians of the recent past need to be as aware of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they need not do as of what they can achieve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Stone is right to point out that many of the methodological approaches to the past that his )] TJ ET BT 488.660 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains are themselves innovations of the post-war period. Unlike Kaelble, with his particular \(and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliantly realized\) approach to social history, which focuses on social trends rather than on personal actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thoughts, the)] TJ ET BT 116.348 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Handbook)] TJ ET BT 169.340 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a celebration of different types of history writing. Despite all the issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate that they raise, despite the flaws one might detect ? and precisely because of these issues and flaws, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too ? these books are essential reading for specialists and their students. We should salute Hartmut Kaelble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Dan Stone \(and Stone?s contributors\) for their scholarship and industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dan Stoneis happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History in Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyinreview.org/hk_sohieurp.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 362.163 m 273.680 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 276.680 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Association)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.org.uk/resources/secondary_resource_6328_64.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 333.651 m 379.304 333.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.304 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 330.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 312.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 312.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1523)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 311.145 m 328.316 311.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 286.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/88349)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/88350)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historyinreview.org/hk_sohieurp.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.org.uk/resources/secondary_resource_6328_64.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 362.4775 273.6797 374.3575 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyinreview.org/hk_sohieurp.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 333.9655 379.3037 345.8455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.org.uk/resources/secondary_resource_6328_64.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 311.4595 328.3157 323.3395 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1523) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000556 00000 n 0000000638 00000 n 0000003567 00000 n 0000003676 00000 n 0000003786 00000 n 0000003895 00000 n 0000007456 00000 n 0000007584 00000 n 0000007668 00000 n 0000007733 00000 n 0000015192 00000 n 0000015257 00000 n 0000023096 00000 n 0000023161 00000 n 0000031129 00000 n 0000031194 00000 n 0000039137 00000 n 0000039235 00000 n 0000044736 00000 n 0000044863 00000 n 0000044962 00000 n 0000045089 00000 n 0000045208 00000 n 0000045336 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45432 %%EOF