%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722051726+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722051726+01'00') /Title (Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4183 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fear Itself: The New Deal and the Origins of Our Time)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University library shelves on both sides of the Atlantic groan under the weight of synoptic studies of the era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of FDR. Academic efforts to understand this pivotal period in American and global history, represented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world economic collapse of the 1930s and the devastation wrought by the Second World War, began in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earnest in the 1950s with multi-volume works by Frank Freidel and James MacGregor Burns, quickly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed in 1963 by William Leuchtenburg?s magisterial survey. More recently, Anthony Badger and David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy have presented critical but sympathetic portraits of the Roosevelt presidency, while the likes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amity Shlaes and Conrad Black have injected a strong dose of neoliberal scepticism into the mix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.300 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.300 172.137 m 517.292 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 517.292 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(list, far from exhaustive, represents only the broad survey literature on the subject of FDR, the New Deal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Second World War. So when I was first asked to review this new offering by acclaimed Columbia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political scientist Ira Katznelson, my first instinct was to wonder what new perspective could be brought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bear on such a well-combed subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer is robustly stated in the introduction to the book. Katznelson wishes to recast our understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Roosevelt?s New Deal in a number of interconnected ways, of which two stand out as paramount. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he wishes to place the response of the United States to the global economic calamity of the 1930s more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1532)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 16 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ira Katznelson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780871404503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(720pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.wwnorton.com/books/Fear-Itself/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Bell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.2997 172.4515 517.2917 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly into an international perspective, weaving discussion of the corporatist approaches of totalitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states in Europe into his narrative about New Deal policymaking, and placing FDR?s response to the threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Fascism and the global descent into war at the centre of the story of New Deal statecraft. The American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state that emerged from the Second World War owed as much to the planning and political transformations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war effort itself as it did to the policy experiments of the 1930s. Secondly, Katznelson seeks to utilize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his considerable expertise as an analyst of Congress and of the complex dynamics of the levers of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance to shift our attention from the executive branch towards those political actors whose support or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to New Deal measures would ultimately determine the fate of the reform impulse in American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics in these years: members of Congress in general, and white southern segregationists in particular.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is in large part a study of the Faustian pacts with political forces at home and abroad deeply hostile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any attempt to take the New Deal to its logical conclusion and smash both racial segregation at home and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism abroad. It is a story of the considerable and ambitious revolution in American governance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1933 and the late 1940s, as the federal government both remade the relationship between the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the people at home and also constructed a vast national security state that would alter the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans and countless others around the world for the rest of the century. It is also the tale of the limits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that revolution in the constitutional compact between the government and the governed, demonstrating how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political structure of the United States allowed southern Democrats to shape the New Deal and to limit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its transformative power over American society, particularly in terms of racial equality. ?Crucially,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katznelson argues, ?the South permitted American liberal democracy the space within which to proceed, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it restricted American policymaking to what I call a ?southern cage,? from which there was no escape? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16\). The role of segregationist politics in making ? and sometimes breaking ? the New Deal is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrepiece of the book, informing both the discussion of domestic policymaking and of foreign policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the author goes so far as to claim that the role the southern political system played ?in national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics is the most overlooked theme in almost all previous histories of the New Deal? \(p. 15\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This claim explains some of the issues I have with the book as a whole, but it is important to stress first of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the important contribution it makes to the debate over the New Deal. Ira Katznelson brings his enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of and expertise in the history of American politics and institutions to bear on this vast subject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his impressive command of the material shows on every page. He has read widely and deeply, and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mined primary as well as secondary sources to paint a wide-ranging and satisfyingly rich portrait of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pivotal period in American and world history. His main argument concerning the ?southern cage? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully made, and he reaches beyond the standard narrative of southern hostility to the later New Deal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how southern congressmen translated their early support for the expansion of the state at home when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left untouched traditional racial hierarchies into later strong support for the construction of the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(security state. ?An equation that correlated economic growth with military spending had taken hold in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South?, he argues, ?and defense spending came to supplant in many ways the region?s prior agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependency? \(p. 427\). His ability to see the connections between early 20th-century agrarian southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and the emergence of the modern South in the context of America?s rise to global hegemony is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and fresh, especially to a non-specialist audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s determination to take together the twin stories of domestic reform and the nation?s rise to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global power, narratives that often sit uneasily side by side or are treated as separate histories, gives the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader many fascinating insights. We get a sustained treatment of the thorny question of the soldier?s ballot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during World War Two. There is a portrait of the Soviet judge at Nuremberg, Iola Nikitchenko, as a case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the difficult moral dilemma democracies like the United States had to face as they forged alliances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with dictatorships. There is much useful material on the role of scientific research and development in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making of the post-war American state. The major battles of the Roosevelt era, tackling both economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and the road to war and its aftermath, are interlinked in telling and informative ways. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a rewarding and suggestive narrative arc that shows convincingly how racism and war both blunted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the capacity of the United States to provide social justice for all and also sowed the seeds for future social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheaval and reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably a book of this size and scope will raise many questions that would repay further investigation and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8210 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration. Certainly this reader, having read widely in the field and having taught the New Deal era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the start of his career, was both fascinated and frustrated by the book and its arguments. It was good to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see the analytical framework predicated upon race and the southern dominance of the American political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system that has informed some of Katznelson?s previous work, notably his peerless 1993 article on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern veto in Congress and his 2005 book, )] TJ ET BT 256.340 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When Affirmative Action Was White)] TJ ET BT 429.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, placed into a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical treatment for a wider audience.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.296 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.296 723.795 m 245.288 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.288 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author cites the latter work in his introduction, whilst also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that few other works \(he mentions only one, by Freidel\) place the white South at the centre of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deal statecraft. ?Despite its centrality, southern power has always hovered at the fringe of most New Deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits,? he claims \(p. 22\). This assertion, poorly supported in the endnotes to the introduction, does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians like James T. Patterson, who wrote about congressional conservatives and the New Deal back in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967, and Tony Badger, who has long married analysis of the New Deal order and the South, a disservice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 543.920 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 543.920 652.515 m 557.912 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps it is fairer to say that a general readership of a trade book on the New Deal will find Katznelson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important central thesis new and unexpected, but it is not a fair description of the specialist historiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which includes Katznelson?s own prior work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katznelson?s placing of the ?southern cage? at the heart of his argument is convincing and makes the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive among the array of synoptic works already available, but it also creates problems. Foremost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst these is the organisation of the book. There is no narrative arc to speak of in the first two sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather an attempt to place New Deal policymaking at home and abroad into the context of southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racism and an ambivalent relationship with dictatorship in Europe by interspersing analysis of key policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and events over time with vignettes and case studies of particular individuals or policies that illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racist constraints. The rationale for choosing these illustrative diversions over others is not always clear, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not helped by the lack of chronological framing of the case studies. The first half of the book leaps about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically and thematically before the third and fourth sections restore a narrative and chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure to the work. The book is at once a general history of the New Deal and Second World War period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the United States and a detailed analysis of Southern control over political institutions and the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shadow of totalitarianism on the United States. The result is an overlong and unwieldy tome that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have benefited from some abridgement and consolidation. For instance, the comment of Senator Carter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glass that the New Deal was ?an utterly dangerous effort of the federal government to transplant Hitlerism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to every corner of the nation? appears on page 161 and again on page 255, for the simple reason that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second citation comes when the author has, in effect, re-started the book in section three and so needs to re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue much of the context provided earlier in the section on the South. The organisation of the work also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes for some unusual emphases: Italian Fascist aviator Italo Balbo gets a third of a chapter devoted to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapturous reception in the US after his transatlantic flight \(a reception due in large part surely to the fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he had flown the Atlantic, not because he was a Fascist\), but key congressional New Dealers \(a vital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterweight to the Southern bloc in Congress and influential in shaping much New Deal social and labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation\) get little treatment. At times I had to work hard to keep the big issues at the forefront of my mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most notable by its absence from the history presented here is the wider institutional and constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context in which Southern white hegemony over the political process played out. Only mentioned in passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the crucial role played by the United States Supreme Court in the shaping of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government ? state and federal ? and its citizens in the early 20th century. Political hostility to a regulatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state transcended the white South: the New Deal arrived at the end of a 30-year period in which the fifth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th amendments were repeatedly affirmed in law to mean government had no legal right to intervene in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contractual arrangements between individuals or organisations. Few of these Justices were southerners, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their legal regime of ?freedom of contract? did much to constrain the boundaries of state power and to blunt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social impact of government until the late 1930s. Furthermore, the author convinces in his fresh appraisal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the radicalism of the National Recovery Administration, passed into law with Southern support, but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rushed and sloppily conceived drafting of the legislation in the febrile early days of the administration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that doomed it to destruction at the hands of a unanimous Court. When the Committee on Economic Security )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was formed in 1934 to begin drafting what would become the Social Security Act, their legal team was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acutely aware of the constitutional constraints that would force the administration to work within certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parameters if the law was to stand. The notion that it was southern racism that was alone responsible for the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.2957 724.1095 245.2877 735.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 543.9197 652.8295 557.9117 664.7095 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glaring inadequacies of New Deal legislation simplifies a more complex story in which Southern Democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of congressional politics is part of a constitutional system of governance that has often impeded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a more just economic and social citizenship. I appreciate that constitutional jurisprudence is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central focus of the book, but its near absence makes the work lop-sided and wrenches the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern lawmen from the larger context. Interestingly, the book nods towards the New Deal as a harbinger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?whole openings for social change that were grasped by an incipient, soon powerful, movement for equal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights for blacks? \(p. 486\), but such changes would have been difficult to predict without the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention of the Courts from the 1940s onwards in civil rights matters. President Roosevelt?s judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointments to the highest Court in the land, confirmed in the southern-dominated Senate, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a rich and enviably learned study of a formative period in the creation of the modern United States, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country with a hugely larger state apparatus than could have been imagined before FDR and with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly expanded role on the global stage. It brings timely perspective to a subject often poorly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood in contemporary political debate and yet often cited, by both liberals and conservatives, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signalling the birth of an era of governance still being played out. Yet in trying to be both a general survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age of FDR and a focused study of Southern politics as the central driving force of political change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, it does not manage to be definitive, but instead should be read alongside works by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leuchtenburg, Badger, and Kennedy to place its major interventions onto a broader canvas. Katznelson is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely right that the politics of the South must be placed front and centre in understanding ?the origins of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time?: it is gerrymandered southern congressional districts that help give 21st-century Republicans the edge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the House of Representatives and help frustrate President Obama?s agenda, and the South is now the heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?red state? politics just as it was the heart of Democracy a century ago. And the national security state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established as the last major contribution of the New Deal administrations continues to influence both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American politics and the wider world in vitally important ways. This book is a valuable contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helping us understand how we got here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Freidel, )] TJ ET BT 135.008 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franklin D. Roosevelt )] TJ ET BT 244.328 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4 vols., Boston, 1952\); James Macgregor Burns, )] TJ ET BT 483.308 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt: The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lion and the Fox )] TJ ET BT 149.348 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1956\); Burns, )] TJ ET BT 301.988 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom )] TJ ET BT 472.964 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970\); William Leuchtenburg, )] TJ ET BT 213.332 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal )] TJ ET BT 411.980 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY 1963\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Badger, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Deal: The Depression Years, 1933?1940 )] TJ ET BT 394.328 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 1989\); David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy, )] TJ ET BT 113.336 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War. 1929?1945 )] TJ ET BT 497.288 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1999\); Amity Shlaes, )] TJ ET BT 192.680 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Forgotten Man: A New History of the Great Depression )] TJ ET BT 485.996 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 2008\); Conrad Black, )] TJ ET BT 194.000 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franklin Delano Roosevelt: Champion of Freedom )] TJ ET BT 442.640 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.964 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.964 289.875 m 560.960 289.875 l S BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 78.008 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ira Katznelson, Kim Geiger, Daniel Kryder, ?Limiting liberalism: the southern veto in Congress, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1933?1950?, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Science Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 259.988 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 108, 2 \(Summer 1993\), 283?306; Katznelson, )] TJ ET BT 488.300 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth-Century America )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.652 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.652 218.595 m 232.640 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James T. Patterson, )] TJ ET BT 160.340 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coalition in Congress, 1933?1939 )] TJ ET BT 233.036 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lexington, KY, 1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.688 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.688 190.083 m 400.676 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 165.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/sep/26/new-deal-we-didnt-know/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 135.315 m 427.304 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.304 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Yorker)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newyorker.com/arts/critics/books/2013/03/04/130304crbo_books_menand)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 106.803 m 449.324 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 452.324 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington Post)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/fear-itself-the-new-deal-and-the-origins-of-our-time-by-ira-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 78.291 m 525.260 78.291 l S BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(katznelson/2013/03/01/a4030f2c-7b72-11e2-a044-676856536b40_story.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 64.035 m 404.984 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.984 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/07/books/review/fear-itself-by-ira-katznelson.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 35.523 m 442.316 35.523 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 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