%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141220065338+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141220065338+00'00') /Title (The Summits of Modern Man: Mountaineering after the Enlightenment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4018 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man: Mountaineering after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man: Mountaineering After the Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 375.992 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is both a more narrowly focussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a more widely cast book than its title would suggest. The core of the work focusses on one physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountain, and the activities which took place upon and around it from the 18th century onwards: Mont )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blanc, the white mountain, and the highest peak in Europe. However, as Peter Hansen seeks to establish, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(top of Mont Blanc encompassed a variety of different ?summit positions?, contested, debated, and redefined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the centuries. In the course of this ambitious work, Hansen considers everything from papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountain-visits to bronze statues of early climbers, covering a time-space from the early 17th century to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 20th. Such impressive range is both one of the strengths and one of the weaknesses of this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening chapter, ?Beginnings?, introduces a key issue: the mythology of the sole claimant of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountain summit, and the \(according to Hansen\) post-Enlightenment fascination with the question, ?who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was first?. As Hansen observes, mountaineering is, in spite of the mythos, innately a group activity: when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone is ?on belay?, regardless of whether they are the lead climber or the belayer standing below, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are linked and reliant on the presence and attention of another human being. No mountain is really climbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1529)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 9 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter H. Hansen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674047990)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(366pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674047990)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dawn Jackson Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7830 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by an individual. However, the desire to place a single person in the ?summit position? is strong, a point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Hansen illustrates with discussion of Petrarch?s ascent of Mont Ventoux, considered by many to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?first? example of ?modern? mountaineering. However, he emphasises that such definitions \(both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?being first? and of ?modernity?\) are by no means simple ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter, ?Discovery of the glacires?, considers the ?discovery? of Mont Blanc by Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pococke and William Windham, among others, and discusses early natural histories of the Alpine regions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Johann Jakob Scheuchzer?s )] TJ ET BT 208.304 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iterina Alpina)] TJ ET BT 275.972 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1708\). Chapter three, ?Ascent and enfranchisement?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces the reader to the first ascent of Mont Blanc, and the events leading up to it. Hansen argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ascents of Mont Blanc from Chamonix were entangled with )] TJ ET BT 332.972 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(affranchissement)] TJ ET BT 414.968 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the emancipation from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal dues in Savoy? \(p. 63\). The first ascent, by Doctor Joseph Paccard, the son of a notary and proponent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of enfranchisement in Savoy, and Jacques Balmat, a crystal-hunter, certainly brought to the foreground )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of social status and power. It also, as the title of chapter four suggests, marked the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate of ?Who was first?? This debate, as subsequent chapters reveal, rumbled on throughout the centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in the immediate aftermath of the ascent the focus was on conflicting claims of priority between Balmat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(described in some accounts as dragging the weakened doctor to the summit\) and Paccard \(described in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others as so energetic that he raced Balmat to the top\). Early visual memorials of the pair solved the issue by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbuing them with very different, but equally valuable qualities, with Paccard presented as the ?reflective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savant? and Balmat as the ?energetic man? \(p. 107\). In the end, Paccard failed to achieve priority even as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist; later in the 18th century, it was Horace-Bndict Saussure, the third person to ascend Mont Blanc, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was lauded for his scientific observations from the physical ?summit position?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?The Temple of Nature?, considers Mont Blanc and the surrounding area in the final years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 18th century and the early decades of the 19th. It charts the conception, creation, and occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoration of the eponymous temple built at Montanvert, which served both as a refuge to visitors and as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorial of sorts to the early ascendants of Mont Blanc. This chapter also seeks to place Mont Blanc within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of the French and Genevan Revolutions, considering the rise and fall in popularity of mountain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagery in the last decade of the 18th century. It also recounts the first recorded ascent of Mont Blanc by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman, Marie Paradis. The following chapter, ?Social climbers?, brings the narrative into the mid 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, charting the 1820 avalanche disaster which cost the lives of three guides, the subsequent formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Company of Guides of Chamonix and the protective regulations it brought in, Jacques Balmat?s hunt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for gold towards the end of his life, and the second female ascent of the mountain by Henriette d?Angeville. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter episode is of particular interest in that both d?Angeville and her contemporaries came to view her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?first? because Marie Paradis, the prior claimant, was allegedly ?dragged? to the summit \(p. 173\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven goes on to consider the ?Age of conquest? which took place as mountaineering in the Alps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased in popularity. It deals briefly with issues of nationalism in the Alps, astutely noting that although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first Alpine Club was founded in London, ?British climbers never had the peaks to themselves? \(p. 186\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It also discusses the first of two Chamonix monuments to the early ascents, the 1887 Saussure and Balmat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monument. As Hansen reveals, the debates surrounding the relative placement and body language of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures were underlain by continuing tensions regarding the relative importance and priority of guide versus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savant. Chapter eight, ?History detectives?, deals with continuing revisions made to the story of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascent\(s\), from the ?recovery? of Dr Paccard by Edward Whymper in the 1890s, to the 1934 film )] TJ ET BT 502.904 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der ewige )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Traum)] TJ ET BT 66.020 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The Eternal Dream\), which gave the story of Balmat and Paccard a cinematic re-telling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter nine, ?Almost together?, shifts the focus of the book geographically to the first ascent of Mount )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everest in 1953. Hansen suggests that the very same debates surrounding ?who was first? which had fueled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Paccard-Balmat controversy could also be seen in the reception of Hillary and Norgay as Nepal, India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, and New Zealand all applied different judgements of priority to the two individuals. The final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, ?Bodies of ice?, discusses the key discoveries found in or drawn from glaciers since the early 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, from the bodies of the 1820 avalanche victims to evidence for climate change. It also features an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the 1986 bicentennial celebrations of the first ascent and the compelling image of ?the Pope on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monte Bianco? \(p. 283\), and touches upon recent debates in environmental thinking, namely whether or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the geological period we now exist in is the ?Anthropocene? ? a period of human-led climate change. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5970 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hansen concludes by reflecting on the impossibility of ever identifying an individual as ?first? at anything, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be it being modern, or being atop a mountain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 174.008 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an ambitious book. Excluding the chronological outlier of Petrarch \(a figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any historian of mountaineering must grapple with\), Hansen treats in detail an approximately 250-year span, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Pococke and Windham?s glacial ascent to the late 20th century. Its sources are wide-ranging, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters to films. Hansen?s use of visual sources is of particular merit. He also simultaneously seeks to tell two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different historical stories ? how first ascents \(be they by Paccard or Paradis\) came about, and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, how they were then re-interpreted over time and subsumed by what Hansen envisages as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Enlightenment mythology of the individual ?summit position?. However, it is in its very ambition that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crevasses, as it were, threaten to mar )] TJ ET BT 212.960 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 352.952 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wishing there was ?something more? in an already extensive book may seem a little churlish, and reviewers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can fall into the trap of complaining at the absence of something which was not, in fact, within the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declared remit or touched upon by the author?s intentions. However, among the quite significant absences in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 174.008 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one which makes it very difficult for the reader or the reviewer to gain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear sense of Hansen?s aims or overall argument: it lacks a formal introduction. The first chapter certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has an introductory overtone to it, easing the reader into the eponymous ?Beginnings? of mountain-climbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its discussion of Petrarch on Mont Ventoux. Its initial pages do provide a subtle road-map to the work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hansen declares that ?this book seeks to explain a particular strand of modernity in which modern man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands alone on the summit...? \(p. 2\), and proffers the broad argument that mountain climbing did not )] TJ ET BT 523.304 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(emerge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from ?modernity?, but was instead ?one of the practices that constructed and redefined multiple modernities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during debates over who was first? \(p. 3\). At the end of chapter one of )] TJ ET BT 374.264 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 514.256 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understands that the issue of ?who was first? ? and the validity of that question ? is to be key, and has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced to some of the early figures in mountain climbing and description, such as Petrarch and Conrad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gesner. However, one does not have an entirely clear sense of Hansen?s argument, and is left with no sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at all of his methodology or the reasoning underlying his choice of sources. For an academic reader this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concluding chapter displays a similar pattern. Hansen?s closing sentences are eloquent, and leave the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to reflect on the nature of modernity, individual sovereignty, and inter-connectedness. However, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter neither summarises nor analyses the evidence laid out previously, and the academic reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst appreciating the fascinating and compelling nature of the evidence presented, may regret the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further analysis regarding its historical significance, or further explication of the important idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives both of ?being first? and of ?being an individual at the summit position? are based more on myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than reality. Finally, and once again frustrating its potential as a resource for academic readers, the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacks a bibliography, and the full citation for a given text appears to be provided only in the first instance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(rather than in the first instance per chapter\), making it difficult when using the book alone to chase a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific source. However, and to Hansen?s credit, both a bibliography and further illustrations are freely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available online; a resource with which any interested reader should certainly become acquainted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.564 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.564 245.859 m 517.556 245.859 l S endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.5637 246.1735 517.5557 258.0535 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7060 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another bemusing absence is the lack of source interrogation at various points throughout the book. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter discusses in detail the historiography surrounding Petrarch?s account of ascending Mont Ventoux, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and touches upon doubts regarding the extent to which the account was shaped less by actual events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more by Petrarch?s self-fashioning \(p. 21\). This clearly indicates a willingness to go beyond simply taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements in historical sources at face value, but similar analysis is notably absent elsewhere. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hansen recounts a confrontation between Balmat and Paccard in 1787 in which Paccard ?struck him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Balmat] between the eyes with his umbrella? \(p. 99\). As is evident upon turning to the endnotes, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incident was recounted in an 1839 letter written by one Gdon Balmat, presumably a son, grandson, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other junior relative of Jacques Balmat. Much could be made of the potential dissonance between the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they occurred and the account given of them over 50 years later. This may be a symptom of judicious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editing ? )] TJ ET BT 78.680 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 218.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( covers an impressive period and range of issues within a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word-count ? but it is important to point out where sacrifices to space seem to have been made, and where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they occasionally leave the reader and historian with more questions than answers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More problematically, some readers may question both Hansen?s use of theoretical terminology and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical connections which he draws between phenomena and ideas. Theoretical or metaphorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology can, if overused, risk losing their meaning or confusing the reader, particularly when they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not glossed or explained in plain language upon their first instance in the text. ?Time knots?, ?thresholds?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ?summit positions? abound throughout the text, used in such a wide variety of contexts \(Paccard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently achieved the ?summit position? in local politics \(p. 123\) in addition to ? contestedly ? gaining it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Mont Blanc\) that it becomes hard to keep track of what exactly they are intended to relate to. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hansen does gloss metaphorical concepts, he sometimes does so with reference to so many other dense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms that his meaning remains elusive:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consider ?thinking like a mountain? a metaphor for the network of intersubjective relationships )] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between people and the natural world, spiritual forces, and other people that are not reducible )] TJ ET BT 64.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to solipsism of thinking like a self or the system-building abstraction of thinking like a state \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the use of such terminology was once again hampered by a practical desire to avoid extending an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost 400-page monograph to 500. It could certainly be wished that Hansen had taken such terms ? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he utilises in a novel fashion ? one step further, and defined and unpicked them just a little more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, it could be argued that in some of the connections Hansen draws he goes further, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the evidence presented truly supports. For example, in discussing the ?Temple of Nature? in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five, Hansen notes that it was physically on the ?edge of a cliff?, before going on to claim that ?The Temple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Nature also stands at the limit of normal theoretical terrain?. Hansen then uses this as a spring-board to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider other metaphorical cliff-edges, such as those encountered during the Napoleonic and revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eras in France \(119-120\). The mountain imagery used in revolutionary discussions at the time is clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant, and that the two events \(the celebration of early ascents of Mont Blanc and revolution\) occurred at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time helps to contextualise them both, but whether the two are as linked as Hansen seems to hint by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving seamlessly from the physical to the metaphorical cliff edge is questionable. The final chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise glides between discussing human remains discovered in glaciers, and the evidence preserved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same ice attesting to the slow retreat of said glaciers, or, as Hansen puts it, ?bits of wood rather than pounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of flesh? \(p. 276\). This then presages a discussion of the Anthropocene, the concept that the era which we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now inhabit is one in which humans are a major factor in environmental change. Although this is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important issue in environmental history, it is also a rather huge point to raise in a concluding chapter which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not, arguably, serve to draw the rest of Hansen?s arguments together. Finally, Hansen gives pride of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place at the conclusion of his work to tzi the Iceman, who died in the Neolithic period and was discovered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1991, and who is, in keeping with the \(excellent\) pun of the chapter title, one more ?body of ice?. Hansen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses him to question our ideas about the ?first modern man? \(p. 302\), but it is difficult to see what he adds to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8640 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our understanding of mountaineering and debates about primacy which took place on the peaks above his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final resting place long after he had died and before his existence was ever known. Such ?links? as these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raise more questions than answers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this is to say that the work is without considerable positive qualities. The illustrations throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are well-chosen and Hansen?s use of them within the text is highly skilful; indeed, his analysis both of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images and of the film )] TJ ET BT 145.004 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der ewige Traum)] TJ ET BT 229.664 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are evidence of his skill and confidence in dealing with visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.664 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.664 697.539 m 93.656 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.656 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As previously noted, it brings together a vast array of both primary and secondary sources, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces a variety of incidents and figures from the history of mountaineering, both more and less well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known. Hansen has a strong narrative style and the reader is carried smoothly through almost 300 years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. Chapters eight and nine are particularly strong, and Hansen?s analysis of the reception of Hilary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tenzing after the first ascent of Everest demonstrates a firm and nuanced understanding of the political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national peculiarities of the event, in which Britain claimed the ?conquest? of a mountain summited by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealander and a Sherpa.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 175.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 175.628 612.003 m 189.620 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 189.620 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Harvard University Press \(laudably\) prices its books relatively low, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning that they are affordable to the general reader and not just institutional libraries or researchers with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the benefit of a book grant. Given its timely release ? coinciding with the 60th anniversary of the first ascent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Everest ? and its fascinating subject matter, )] TJ ET BT 258.308 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 398.300 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is sure to attract the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountaineering enthusiast keen to delve deeper into the history of their sport. Such readers would close the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book not only enlightened about the historical context of mountaineering, but also inspired to reflect upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contested reality of the ?summit position? which so many climbers seek.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, )] TJ ET BT 82.688 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 222.680 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a thought-provoking, but occasionally problematic work. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly the result of wide-ranging archival research, and within it Hansen deals with an impressive sweep of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical events and issues raised by secondary literature. There are, indeed, several books within this single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tome. The development of the idea of the Anthropocene, and the post-Everest reception of Tenzing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hillary, deserve volumes or at least articles all of their own \(Hansen has already written the latter; readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can but hope he will soon also tackle the former\). However, it is in its range and ambition that )] TJ ET BT 488.288 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Summits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Modern Man)] TJ ET BT 109.340 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( falls down in some areas. The lack of space dedicated to the introductory ?nuts and bolts? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology and source discussion, analytical ?next steps?, and glossing and explanation of technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology and metaphorical ideas might be felt sorely by some readers, and diminishes the quality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work as a whole. Nevertheless, it stands as a significant contribution to its field, and Hansen should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praised for so firmly placing the history of mountaineering ?on belay? within scholarly discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity and the Enlightenment self.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://digitalcommons.wpi.edu/summits/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 277.875 m 258.716 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.716 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 275.708 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 14 October 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.096 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.096 277.875 m 476.084 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers interested in seeing similar use of visual evidence applied to early Everest expeditions could )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profitably turn to Peter H. Hansen, ?The dancing lamas of Everest: cinema, orientalism, and Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tibetan relations in the 1920s?, )] TJ ET BT 218.000 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 353.984 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 101 \(June 1996\), 712?44.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.300 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.300 235.107 m 536.288 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C.f. Peter H. Hansen, ?Confetti of Empire: the conquest of Everest in Nepal, India, Britain and New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand?, )] TJ ET BT 113.996 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Comparative Studies in Society and History)] TJ ET BT 324.320 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 42 \(April 2000\), 307?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.972 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.972 206.595 m 503.960 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.the-tls.co.uk/tls/public/article1291439.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 151.827 m 293.336 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.336 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LA Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://lareviewofbooks.org/review/peak-adventure-on-mountaineering-and-the-enlightenment)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 123.315 m 487.592 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.592 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thehindu.com/books/books-reviews/peaks-of-human-success/article4756732.ece)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 94.803 m 478.280 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.280 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/10/mountaineering-after-enlightenment)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 66.291 m 419.996 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.996 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 62.959 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type 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