%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20160820192457+01'00') /ModDate (D:20160820192457+01'00') /Title (Indigo Plantations and Science in Colonial India) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4403 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Indigo Plantations and Science in Colonial India)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indigo plantation in India came under scholarly examination initially in the context of colonial oppression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the indigenous protest against it, as a part of the history of freedom struggle. Over the years, it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become an aspect of economic history and of the history of the peasant movement. In the 1990s, Deepak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kumar briefly touched upon its scientific component in his )] TJ ET BT 320.324 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science and the Raj 1857-1905)] TJ ET BT 470.300 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.300 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.300 200.649 m 487.292 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.292 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Subsequently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prakash Kumar took up the subject, taking a deeper interest in its scientific aspects, which has culminated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally in the present work, )] TJ ET BT 166.664 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indigo Plantations and Science in Colonial India)] TJ ET BT 402.668 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is the first fully- fledged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent work on the subject concerning India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction to the book begins with an engaging story of indigo plantation in South Asia and the world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touching upon the various aspects of historical research on the subject and its conceptual underpinnings. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter one, the author introduces the reader to the world of indigo plantation with a focus on the diaspora. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Starting with the Caribbean indigo, he visits the indigo industry in Saint Domingue, Guatemala and Carolina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before he turns to Bengal in India ? the main location of his study. In this detour, he gathers valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on the scientific aspects of indigo cultivation and dye making, and the international trading that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1529)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 9 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prakash Kumar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107023253)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(68.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(350pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/history-science-and-technology/indigo-plantations-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-science-colonial-india)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. N. Sinha)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2997 200.9635 487.2917 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7173 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced the indigo industry in India as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two, ?The course of colonial modernity?, starts with a glance at the politico-economic aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigo cultivation in the emerging British colony in Bengal. It examines in detail the landscape, land rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the need for improvement in the province, especially its Tirhut region, in the context of white planters? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives to promote indigo cultivation. To understand the problems, developments in Bengal are compared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with those in the Doab and other parts of the country. However, what is of greater importance here is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s effort to relate developments in indigo cultivation in India to advances in agricultural chemistry in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, and particularly in France and Britain. The scientific discoveries and experiments concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different indigo varieties abroad very much encouraged the new initiatives to promote the indigo industry in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India. It is demonstrated how the new findings about the plant and its industrial processing in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced the industry in India. Chapter three deals with the commercial and marketing aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry in the country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four recounts the establishment of agricultural institutions at many places in north India, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pusa, Dholi, Sabour, Dalsingserai, Peeprah in Bihar, and Dhasana near Delhi. The chapter is, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic in its nomenclature and content. The use of the phrase ?Local science? is somewhat confusing ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this normally connotes indigenous science, but it is not used in that sense here. Likewise, as to the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the chapter heading ??agricultural institutions in the Age of Nationalism? ? Kumar talks very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about nationalism while writing about the establishment of agricultural institutions. It may be noted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism was fast emerging in north India around this time, especially around Pusa where the first major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Agricultural Institute was founded in 1905. As such the projected points of focus of the chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain largely ambiguous and unconnected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, the discovery of synthetic indigo by 1897 in Germany had come as a great challenge to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of the natural indigo industry. Chapter five gives an account of its dwindling prospects and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts made to harness science to save it from the competition. In the circumstances, Mendelian biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection seemed to offer some hope to the Indian planters. Therefore, efforts were made at newly created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research centres to find out the best variety of indigo plant to enhance production to meet the challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the ever rising synthetic dye. The involvement of analytical chemists with the indigo trade was a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development that started around this time. It concentrated on the colour content and the nature of the dye. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, personal rivalries between the chemists themselves soon surfaced. Two of them, W. P. Bloxam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Cyril Bergtheil, started arguing against each other?s interpretation of colour tests at the meeting of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society of Chemical Industry in Manchester and London. Differences arose also between the scientists in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis and the planters in India. The latter resisted metropolitan scientific advice in view of their actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and perceptions on the ground in India. Floods, hostile climatic conditions, and plant diseases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further doomed the prospects of harnessing science and rationalising the industry, as synthetic indigo surged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ahead in the international market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not long after, the First World War generated a fresh wave of metropolitan interest in reviving the colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural indigo industry. Disruption in the supply of synthetic dye from Germany during the war created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new demand in the markets in Britain and elsewhere among the allied nations. Wartime sentiment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England further generated political support for a ?product of the Empire?. In these conditions of changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political economy, the supporters of natural indigo found an opportunity, with governments both in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and India, along with many others, including the planters and traders, becoming interested in promoting it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Various measures were initiated to boost the industry at all levels ? plantation, processing, and trading. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important conference was held in Delhi in 1915 and the problems of the industry were discussed. Emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was placed on standardising the product, and an effort was made to establish a lasting paradigm for indigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement. However, most dyers and printers considered natural indigo to be an inferior dye compared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthetic. A follow-up conference was organised in London, and appeals were made to improve the natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dye industry. But nothing could avert its doom. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this study, Kumar has identified three landmarks in the history of indigo in the British Empire: first, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global dispersal of knowledge about indigo that started with an early text authored by Jean-Baptiste Labat, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the famous 17th-century French naturalist. Written in the beginning of the era of indigo plantation, the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was translated into English and other major European languages and became an important medium in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global movement of indigo-manufacturing knowledge from the Caribbean, especially the indigo-growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region of the French Empire to the British Empire. Labat was born in 1663 in Paris and was respected for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning. He earned a reputation abroad as a preacher, as a successful colonialist, and later as a writer and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalist. His was the first detailed account of the cultivation and manufacturing of indigo to be widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disseminated at a time when indigo production was spreading worldwide. Other French expositions on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigo by writers and planters, like Elias Monnereue of Saint Domingue, and De Cossigny de Palma of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mauritius, similarly made it to the wider world including colonial South Asia. The history of indigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing in colonial South Asia cannot be complete without a consideration of these larger knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks, Kumar believes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second landmark was the discovery of synthetic dye in Germany and its commercial launch in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market in 1897. This instantly introduced commotion in the natural indigo business and generated debate at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various levels. The debate surrounding natural vs. synthetic is presented in detail in the book, with various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuances brought out, in terms both of a clash of business interests and the question of the worth and utility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two substances, notwithstanding elements of international diplomacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third landmark was the First World War, which impacted significantly the development of indigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry in India. It brought the on-going debate ? natural vs. synthetic ? into a far wider perspective of war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international diplomacy, and trade. However, the author?s indifference to the broader realities of life, politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and society in the country leaves the narrative incomplete. It may be recalled that around this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism was fast emerging in the whole of north India, the main area of indigo plantation. Revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist Khudiram Bose bombed and killed a white British family in 1908 at Muzaffarpur, then a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of assemblage of white planters in the country. Such revolutionary activities in the region continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until Independence. Moreover, through the Swadeshi Movement numerous indigenous efforts were made to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote agriculture on modern lines in the country. Rabindranath Tagore experimented in his farm at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Santiniketan at Bolepur, and a Swadeshi farm was established near Deoghar, now in Jharkhand. A look at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these developments could have given insights into both indigo plantation practices, and nationalism in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author overlooks the response of the nationalist bodies like the Indian National Congress, and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common masses who provided the labour force for the indigo industry. Unfortunately, the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masses is yet to be written properly.In that, proceedings of the the local popular organisations, particularly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bengal, may give us useful information, or else, information may be hidden in obscure places, as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime files of the local administration and in the diaries of the planters themselves. Curiously enough, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author touches upon the aspect of nationalism only in the conclusion in the end of the book and then only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very briefly. It is worth remembering that Gandhi?s movement for freedom, the most potent and conclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phase of the freedom struggle in India, started in 1917 as a consequence of the problems created by indigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation in Champaran in Bihar. The author's neglect of this is ironic, as he has studied meticulously many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the indigo-producing establishments located in Champaran and the surrounding areas. There are several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works on the socio-economic aspects of these establishments in Champaran and elsewhere in the country, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with harrowing narratives of the excesses and exploitation of the poor ryots by the white planters, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them are included in the bibliography of this book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of his discussion of ?colonial modernity,? the author touches in chapter two upon the critique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial rule advanced by Eugen Schrottky. Schrottky, drawing from Justus von Liebig?s ideas, criticised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only the Indian rulers but also the colonial rulers of India for neglecting agriculture in the country, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleaded for its rationalisation in consonance with increases in scientific understanding. He later joined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue with Dada Bhai Naoroji, who produced one of the earliest and greatest critiques of British economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy \(pp. 118?21\). Kumar also details the case of John Augustus Voelcker, the noted agricultural scientist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who visited India on the invitation of the colonial government during 1889?91, and subsequently submitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his famous )] TJ ET BT 89.348 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Report on the Improvement of Indian Agriculture)] TJ ET BT 325.988 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1893\). Citing this report, Kumar shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Voelcker defended the colonial authorities over the issue of the neglect of agriculture in India, and how he )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7538 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refrained from addressing the political aspects of the indigo industry involving the socioeconomic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political relations between planters, ryots, and zamindars. Not only that but decades later, ?after the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolts against the indigo system in Bengal, and simmering discontent against its violence among the indigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry in Bihar?, he praised the planters for their good practice in promoting indigo cultivation in the area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 126?7\). But what is the author?s own view on the planters? oppression and its consequences for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local population?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise, the author?s comparative silence on traditional indigenous practices in indigo cultivation in India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is intriguing. There are credible references to indigo cultivation and its use in pre-colonial India )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.932 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.932 683.283 m 509.924 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.924 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author himself refers to in the book \(pp. 59?60, 62?7\). But it is baffling that he does not go into its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in greater detail and show whether white planters made use of indigenous knowledge for their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations. If not, then why? Did hostility between the planters and the local people hinder any interaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and free flow of ideas and information between the two? Or, were there other reasons? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I also have concerns about the use of certain phrases in the book: for example, cannot ?indigo science? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(201, 208, 252, 277\) be considered as ?plant science? or ?agricultural science? rather than requiring separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorisation? The author?s description of the different manufacturing processes is valuable, but again not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily sufficient to merit a whole new term. In addition, many of the descriptions of the experiments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and field studies appear to be overstretched. Are not most of them concerned with technology, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science? ?Indigo culture' \(p. 33, 90?9\) and ?indigo system? \(p. 53, 300\) sound good, likewise; but will they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be able to deliver the desired meaning once taken out of their present context? These phrases jar in the midst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an otherwise very clear and free-flowing narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real problem arises when the author insulates the subject from contemporary social realities. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicated earlier, most past works on indigo reflect a background of exploitation of the Indians. Even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technicalities of pure science ? be it connected with indigo or something else ? have socio-cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections. This has been demonstrated again and again since J. D. Bernal and others reflected on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social relations of science in the 1930s. Overlooking this is sure to raise many eyebrows. Curiously, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author takes up the question of nationalism in chapter four, but very soon drops it without any obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We may recall that the lease of vast fertile lands to the white indigo planters paved the way for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrenchment of the colonisers in remote areas of the country, creating a base and support system for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation of the colonial rule in the country. Moreover, the most fertile lands were brought under indigo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation, with hardly any good land left for the cultivation of staple cereals and crops for local needs. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to serious shortfalls in food production, and caused malnutrition and the pauperisation of the peasantry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved. Professional organisations had already created a support system for the indigo planters; official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support to them in matters of land lease and management, official favours, and police protection encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to indulge in all types of extortion and oppression of the masses. The planters imposed bizarre taxes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and obligations on the peasants. The latter had to pay for the festive parties of the )] TJ ET BT 427.616 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gora)] TJ ET BT 455.948 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saheb)] TJ ET BT 485.276 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for his new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coach \(or car later\), and for the family festivities. Already impoverished by floods and famines, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry was pushed down to still lower economic levels, with a subsequent adverse impact on the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure and the professions. In several cases, the attitude of the planters was very hostile and harsh. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are stories of extreme atrocities perpetrated by them on the local population. On the planters? side, too, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are sad stories of loneliness, problems arising out of the conditions of the tropics \(heat, dust and perspiration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insect bites, endemics and epidemics\), and domestic violence leading to suicides by the wives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are a few issues the author may perhaps like to address in his future work. Otherwise, the present book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a meticulously researched work based on a wide variety of sources skilfully used in the narrative. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents an engaging story of the indigo industry in India, its global expanse and immensity, with its links to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the international market, imperialism, and ultimately to the global system of capitalism. The impact of global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces and events on the trade, for instance through the diplomatic rivalries of countries like Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, are delineated. This study confirms again the strong and sustained nature of British imperial support )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.9317 683.5975 509.9237 695.4775 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 3021 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to European business interests in India.The deputation of noted British scientists sent to research centres in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India to promote the indigo industry demonstrates this well; but taken on a wider level, it also shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of scientific community and proliferation of knowledge, propelled by economic factors and trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(globally \(pp. 48?53; 68?76\). Well written, and impressively readable, the book is sure to stimulate interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject and prove a reference work for future research on indigo in India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deepak Kumar, )] TJ ET BT 142.988 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science and the Raj 1857?1905)] TJ ET BT 294.968 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Delhi, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.280 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.280 672.531 m 445.268 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iqtidar Alam Khan, ?Pre-modern indigo vats of Bayana?, )] TJ ET BT 341.960 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Islamic Environmental Design )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Research Centre)] TJ ET BT 144.332 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\), 92?8; Ishrat Alam, ?New light on indigo production technology during the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?, in )] TJ ET BT 257.312 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art and Culture)] TJ ET BT 333.320 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. J. Qaisar and S. P. Verma \(Jaipur, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\); Ghulam Nadri, ?Indigo industry and trade in Gujrat in the seventeenth century? \(unpublished )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M.Phil. dissertation, AMU, 1996\); )] TJ ET BT 232.688 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Century Gujrat: The Dynamics of its Political )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economy, 1750-1800 )] TJ ET BT 169.664 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.980 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.980 586.995 m 297.968 586.995 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1529)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 328.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55197)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.2797 672.8455 445.2677 684.7255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.9797 587.3095 297.9677 599.1895 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 328.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1529) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000005102 00000 n 0000005211 00000 n 0000005321 00000 n 0000005430 00000 n 0000008991 00000 n 0000009119 00000 n 0000009203 00000 n 0000009232 00000 n 0000009360 00000 n 0000009396 00000 n 0000009461 00000 n 0000016687 00000 n 0000016752 00000 n 0000024259 00000 n 0000024343 00000 n 0000031934 00000 n 0000031964 00000 n 0000032092 00000 n 0000032128 00000 n 0000032226 00000 n 0000035300 00000 n 0000035428 00000 n 0000035483 00000 n 0000035611 00000 n 0000035666 00000 n 0000035794 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35890 %%EOF