%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728004516+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728004516+01'00') /Title (The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4494 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few areas of historical enquiry resonate with such contemporary relevance as the Arab-Israeli conflict, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any scholar attempting a book on the subject is walking into a politically charged minefield. Historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiring after the 'truth' are accused of partisan bias: after all, they must either be supporters of Zionism or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Arab cause. Authors are charged, sometimes justifiably, with misusing history to pursue an agenda that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supports either the Palestinians or Israel. The debate on Arab-Israeli relations is always robust; often, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acrimonious, bad-natured and personal. Authors, perhaps even reviewers, need a thick skin when entering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the arena of debate on the hotly contested issue of Israel and the Arabs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditionally dominated by Israelis, the historiography on the Arab-Israeli dispute has gone through various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phases. The 'old' or 'mobilised' history, written by Israeli scholars in the 1950s, '60s and '70s, portrayed Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as under serious threat from the Arabs and so forced into a series of wars of survival. This 'old' history also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to exculpate Israel from the charge that it stole Palestinian land and forcibly evicted the inhabitants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then, in the late 1980s, a group of 'new' or 'revisionist' historians headed by Simha Flapan, Benny Morris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ilan Papp and Avi Shlaim emerged to challenge this 'old' history. These 'new' historians argued that Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was responsible in some measure for the Palestinian refugee crisis and for the Arab-Israeli wars, and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of Israel put forward by the 'old' historians was both misleading and determined by the political need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be pro-Israeli. The conclusions of the 'new' historians were not, however, necessarily pro-Palestinian. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris concluded in )] TJ ET BT 134.336 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem)] TJ ET BT 348.332 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1987\): 'The Palestinian refugee problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was born of war, not by design, Jewish or Arab. It was largely a by-product of Arab and Jewish fears and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(153)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 September, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avi Shlaim)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978071399410X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(695pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hughes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8388 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the protracted, bitter fighting that characterised the first Arab-Israeli war; in smaller part, it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate creation of Jewish and Arab military commanders and politicians.' The debunking by the 'new' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of long-held shibboleths provoked a furore among the 'old' historians \(who now became the 'new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old' historians\) and the debate soon spilled over into the public domain. In articles and books, the 'new old' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians counter-attacked. Aharon Megged charged the 'new' historians with writing history in the spirit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel's enemies; Efraim Karsh angrily accused Morris and Shlaim of falsifying and recycling history. Attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and counter-attack ensued as both sides slugged it out. Meanwhile, Palestinian historians attacked the 'new' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians for not going far enough in their analysis. The debate goes on in books and journals such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Eastern Studies)] TJ ET BT 146.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 152.012 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Palestine Studies)] TJ ET BT 287.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 293.012 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies)] TJ ET BT 524.012 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle East Journal)] TJ ET BT 132.680 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 138.680 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Zionism)] TJ ET BT 227.360 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 250.688 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentary)] TJ ET BT 312.680 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim's part in this debate was a thought-provoking book entitled )] TJ ET BT 355.496 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collusion across the Jordan: King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine)] TJ ET BT 336.020 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon, 1988\). In it he examined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the controversy that the early Zionists 'colluded' with the Arab Hashemite regime in Amman to divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine. This was done with the knowledge and tacit acceptance of the British. The collusion benefited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel and King Abdullah of Jordan but divided the Arab front against Israel. Shlaim's book angered the 'new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old' historian Karsh sufficiently for him to devote a chapter to criticising Shlaim's thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of the book under review? How does it fit into the historiography? In )] TJ ET BT 397.292 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 443.624 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Shlaim nails his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colours firmly to the 'revisionist' mast, stating at the outset: 'My aim in the present book is to offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist interpretation of Israel's policy towards the Arab world during the fifty years following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement of statehood.' \(p.xii\) With this in mind, the book begins with a brief examination of the nascent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionist movement prior to 1948. In particular, Shlaim unpacks the ideas of the extremist Jewish nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitator and thinker Ze'ev \(Vladimir\) Jabotinsky. In 1923, Jabotinsky published two works under the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Iron Wall'. In these pieces, Jabotinsky argued that the 'sole way' to an agreement with the Arabs was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through an 'iron wall, that is to say, the establishment in Palestine of a force that will in no way be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by Arab pressure. In other words, the only way to achieve a settlement in the future is total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoidance of all attempts to arrive at a settlement in the present.' \(p.14\) As Shlaim points out later in )] TJ ET BT 518.456 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wall)] TJ ET BT 56.684 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it was, therefore, pointless to talk with the Arabs as the 'Zionist program had to be executed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unilaterally and by force.' \(p.598\) This notion of building a tough wall within which the Jewish state could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourish before it considered seriously negotiations with the Arabs is central to Shlaim's book. It is arguable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Shlaim could have done more to dissect the 'iron wall' idea in the introduction, considering its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for )] TJ ET BT 107.996 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 154.328 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As Shlaim argues, David Ben-Gurion, Israel's formative first leader, broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed Jabotinsky's thinking. This meant a preference for military over political solutions when dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Arabs. As a result, Zionist-Arab relations foundered and, at times, descended into war. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges the notion that the Zionists wanted an accommodation with the Arabs and the Palestinians, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab obstinacy ruined any deal. In fact, the critical interchange was within Israel between those wanting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the 'iron wall' policy versus those seeking a more peaceful, political solution to the Arab-Israeli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impasse. As Shlaim argues, too often the former won out over the latter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim challenges and overturns many orthodoxies. He questions whether the formation of Israel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent battle with invading Arab armies really was a David versus Goliath struggle. While this is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught in Israeli schools, it is described by Shlaim as the 'heroic-moralist version' that 'is a prime example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of a nationalistic version of history in the process of nation building. In a very real sense history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the propaganda of the victors, and the history of the 1948 war is no exception.' \(p.34\) In discussing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vicissitudes of the 1948-9 Arab-Israel war, Shlaim emphasises the disunity of the Arab forces deployed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Israel. This allowed Ben-Gurion's generals to deal with one enemy front at a time and so achieve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory in 1948-9. In this respect, Abdullah's collusion, dealt with in Shlaim's earlier book, was a vital factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Israel's divide and win policy. The conclusion of the chapter on the formation of Israel is telling. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical concept of the iron wall alongside the reality of a comprehensive military victory in 1948 set up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military toughness as a leitmotif in Israeli relations with the Arabs. As Shlaim observes \(p.50\): 'military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power expanded the margins for political choice.' In these crucial early years, Ben-Gurion leaned towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bellicose approach of the newly formed Israeli Defence Force \(IDF\). This marginalised the 'doves' led by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7314 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those such as the Foreign Minister \(and later Prime Minister\), Moshe Sharett, who sought some form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation with the Arabs. In the discussions over policy, Ben-Gurion's stamped his authority. Shlaim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes one cabinet meeting where the ministers were like 'polite and frightened children in a kindergarten' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced to hesitantly raising hands before asking questions against the 'overpowering' authority of Ben-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gurion. \(p.75\) Israel dismissed Arab peace feelers as Ben-Gurion preferred to wait in the hope that with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of time Israel's borders and land seizures would become accepted facts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim argues that because of the 'iron wall' policy Israel missed signing a peace settlement after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armistice of 1949. Discussing the promising but failed Israeli-Jordanian peace talks, 1949-51, Shlaim wryly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that 'it was a turning point in the history of Israeli-Jordanian relations at which history failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn.' \(p.65\) For Ben-Gurion, Egypt was the Arab country with which to make a peace and not Jordan which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he considered to be a small, unstable country dependent on Abdullah and British aid for its survival. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination of Abdullah in 1951 convinced Ben Gurion of the fact that the Arab states would need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('deterred, coerced, and intimidated' into peace. \(p.68\) Consequently, Israel pursued disproportionately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressive policies, particularly in response to numerous border clashes and incidents. Israel militarised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demilitarised zones \(DMZs\) along the Syrian border, ignoring UN protests about this infraction. As with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordan, Israel also threw away a peace with Syria. In all of this discussion, Shlaim is persuasive. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marshals a considerable array of evidence and presents a cogent and lucid argument that takes the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the twists and turns of Israeli-Arab relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Echoing the view put forward in the recent BBC TV series \(and book\), 'The Fifty Years' War', Shlaim sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the origins of the 1956 war in the dispute within Israel between the 'hawks' \(or 'activists'\) led by the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben-Gurion, Pinhas Lavon and Moshe Dayan, eager for maximum retaliation, and the 'doves' headed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharett eager for negotiation. As a military man, Dayan, the IDF chief-of-staff, was keen to pursue the 'iron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wall' of Jewish military strength. Lavon, a one-time moderate given the defence portfolio in 1953, who then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metamorphosed into an extreme hard-liner, was a more surprising convert to the idea of the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offensive. Shlaim presents the 1956 war as a clash between the 'iron wall' policy of Ben-Gurion and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measured diplomacy of Sharett. As part of the 'activist' school, Ben-Gurion felt that Israel had to assert its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military will. The activists 'believed in the policy of the iron wall'. \(p.87\) Reflecting the new hard-line in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with the Arabs, Israel escalated various border clashes. The 'hawks' encouraged Israeli infiltration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disproportionate retaliation across the Gaza Strip border to provoke a war. While the Egyptians tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stop infiltration, Israel, eager to respond with maximum force, established 'free-fire' zones and attacked Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villages and Egyptian military positions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Shlaim, Sharett was \(p.95\) an 'independent and original thinker' who offered Israel an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathway. Shlaim outlines the fundamental differences in temperament between Sharett the diplomat, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben-Gurion the man of action; between Ben-Gurion's self-reliance and Sharett's desire to accommodate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabs and the international community. Always eager to accommodate his opponent, Sharett was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consummate diplomat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book, with its argument that the IDF provoked border incidents to force a military solution, will not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an easy read for 'old' historians. The Israeli raid on Gaza town in 1955, an action that horrified Sharett, began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the countdown to the 1956 war. Therefore, if Shlaim is to be believed, Israel, and not a bellicose Gamal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abdel Nasser, caused the 1956 war. Turning to the war itself, )] TJ ET BT 331.952 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 378.284 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( questions the traditional view that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a defensive, just and well-executed affair that fulfilled Israeli objectives. Rather, Shlaim sees Israel's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of the war as the propaganda of the victors, and the image of the war as a 'striking example of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which history can be manipulated to serve nationalist ends.' \(p.185\) The hard-liners had failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topple Nasser but they had succeeded in toppling Sharett.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1963, Ben-Gurion retired and a new leader, Levi Eshkol, emerged to lead Israel. Eshkol was in the mould )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sharett. His preference for compromise was such that when he was asked in a restaurant whether he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted tea or coffee, he replied 'half and half'. That Eshkol was something of a Sharettist suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim overemphasises the victory of the 'hawks' in the 1950s. Israel's thriving democracy allowed Eshkol to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beat off a challenge from Ben-Gurion in 1965. There were obvious limits to Ben-Gurion's power base. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eshkol, however, continued the policy of arming Israel, including the programme to build a nuclear bomb at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Dimona complex in the Negev desert. As with the 1956 war, Shlaim lays the blame for the 1967 'Six-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Day' war with Israel and the policy of starting firefights along the Golan border: 'Israel's strategy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escalation on the Syrian front was probably the single most important factor in dragging the Middle East to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in 1967.' \(p.235\) But with the moderate Eshkol in power how was it that Israel went to war? Was it the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('iron wall' in action again?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1967 war, as Shlaim admits, followed a 'crisis slide' that neither side could arrest. The planned intent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim outlined for the 1956 war disappears prior to June 1967. Events on the ground overtook any Israeli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plan for war. As Shlaim admits, the 'Six-Day' war was a defensive conflict forced on Israel by Nasser's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brinkmanship. Israel was reacting to rather than initiating events. Shlaim does a good job of discussing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967 war, but there is less structure and more narrative to his analysis. Israel tried to limit the conflict, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hashemite forces shelled Israel forcing the IDF to attack the West Bank. The aggressive actions of King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hussein of Jordan seem bizarre in retrospect and cost him Jerusalem and the West Bank. Eshkol told the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanians that Israel did not want a war. The events surrounding the 1967 war show a more benign and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scared Israel, and move attention away from the 'iron wall' idea. The 1967 war does not easily fit into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim's overall thesis about Israel and the Arabs. Shlaim does, however, pick up the 'iron wall' theme after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967 suggesting that the sweeping territorial gains made in June 1967 proved that peace could only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtained from a position of strength.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1967, the growing power of the Israeli military establishment reinforced a 'long-standing tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view relations with the Arab states from a strategic perspective and to subordinate political and diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations to military ones in the making of high policy.' \(p.288\) Golda Meir, in charge after 1969, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deferred to her military experts, thus extending IDF influence over government policy. Israel now reverted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its 'iron wall' policy and responded to force with greater force. Meir comes in for heavy criticism as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli leader who personified the siege mentality: 'the notion that Israel had to barricade itself behind an iron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wall, the fatalistic belief that Israel was doomed forever to live by the sword.' \(p.323\) Thus, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptian-inspired war of attrition along the Suez canal, Israel initiated deep air strikes into Egypt to escalate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crisis in order, so the thinking went, to de-escalate the conflict by proving Israeli determination. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(air strikes were not accompanied by any political moves. They were pure punishment. In response, Moscow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed 15,000 'technicians' to Egypt, a serious escalation of both the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. One Israeli cabinet member wrote of the exaggerated vision Meir had of the role of war in international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and how the 'triumph of our forces in 1967 had encouraged a belief in an Israeli invincibility'. \(p.293\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim puts the case that military conquest had replaced political dialogue; strength had triumphed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise. It was Israel who rejected Arab and US peace overtures and this, as in 1956, led to another war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the fifth Arab-Israeli war in October 1973, a surprise Egyptian-Syrian attack shattered the Golan and Sinai )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fronts. The attack caught Israel unawares and restored Arab military prestige. This presents an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation: it was Arab military power in 1973, their 'iron wall' if you like, that prompted the two sides to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate the first peace treaty in 1979 between Israel and Egypt. So perhaps a policy of military toughness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not entirely mistaken? And perhaps Israel's willingness to sign a peace treaty with Egypt was also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function of the success of Israel's 'iron wall' policy? This is a conundrum Shlaim returns to in the epilogue to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 80.348 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a landmark election in 1977 Likud and Menachem Begin were elected to power ending Labour's long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in charge. Jabotinsky was the main inspirational source for Begin and, for Shlaim, Begin had soaked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up the whole idea of the iron wall. Anwar Sadat of Egypt failed to realise the overwhelming reluctance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israelis to part with the iron wall. Therefore, Shlaim feels that the 1979 treaty was an aberration and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once it was signed Israel was fated to go back to the 'ideological precepts of Revisionist Zionism.' \(p.383\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harsh words, but explanation for Israel's subsequent annexation of the Golan Heights, invasion of Lebanon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1982, and involvement in the massacres of Palestinian civilians in the Beirut refugee camps. Begin does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not come out of this analysis with much kudos. Instead, he appears as a man increasingly out of touch with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality, comparing the attack on Beirut with the final battle for Berlin in 1945. Begin finally resigned a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broken man, defeated by the Lebanon quagmire. As Shlaim concludes \(p.419\): 'Begin did have a spark of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscience and humanity in him, at least when it came to Jewish lives, and the burden of guilt finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcame him.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli negotiations with the Arabs stumbled on through the 1980s until the uprising of the )] TJ ET BT 469.664 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intifadah)] TJ ET BT 513.008 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1987 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(galvanised the various parties. IDF soldiers confronting stone throwing Palestinian youths did little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present Israel as the David versus the Arab Goliath. Palestinian children throwing rocks had more of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact than decades of terrorism and ineffectual posturing by groups such as the PLO. Images of Israeli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers maltreating Palestinian demonstrators rocked Israel's perception of itself, and Israel's position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationally. The issue of 'Palestine' needed to be addressed. Shlaim concludes his book with an in-depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the moves towards extending the peace to the other Arab states and the Palestinians. In this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yitzhak Shamir, once memorably described as the 'tunnel at the end of the light', emerged as the exponent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent conflict, while Labour's Yitzhak Rabin was the force for peaceful change. Rabin's tragic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination in 1995 by a Jewish extremist ended the most promising period of Israeli-Palestinian relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where real dialogue had replaced the long tradition of conflict. Likud bitterly attacked this change in policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Arabs, and Rabin's opponents likened him to a Nazi. The role of personalities in shaping events in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Middle East is immense and the death of Rabin meant the death of the peace process. The election a year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later of Binyamin Netanyahu, standing against Labour's Shimon Peres, Rabin's successor, ended the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakthrough in Israeli-Palestinian relations. \(Shlaim likens Peres's performance in the election to the joke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the man challenged to a duel who sends his opponent a telegram saying: 'I'm going to be late. Start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shooting without me.'\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim's epilogue returns to some of the ideas he introduced in the prologue. In particular, Shlaim portrays a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more complex picture of Jabotinsky's view of the 'iron wall' and suggests that right-wing Israeli politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to realise that Jabotinsky's 'iron wall encompassed a theory of change in Jewish-Palestinian relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to reconciliation and peaceful coexistence.' \(p.599\) As is often the way, the disciples lacked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision of the prophet. They failed to grasp that Jabotinsky's concept included the idea that once Israel had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved its 'iron wall' it could then negotiate effectively from a position of strength. Those such as Yitzhak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shamir were, however, fixed in a mindset of toughness and 'conceived of the iron wall as a bulwark against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and as an instrument for keeping the Palestinians in a permanent state of subservience to Israel.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.599\) Naturally, considering the theme of )] TJ ET BT 245.312 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 291.644 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Shlaim is particularly harsh on Binyamin Netanyahu's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in office which he describes, bluntly, as 'Back to the Iron Wall'. Shlaim argues that Jabotinsky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired Netanyahu with a Manichaean vision of a never-ending conflict with the Arabs. Under Netanyahu, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was 'rewritten from a Revisionist perspective in order to demonstrate that it was not the Jews who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usurped the land from the Arabs, but the Arabs who usurped it from the Jews.' \(p.565\) Shlaim's epilogue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes with satisfaction the election of Ehud Barak as leader of Israel in 1999. Perhaps a new epilogue is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed considering the recent impasse in negotiations between Barak and the Palestinians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an impressive and lucid piece of scholarship where Shlaim puts the 'revisionist' case with vigour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verve. While there is an occasional drift away from the 'iron wall' theme towards a chronological analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different topics, the theme of the 'iron wall' provides a thread drawing together the many elements making up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 80.348 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. While Shlaim synthesises some existing historical debate, he also introduces new information and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, and provides new insights. And it is all packaged together in one easy-to-read volume. As with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of whether a bottle is half empty or half full, those opposed to the 'new' history will look at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same evidence as Shlaim and come to completely different conclusions. In particular, they will point to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they see as the very real threat of annihilation of Israel throughout the period by overwhelming Arab forces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the stuff of lively academic debate. However, those opposed to the 'new' history will need to engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the strongly argued substance of Shlaim's point about the 'iron wall' tradition in Israeli history. Karsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticised Shlaim in the )] TJ ET BT 148.016 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 278.012 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for ignoring Arab aggressive intent and accused him of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving out the Arab-Palestinian side to the conflict. Shlaim does downplay Arab aggression as part of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall argument, but he is far from uncritical of Arab policy. Also, with his focus on Israel as the motor for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Arab-Israeli conflict, Shlaim naturally takes an Israeli-centric approach. There is also a real difficulty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaining access to Arab archives to flesh-out Arab policy. However, using interviews, printed primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, memoirs and the secondary sources available, Shlaim covers the main points of the Arab side to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1392 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. )] TJ ET BT 76.676 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 123.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a broad sweep of history and is to be highly recommended for those interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a well-written, lively, thought-provoking and controversial account of the Arab-Israeli conflict. One final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint: why the American English for the book? Is the American market so important that Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim, who holds a chair at St. Antony's Oxford, is not allowed to write British English?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/153)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/153) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005185 00000 n 0000005294 00000 n 0000005404 00000 n 0000005513 00000 n 0000009074 00000 n 0000009202 00000 n 0000009286 00000 n 0000009351 00000 n 0000017792 00000 n 0000017857 00000 n 0000025224 00000 n 0000025289 00000 n 0000032827 00000 n 0000032892 00000 n 0000040761 00000 n 0000040845 00000 n 0000042290 00000 n 0000042418 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42513 %%EOF