%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140730132832+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140730132832+01'00') /Title (Document Raj: Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1989 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Document Raj: Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1526)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 19 December, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bhavani Raman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226703275)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/D/bo13657793.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rama Sundari Mantena)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7804 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent historiography on the ascendance of colonial rule in India has shifted from a mode of investigating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contours of colonial power to looking at the fissures of imperial governance. By turning to examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these fissures, how do we as historians of colonial India make sense of the declarations of a confident empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as what we find in the oft-cited writings on British colonial policy in India by James Mill or by Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Babington Macaulay, and reconcile them with other revelations of anxiety and contradiction at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial governance? While the self-confident declarations of colonial rule as bringing enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality and efficiency to colonial spaces appear unadulterated in the writings of prominent Utilitarians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and theorists of empire, on the ground or in the everyday of colonial governance we witness something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely different. That imperial self-confidence is replaced by hesitation and contradiction. When we as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians shift from exploring political ideologies \(as if they were formulated in the metropole and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seamlessly applied in the colonies\) to the everyday practices of empire, we inevitably encounter a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex field of governance, one that reveals glaring contradictions in, and produces insights into, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature and particularities of British colonial rule in India. Bhavani Raman?s nuanced and novel study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of early colonial bureaucracy in South India moves us in this productive direction of exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday practice of empire through the institution of modern bureaucratic culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most durable legacy of colonial India, suggests Raman's fascinating new monograph )] TJ ET BT 464.444 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Document Raj: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India)] TJ ET BT 275.696 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is its bureaucratic forms: manifested in the revenue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office, the cutcherry \(office of administration\) and the courtroom. Specifically, Raman suggests, the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic work as a moral vocation began to take root in the early colonial period. These broad sweeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes encompassed the emergence of what she calls the micro-practices of writing elaborated through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic forms, which gave credence to an idea of what Raman calls ?papereality?, or the reliance on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written documents to represent the world \(p. 3\). Furthermore, this new bureaucratic culture viewed writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a tool of political accountability. She elaborates that the moral regeneration of the British Empire at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the 18th century relied on writing as a tool of political accountability \(p. 10\). However, in the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of instituting paper accountability, the burgeoning colonial bureaucracy appropriated the existing knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of native scribes and attempted to 'convert them into a genre that was accessible to means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verification concurrently emerging in metropolitan domains ' \(p. 54\). In the process of appropriation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial record became a testament to 'a material submission to colonial power' \(p. 55\) and the concomitant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effacement of the subordinated labor of the scribal world it depended on and oversaw. In other words, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial modes of governance as they were being fashioned at this stage depended on the subordination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native labor and a racialized hierarchy. These were the contradictions and tensions built into the bureaucracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propping up the early colonial government in South India, starting in the last decades of the 18th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing into the 19th.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raman provides rich descriptions of the social world of the scribes at the district offices. The scribes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves were recruited from a variety of social backgrounds depending on the particular office and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region they were working in. They were generally from upper-caste backgrounds. Even while the scribal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world was appropriated and converted in order to institute paper accountability, the English East India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company curiously adhered to the idea of hereditary skills and hereditary knowledge, thereby reifying 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary monopoly over village recordkeeping' \(p. 49\). This reinforcement was based on an idea held by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early colonial state that they should be seeking out or recruiting natural leaders in India who would act as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediators between the colonial officers and the native population which was 'extensive? and where the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?habits and manners of the people [are] so different from our own' \(p. 49\). This is a quote from a letter by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Court of Directors to the Madras government in 1814. The supposed rational government that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial state attempted to bring about did not find hereditary recruitment a contradiction and in fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced / reinvigorated caste affiliation. This is critical in understanding the salience that the category of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caste took on under colonial modes of governance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.964 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.964 117.555 m 291.956 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.956 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Raman explores these contradictions in the practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial recruitment, in the fashioning of a rational government through the colonial disciplining of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic work, recruitment and training of scribes, and finally in the new investments in writing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of attestation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Document Raj )] TJ ET BT 106.004 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that documents became the only way to seek the English East India Company?s favor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.9637 117.8695 291.9557 129.7495 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8573 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they became the new mode of sociality. Documentary transactions, Raman writes, were part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday of paternal governance of the Company. The petitioner became the writing/thinking subject of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raj. Or at least that was what was attempted. The idea was to replace older modes with the rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance of the Company. Precolonial governmental transactions as embedded in )] TJ ET BT 440.276 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaifiyats)] TJ ET BT 480.944 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, were replaced with newer methods of attestation and facticity. Raman argues that the )] TJ ET BT 486.572 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaifiyat)] TJ ET BT 522.572 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other similar documents were delegitimized because they did not follow the protocols of attestation. I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued in my own work that )] TJ ET BT 172.664 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaifiyats)] TJ ET BT 213.332 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were reduced to document status, taken out of their context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation, and subsequently require new interpretative practices.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.940 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.940 695.283 m 363.932 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.932 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While I argued that )] TJ ET BT 462.908 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaifiyats)] TJ ET BT 503.576 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced to fact, Raman rightly points out that )] TJ ET BT 254.996 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kaifiyats)] TJ ET BT 295.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were not readily accepted as credible narratives. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of credibility is central to Raman?s study of the document Raj as this is at the heart of the shift from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precolonial practices of governance to those being forged under early colonial rule. The shift to new methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of attestation not only relied on credible narratives but importantly instituted paper accountability and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliance on written documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New practices of attestation and new investments in writing and written evidence lead Raman to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad transformations in schooling and in the training of native scribal recruits. There have been some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and productive discussions on the culture of scholarly practices in South India as distinct from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations of Orientalists in Calcutta. Thomas Trautmann's edited volume on )] TJ ET BT 429.800 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Madras School of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism)] TJ ET BT 91.352 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates the complex set of scholarly practices at work in the Madras Presidency that gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to the philological discoveries of the Dravidian group of languages, which Raman points out inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dravidian nationalism in the latter part of the 19th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.312 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.312 512.211 m 331.304 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.304 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Within this scholarly milieu, Raman makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some important contributions to the field of colonial philology and Orientalist scholarship. Particularly, her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the ?grammar factory?, or practices and ideologies of colonial philology, provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshing look at colonial governmental initiatives to transform vernacular languages for practical uses, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make them legible, grammatical, and able to articulate facts and capable of the attestation of truth. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably different from the preoccupations with the literary dimensions of the shift to prose in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship on South Asian languages and literatures. The focus on the literary dimensions of the the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prose in 19th-century India may inadvertently lead one to conclude that it was a direct consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imitation of English textual and literary practices by the new educated classes of Indians. That approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, risks ignoring the institutional pressures that led to the burgeoning of prose in colonial South India. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is where Raman's ?grammar factory? concept comes in, as her examination of the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional pressures leads her to propose that unintended consequences ensued from new expectations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textual skills and the privileging of written grammar in pedagogical practices. Interestingly, Raman points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out an oft-forgotten part of this history of colonial philology, that grammar was something that even natives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted on because they too were aware of the importance of gaining competency in reading and writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills for their own advancement within the colonial bureaucracy. There were different institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures shaping a grammatical approach to language learning: on the one hand from the British who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning vernaculars to improve their communication skills, and on the native side from scribes and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petty officers who were being recruited into the bureaucracy. For instance, Vennelakanti Subba Rao, a native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruit who worked as translator and interpreter in the record keeping offices of the English East India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company, wrote a critique of native schooling practices. Raman points out rightly that Subba Rao was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of these schooling practices because they inadequately trained natives. The native recruits then had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on acquiring writing skills when apprenticed on the job. Subba Rao's critique also demonstrates the shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what Raman identifies as a 'new norm of being the master of a language' \(p. 127\). Since apprentices on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(job did not learn grammar and composition they did not ?master? the language. Because Subba Rao himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a product of the haphazard training he received from native veranda schools, he pushed for pedagogical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms, specifically singling out the teaching of grammar as critical for language training to better equip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native recruits so they could easily advance in the bureaucracy. However, there were few official attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improve language training for natives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Raman offers a cautionary note on recent efforts which represent intellectual encounters as examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of exchange in the early colonial era. If we simply characterize encounters under the conditions of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule as exchange, we disregard the incredibly hierarchical relationships between natives and European )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.9397 695.5975 363.9317 707.4775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.3117 512.5255 331.3037 524.4055 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5951 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers. Raman writes the following with regard to the idea of encounters as exchange in the realm of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific knowledge: 'Such a view presents European scientific knowledge as exchange driven and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecumenical by erasing the shadow of violence and inserting in its place an eager exploration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulation of learning and knowledge offered by global interconnections' \(p. 8\). This attempt to present the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial intermediary as agential, she argues, comes at the 'cost of critiquing the modern relationship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise and power' \(p. 8\). These are important points she makes, and points I subscribe to, especially her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress on not downplaying or erasing the workings of modern power instituted in the colonial state and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy, that manifests itself in this context in the asymmetrical social relations between the British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians who manned the bureaucracy. This, alongside the denigration of Indian forms of knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday practices of governance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, Bhavani Raman's )] TJ ET BT 169.508 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Document Raj)] TJ ET BT 238.496 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers fresh insights into the early colonial history in South India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically a rethinking of the colonial state, colonial modes of governance and the relations forged between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native recruits and European officials. A few questions that linger after an engaged reading of Raman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book: I wonder if in focusing on the everyday practices of governance through the institution of a colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy, are we neglecting to address adequately the dimensions of colonial power in not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structuring social relations along racial lines but also in the diminution of embedded native forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge? This certainly gets us away from studies of imperial ideologies of rule as possessing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherently seamless history. However, in focusing on the contradictions and anxieties of rule by turning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the everyday practices of colonial governance, are we avoiding the more difficult question of analyzing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial power and the structuring of hierarchies under colonialism alongside the everyday practice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire? Does our current generation of scholars' preoccupation with the micro-practices of empire indicate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift away from a focus on the workings of modern / colonial power? What does this shift mean for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepening of our understanding of colonial societies? This is not directed solely at Raman's work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance as conditioned by colonial bureaucracy but more generally at the spate of historical scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the early colonial state and the culture and practice of governance. However, in conclusion, Raman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling story of colonial bureaucracy whets the reader's appetite for more on the legacies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution of colonial bureaucracy in post-colonial India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 378.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Dirks, )] TJ ET BT 142.340 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Castes of Mind)] TJ ET BT 215.012 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.332 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.332 346.899 m 378.320 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rama Sundari Mantena, )] TJ ET BT 183.332 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Modern Historiography in India: Antiquarianism and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philology,)] TJ ET BT 116.684 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1780?1880)] TJ ET BT 170.684 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.320 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.320 318.387 m 342.308 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Madras School of Orientalism)] TJ ET BT 230.684 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Thomas Trautmann \(New Delhi, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.644 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.644 304.131 m 498.632 304.131 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 288.799 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 271.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 271.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1526)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 269.625 m 328.316 269.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 244.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/74554)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.3317 347.2135 378.3197 359.0935 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.3197 318.7015 342.3077 330.5815 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.6437 304.4455 498.6317 316.3255 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 269.9395 328.3157 281.8195 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1526) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000002689 00000 n 0000002798 00000 n 0000002908 00000 n 0000003017 00000 n 0000006578 00000 n 0000006706 00000 n 0000006790 00000 n 0000006874 00000 n 0000014731 00000 n 0000014761 00000 n 0000014889 00000 n 0000014925 00000 n 0000015016 00000 n 0000023642 00000 n 0000023672 00000 n 0000023800 00000 n 0000023836 00000 n 0000023866 00000 n 0000023994 00000 n 0000024030 00000 n 0000024135 00000 n 0000030139 00000 n 0000030267 00000 n 0000030322 00000 n 0000030450 00000 n 0000030505 00000 n 0000030633 00000 n 0000030688 00000 n 0000030816 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30912 %%EOF