%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 31 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150730103517+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150730103517+01'00') /Title (Fifty years since Dallas) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2913 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Fifty years since Dallas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1533)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 16 January, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Ling)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415528856)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(85.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.carltonbooks.co.uk/books/products/john-f-kennedy-the-life-the-presidency-the-assassination)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh C. McDonald)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780786033157)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pinnacle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles A. 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Davis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781848547759)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Murray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.157 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7776 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most entirely satisfactory volume in this batch of books about President Kennedy is Peter J. Ling?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography \()] TJ ET BT 89.672 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John F. Kennedy)] TJ ET BT 171.320 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The author could perhaps have done with more space, but it remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(astonishing how much information he gives us, and his command of the sources is equally impressive. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly, lucid, fair-minded and up-to-date. He is not without his preoccupations and small prejudices \(his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allusions to Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., strike me as ungenerous\) but they are trifling, and will get in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobody?s way. Particularly valuable features of his work are the two chapters \(?Images and action?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Remembrance?\) on what he calls Kennedy?s posthumous period. As he says, ?The process by which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy is remembered is a vital part of his biography?, and although space constraint is felt even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here than elsewhere, the chapters are valuable in themselves and provide a good model for future writers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bibliographical essay is also very useful. This is as good an academic introduction to its subject as any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student could ask for, and deserves a place in every university library.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet it will be lucky if it gets half the attention it deserves. To judge from 2013?s newspapers, publishers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lists, and television, the reading public is still, 50 years after, mesmerised by the assassination and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible perpetrators. It is a topic for the half-baked, like the authorship of Shakespeare?s plays or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record of Richard III. The controversy \(if it can be dignified with the term\) throws a depressing light on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality of our age. Given America?s appalling record of gun crime \(?Guns don?t kill people; Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kill people?, to re-coin a phrase\); given the deaths of, for example, Huey Long, Medgar Evers, Martin Luther )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King, Robert Kennedy and John Lennon; given the attempted assassinations of Gerald Ford and Ronald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reagan, and such mass killings as those at Columbine and Sandy Hook, I see no implausibility in the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Lee Harvey Oswald, a disagreeable, even deranged misfit, acted alone; and as Gerald Posner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated 20 years ago \(in his book, )] TJ ET BT 228.656 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Case Closed)] TJ ET BT 288.992 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) the evidence for his autonomous villainy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelming: those who care to study it will find a vainglorious narcissist evolving into a murderer right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before their eyes \(one of the failings of the Warren commission was that it excluded from its report a first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to analyse Oswald?s character\). The murder of Oswald himself by an impulsive idiot is no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysterious. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But American and world opinion has almost from the first rejected the squalid truth in favour of a wild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallimaufry of conspiracy theories, and the 50th anniversary has stimulated a fresh outbreak of adolescent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fantasy, which amounts to a single proposition, that any version of Kennedy?s death may be true, except the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.000 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.000 331.395 m 105.992 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.992 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There seems to be no limit to credulity and speculation. I myself visited Dallas a year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before Kennedy did, during the missile crisis; I shan?t be entirely surprised if therefore I one day join the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranks of the accused, along with the FBI, the CIA, the KGB, the John Birch Society, the Mafia, Mossad, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lyndon Johnson, Fidel Castro, anti-Castro Cuban exiles, etc. etc. I dare say I was acting on behalf of MI5 or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CND or Harold Macmillan \(one suggestion is that Kennedy was somehow entangled in the Profumo affair\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It only remains to discover and denounce my accomplices: I must have had some since I cunningly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arranged to be in Connecticut when the deed was done, on 22 November 1963.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central historical problem, then, is why the conspiracy theories have proved so ineradicable. Initial light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is thrown on the question by Philip Shenon?s substantial study \(at 625 pages it is much the longest of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books\), )] TJ ET BT 72.680 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Cruel and Shocking Act: the Secret History of the Kennedy Assassination)] TJ ET BT 434.984 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In spite of its title it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily concerned not with the assassination but with one of its immediate consequences, the writing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Warren report. It is in fact an authoritative history of the Warren commission, and is fascinating in every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail. Although fastidiously sympathetic to the commissioners and their staff, Mr Shenon does not conceal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that their work was seriously flawed; indeed his central purpose is to arrive at a critical if fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement of the report, as in an earlier book he assessed the work of the 9/11 commission of investigation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(what next? Watergate?\). A hard-working, veteran reporter, he is admirably qualified for his task, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture he paints is almost complete and almost completely convincing. He cannot quite bring himself to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept that Oswald had no accomplices, and thereby dissents from the thrust of the Warren report, but to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader this is less important and interesting than his story of the arguments, discussions, insights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blunders that went to the report?s shaping. It is a saga of office politics at its most intense. Lyndon Johnson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Brogan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.9997 331.7095 105.9917 343.5895 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bullied an intensely reluctant Earl Warren to chair the commission, saying that nuclear war might result if he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(didn?t, and similarly drove Senator Richard Russell of Georgia, his long-time mentor, into serving: LBJ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted the commission to represent as many interests in American public life as possible, and cared not at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all that Warren, the great liberal Chief Justice, and Russell, an unyielding segregationist, detested each other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was much the same with the rest of the commission. It was a glaringly heterogeneous collection of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(no women\) who mostly had full-time jobs which they could not neglect, and no report could possibly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared, let alone been any good, had they not recruited a first-rate staff ? mostly ?law school hotshots? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliant recent graduates. Distinguished senior lawyers were also recruited, but they were often as busy as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the commissioners \(one of them after a few weeks gave up and went back to New York without ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formally resigning\). So the hotshots did most of the work. None of them suffered from modesty, each had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own agenda \(a universal characteristic of everyone involved in the investigation\) and they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrained in the end only by the authority of the Chief Justice, which they both accepted and resented. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not infallible, yet his sagacity was a quality which they lacked and badly needed, and in the end a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unanimous report, signed by all the commissioners, was only possible because Warren saw the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of unanimity, and was willing to attain it even by fudging the language of the report?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions, which found that Oswald acted alone but may have had co-conspirators. This absurd self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradiction enraged the young lawyers and eventually helped to destroy the commission?s authority, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served Lyndon Johnson?s immediate purpose, which was to reassure a frightened America and get the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter behind him before he launched his election campaign in the autumn of 1964. The report was duly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in September, and has deservedly been the target of sharp criticism ever since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of the critics lacked all sense of proportion. There was more to the report than its conclusions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the commission?s basic work was sound. But the report?s weaknesses were fatal to its reception, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and meant that eventually the whole affair had to be re-investigated. Not that those weaknesses were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely what were alleged. For example, the report was among other things undoubtedly a cover-up, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not of a gigantic, sinister plot. President Kennedy had relied on his country?s services to protect him, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had all let him down. Naturally they wanted to conceal the fact as much as they could. J. Edgar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoover realised, almost as soon as he got the news from Dallas, that the FBI was at fault: the agent who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasked with keeping an eye on Oswald had failed to realise that he was a danger to the President, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore failed to warn the Secret Service about him. Hoover disciplined the agent, who was demoted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exiled to Kansas City, and then did all he could to re-establish his agency?s reputation, even if it meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborating with Warren \(whom he too loathed\). He overwhelmed the commission with documentation; in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact it would not be too much to say that without the FBI the commission would have discovered very little. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And although Shenon does not mention the matter, it is fact that Hoover had been manoeuvring for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time to get the job of protecting the President away from the Secret Service into his own hands: after Dallas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this scheme was hastily dropped. Hoover was the wiliest of Washington operators: by the time that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(report was published his position was as strong as ever. The commission?s criticism of the FBI was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemphatic, and essentially it accepted what had been Hoover?s position from the first: there had been no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy, so the FBI was not to blame for failing to detect it. From Hoover?s point of view the cover-up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a great success. The Secret Service and the hapless Dallas police department could not say the same: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their failure had been too glaring; but the CIA got away unscathed. It had had the duty and every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to investigate Oswald and keep him under surveillance, and had failed entirely; but it managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conceal this fact, and also its web of intrigues with both supporters and opponents of Fidel Castro. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dark world of espionage in which it moved created much of the doubt and suspicion which led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of the report; it was not even competent at its own dirty work. Yet it seems to have fooled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warren commission completely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where the commission was not fooled was over the essentials of its problem. For example, one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible and conscientious of the commissioners, Gerald Ford, then the Republican leader in the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Representatives, saw that there had been far too much chance ? too many accidental occurrences ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing Lee Harvey Oswald and his gun to the sixth floor of the School Book Depository on 22 November )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a conspiracy to be credible. No-one had known that Kennedy would come that way when Oswald got his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(job \(thanks to one of his wife?s friends\) in October; no-one had known that Kennedy was coming to Dallas )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7912 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 9 November; his route through Dealey Plaza was not announced until 19 November. Oswald was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvising, as he always had. He had defected to the Soviet Union on impulse; returned to the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States on impulse; and in the autumn of 1963 was trying to get back to Russia, or at least to Cuba, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once more found the world unappreciative of his talents. Meanwhile he filled in time with buying a rifle by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mail-order and trying to assassinate General Edwin Walker, a leading right-wing resident of Dallas. He was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miserable and angry with everyone, including his unlucky wife, whom he regularly knocked about. Then he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered that Kennedy was coming past his window... All this the Warren investigation established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusively, though it got no credit for it. Hoping to profit from the investigation, Ford rushed out a book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portrait of the Assassin, )] TJ ET BT 153.032 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1965, as soon as possible after the publication of the Warren report, but even at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that early stage its contentions were too unsensational for the public: it did not even earn back its advance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We return to the same old problem of customer resistance. The world?s initial assumption, that so mighty an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event as a president?s murder must have an equally mighty cause, is understandable enough: Kennedy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not just be the victim of a psychotic gunman and police incompetence. This response was reinforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the United States by widespread anti-Americanism , and inside by certain well-established national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traits and traditions. Americans, as a nation, have always had a tendency to run scared. The legend of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunpowder Plot travelled to New England in the 17th century, as did the fear of witches. In the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century suspicion of home-grown conspiracy coloured the early phase of the Revolution: at least one leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary believed, or said he did, that the Stamp Act was secretly concocted in Boston, not London. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 19th century the Jacksonians attacked the Second Bank of the United States as an anti-democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monster, while the slavery interest denounced the abolitionist conspiracy and the abolitionists denounced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slave Power. After the civil war there were competing panics about the Money Power and anarchists, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Red Panic followed the First World War \(which had already generated ferocious xenophobia\). In 1947, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to get the Marshall Aid programme through Congress the Truman administration set out to terrify the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American people all over again with warnings of the communist menace, which was already being puffed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements in the Republican party, for reasons of their own. As a result, the Americans were a frightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people throughout the Cold War: that is, until Nixon went to China. Fanned now by Senator Joe McCarthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and now by the Cuban Revolution, the flames of fright never went out; and it was this picture of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous, treacherous world that any theory of the Kennedy assassination had to confirm, if it was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed either by the Left or the Right. The Warren report did not meet this requirement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So to understand the assassination and its sequel it is not enough to address the criminal facts. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological, political, sociological context must be examined. This point is well understood by Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minutaglio and Steven L. Davis in their )] TJ ET BT 228.008 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dallas, 1963: the Road to the Kennedy Assassination)] TJ ET BT 484.004 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrow but complete account of the reactionaries who dominated Dallas in 1963 as they had done ever since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city?s foundation. It was they ? religious, civic, political and business leaders ? whose loudly aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative propaganda \(which sometimes expressed itself physically, as when a demonstrating woman hit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adlai Stevenson over the head with a placard\) gave Dallas such a bad name that everyone?s immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption, when Kennedy was shot, was that the right wing must have done it. No-one, I suppose, will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever want a more complete account of the subject, but it is difficult to read merely for such light as it throws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the assassination. It is probably unnecessary to remark that, while the past does not change, our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of it does because of the mere passage of time \(among other factors\). )] TJ ET BT 424.580 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dallas, 1963 )] TJ ET BT 489.584 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to reflect on much more recent religious politics. The fanatics of Dallas )] TJ ET BT 415.592 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(then )] TJ ET BT 439.256 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikingly resemble the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tea Party of )] TJ ET BT 96.332 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(today, )] TJ ET BT 128.996 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perhaps even more today?s Islamists in their passion, their dogmatism, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recklessness, their inability to accept or even discuss criticism, and the large quantity of pure fantasy in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions. Readers have no choice but to turn sociologists, trying to discern common factors to explain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common phenomena.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As to Islamism, two things leap to the eye: oil money and sudden social transformation. Texas and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdoms of the Persian Gulf became oil states at roughly the same time, and the consequence in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions was a sudden surge of personal wealth on a stupendous scale that accelerated as the 20th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went on. It was a huge, uncovenanted bonus paid by nature to societies which had previously seemed at best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal to the modern world. Money brings its own transformations, and the modern world?s demand for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6553 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oil made itself felt not merely by the irruption of thousands of strangers to man the machinery and organise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic institutions which the oil industry demanded, but to supply the consumer goods which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly-rich oil-magnates hurried to buy \(in Dallas the most conspicuous monument to this impulse is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great Neiman Marcus department store\). But whether in Texas or Saudi Arabia, conservatives implacably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisted many of these tendencies. Change came too fast to be accommodated easily, or, for years, at all. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the story of Dallas has some encouragement for those who are worried about Riyadh. 50 years have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passed, and Dallas is perceptibly a saner place than it was in 1963, though Minutaglio and Davis scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say so. Perhaps in another 50 years the same will be true of the Gulf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand it is not clear that Dallas was ever as purely crazy as our authors make out. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morning of 22 November Kennedy remarked to his wife, in words no-one can resist quoting, ?We?re )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heading into nut country today?, and so they were, but it was not a right-wing nut who killed him \(it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking how often Oswald is referred to in the documents as ?a nut?\). And the citizens of Dallas were for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most part as much in love with Jack and Jackie as the rest of the country. They turned out in tens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands to welcome them, in spite of the odious propaganda which had been continually directed against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the President from the moment that he ran for office. They were all enjoying themselves that sunny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morning, which partly explains why the cops and the Secret Service lowered their guard. And it is of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant that Jack Ruby always gave as his reason for shooting Oswald the need to spare Mrs Kennedy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horror of having to testify in court. \(Equally concerned, Earl Warren did not ask her to testify to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commission\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 50 years, liberals and progressives seem to be much weaker in Texas than they were in 1963; still, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve scholarly investigation, and so do ordinary, non-political citizens. It is too easy to investigate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Birch Society. Oswald was hardly a representative Leftist \(when he applied to join the Dallas branch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Trotskyist organisation, he was told that there wasn?t one\); in his fondness for guns he seems rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical of the South from which he sprang; but no more than the Dallas right-wingers can he be understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of context, and that context, of energetic but fragmented and almost impotent radical leftists ? it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to find a term for them ? properly explored, could be as illuminating, and of more than Lee Oswald, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Minutaglio and Davis?s exploration of the Right. And beyond both lies the huge majority, the mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary citizens into whose placid lives a tragic melodrama one day exploded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is still work to be done!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have been sent three recent specimens of the conspiracist genre. Two are reprints by Pinnacle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Books: Hugh C. McDonald, ?as told to Geoffrey Bocca?,)] TJ ET BT 338.972 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Appointment in Dallas: the Final Solution to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Assassination of JFK )] TJ ET BT 186.692 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, Ny, first published 1975\), and Charles A. Crenshaw and others, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(JFK Has Been Shot: a Parkland Hospital Surgeon Speaks Out)] TJ ET BT 363.656 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, first published )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992\); the third is new without being fresh: John Hughes-Wilson)] TJ ET BT 385.328 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, JFK. An American Coup d?Etat. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Truth Behind the Kennedy Assassination )] TJ ET BT 283.352 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2013\), whose author is said by his publisher to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a former colonel in British intelligence. These works are of merely pathological interest, if that.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 194.595 m 118.004 194.595 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 179.263 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 161.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1533)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 160.089 m 328.316 160.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 135.112 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/79920)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/91203)] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/91204)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/91205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/91206)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 194.9095 118.0037 206.7895 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 160.4035 328.3157 172.2835 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1533) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/91207)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000003595 00000 n 0000003704 00000 n 0000003814 00000 n 0000003923 00000 n 0000007484 00000 n 0000007612 00000 n 0000007696 00000 n 0000007761 00000 n 0000010887 00000 n 0000010971 00000 n 0000018800 00000 n 0000018830 00000 n 0000018957 00000 n 0000018993 00000 n 0000019058 00000 n 0000026745 00000 n 0000026810 00000 n 0000034775 00000 n 0000034866 00000 n 0000041472 00000 n 0000041599 00000 n 0000041654 00000 n 0000041782 00000 n 0000041878 00000 n 0000041943 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42149 %%EOF