%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818092212+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818092212+01'00') /Title (Securing the World Economy. The Reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920-1946) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3948 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Securing the World Economy. The Reinvention of the League of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nations, 1920-1946)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In September 2012, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon officially opened a new reading room )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the League of Nations archives in Geneva. After four decades in a room with barely enough space for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a handful of scholars, the League's archives are now accessible in the refurbished ?Rockefeller )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room?, with seating for 24 researchers. To many, this signaled that the once marginal interest in the League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become mainstream. No longer simply dismissed as an expression of unrealistic idealism and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization that ?failed? in its foremost objective ? the promotion of peace ? the League has now come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupy a central space in histories of 20th-century international relations and diplomacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Clavin is amongst a generation of scholars who ? through their travails in the League of Nations? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former reading room ? have established the importance of the League. Her work sits within a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of accounts of the League?s role in shaping international politics which have been characterised by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change of approach: where previously realist interpretations of international relations saw international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions as little more than arenas in which national agendas competed, practitioners of the ?new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic history? have increased their sensitivity to the multiplicity of actors, and forms of power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1536)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Clavin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199577934)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199577934.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emily Baughan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8178 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operating above, beyond and across nation states. Far from being studied as a mere ?stage? upon which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national agendas were enacted, the League, and the diverse array of diplomats, bureaucrats, experts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarians associated with it, are now more often approached as a ?company of actors? who played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential role in shaping the international order between the two world wars \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.612 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.612 752.307 m 451.604 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite this recent upsurge of scholarly interest, we still know relatively little about the practices of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple individuals and organisations that constituted the League of Nations. Clavin?s work addresses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important lacuna through a focus on the League?s Economic and Financial Organisation \(EFO\), the world?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first intergovernmental organisation devoted to the promotion of economic and monetary co-operation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EFO?s archives have been previously mined by historians of inter-war economics, many of whom have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to rely upon its vast and meticulously compiled catalogue of reports to chart the course of the interwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic roller coaster. Yet the EFO itself has been dismissed as the ?greatest failed organisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League?, and its own role as an actor in its own right in the inter-war international economy has tended to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlooked by economic and diplomatic historians alike.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.320 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.320 612.003 m 320.312 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 320.312 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clavin posits that the reason for this lies not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the EFO?s supposed impotence, but instead its innovation. The EFO, she argues, ?sought to connect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics and finance to politics and society?, but historians, she contends, have ?lost interest in studying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these connections? \(p. 3\). Her book, )] TJ ET BT 210.308 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reinvention of the League of Nations)] TJ ET BT 409.640 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, situates the EFO within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geneva?s cultural and intellectual community, whilst simultaneously charting its vision of international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society and its influence upon diplomacy. An economic history which will appeal to non-economists, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book provides long overdue insights into a number of key subjects including the impact of the EFO, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League more broadly, on the lives of the European public, the role of the EFO in mediating Euro-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations and the quotidian cultures of the international civil service between the two world wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In focusing on the lifecycle of one of the League?s many subsidiary bodies, Clavin makes a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument about how we might view the League of Nations. There was, Clavin claims, no ?single League of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations at Geneva?. Rather, with multiple actors, agendas and an ever-changing line up of individuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committees and subsidiary organisations, the League was a ?multiverse?; a body that constantly spawned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new universes? and which was therefore subject to constant ?reinvention? \(p. 7\). In line with other scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the field, Clavin shows that the League was far from being a ?finished? product in 1919, but would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue to change and evolve throughout the inter-war period, reacting to both internal and external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.668 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.668 371.907 m 95.660 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 95.660 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The EFO, Clavin shows, sought to remake the League from the inside out and then, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League fell apart, became a key architect of the post-1945 international order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before the EFO could set about reinventing the League of Nations, it first had to invent itself. In 1919, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been little to indicate that the League would play a role in international finance. Instead, animated by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century liberal internationalist vision, the League?s architects privileged free trade as an organising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle, and longed wistfully for the economic order and prosperity of the pre-war years. Initially, the EFO )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed only in a ?provisional? capacity as an advisory body for the League?s member states, and ? fearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that their national sovereignty might be impinged upon ? even this limited role was regarded with suspicion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the British. Yet, as the ?economic consequences of the peace? took the form of hyperinflation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the League?s Assembly began to consider intervention. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?proprietorial? attitude towards Europe?s new nations and fledging democracies, coupled with anxiety about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appeal of communism to impoverished masses, provided it with an increasingly compelling rationale for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action. In 1920, reservations about economic intervention were cast aside when British academic and civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant Arthur Slater negotiated a multilateral programme of both private and intergovernmental financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for Austria, acting under the auspices of the EFO. The EFO went on to co-ordinate similar support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Hungary in 1923. Success in these endeavours served to confirm the legitimacy of the EFO and, in 1924, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?provisional? was quietly dropped from the EFO?s title. From this point forward, Clavin notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international economic oversight was to be a permanent feature of the global order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the European economy seemingly stabilised by the mid-1920s, the EFO returned to a classically liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationalist approach to global economics. Throughout the later 1920s, and via a series of conferences, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations and reports, the EFO pursued its prime objective of a ?tariff truce? between European states, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanism it considered vital for the reintroduction and reinvigoration of free trade. But the EFO?s limited )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.6117 752.6215 451.6037 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.3197 612.3175 320.3117 624.1975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 81.6677 372.2215 95.6597 384.1015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7756 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in this sphere was to be almost immediately undermined by the advent of the global depression in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1929. In her account of the depression, Clavin?s study breaks little new analytical ground. As in her previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works)] TJ ET BT 63.344 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 66.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( she is concerned with the political decision-making processes that perpetuated gold standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxy, and echoes many of the observations made in Eichengreen?s classic )] TJ ET BT 418.604 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Golden Fetters)] TJ ET BT 490.928 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.928 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.928 752.307 m 507.920 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.920 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by successfully integrating the EFO into the story of inter-war economic policy, Clavin presents an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative vantage point from which historians might view the crisis: that of the EFO as a as a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confessed scholarly ?expert? which, ostensibly, had neither national nor financial agendas to pursue. Imbued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with self-confidence as to its own academic, and indeed moral, authority, the EFO had formed a Gold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delegation immediately prior to the Crash, which promoted international currency stabilisation as the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope for the international economy. The Gold Delegation, which ? despite internal conflicts ? ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheld gold standard orthodoxy, has been thus far dismissed in the historiography of the Great Depression as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?failure?. Yet, for Clavin, the significance of the Gold Delegation lies less in its conclusion than its very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation, which in her view illustrates the novel ways in which the EFO was ?pushing at the boundaries of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what states would accept in terms of international scrutiny? \(p. 51\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This did not mean, however, that nation states, their leaders, or indeed their bankers, paid any heed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly suggestions for monetary policy. The paradox for the EFO in these years was that, even as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy was enhanced, its argument for international co-ordination was falling ever more out of vogue, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western European states and the United States embarked on protectionist programmes and sought shelter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the financial storm under nationalist umbrellas. In 1932, the second of two World Economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conferences convened by the EFO rapidly descended into squabbles over war debts between the three major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers, Britain, the United States and France, and the EFO?s ?tariff truce? agenda foundered as bankers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorted to backroom dealings to secure currency stabilisation. This episode was particularly painful for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EFO, not only undermining its authority but also serving to further distance the United States from an active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in international financial co-ordination. Throughout its lifespan, the EFO would continue to seek the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation of the United States, and to laud American innovation, with, for example EFO delegate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Loveday traveling to the country in 1934 to gather information on the ?social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution? represented by the New Deal \(p. 133\). In this regard, Clavin shows how the United States, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?League?s most famous non-member?, remained central to the international economic vision of the EFO )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clavin?s work invites us to reconsider the traditional chronologies of the inter-war era. It is in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?diplomatically dull years? of the early 1930s that she locates a further reinvention of the League, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spearheaded by the EFO. Sidestepping ? at least for the time being ? the diplomatic and economic wrangling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the major powers, the EFO set about promoting ?bread and butter internationalism? in these years \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(165\). This approach re-articulated the principles expressed in the EFO?s earlier economic intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria and Hungary: the belief that international stability and security could not be achieved whilst vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swathes of the European population remained impoverished. Now, the EFO?s attention shifted eastwards, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a focus upon the ?quality of life? of eastern European agricultural communities, the end result of which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a series of pioneering studies into malnutrition. Estimating that 60 million eastern European peasants each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year were unable to produce enough to eat, the EFO looked beyond the shorter-term context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depression to identify a persistent, long-term regional cycle of undercapitalisation, under productivity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underemployment. As Clavin rightly identifies, this diagnosis drew upon, and further entrenched, tropes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunger and helplessness forged in the colonial imagination. EFO intervention in the region thus extended the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century tradition of humanitarian imperialism, whilst at the same time laying much of the groundwork )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for post-1945 ?development? projects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The EFO was also active in social welfare in these years and its interests in this area mirrored broader shifts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the activities and character of the League. From the mid-1920s a host of subsidiary bodies, dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics ranging from child welfare to the rehabilitation of prostitutes, focused on social and humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects. In the 1930s their scope and support increased whilst the diplomatic sections of the League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared ever more powerless in the face of European fascism. In 1936, with the League?s impotent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia fresh in the public consciousness, internationalist academic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.9277 752.6215 507.9197 764.5015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Rappard suggested that the ?main purpose for the League, the prevention of war, might more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily and effectively be served by the consolidation of peace than the suppression of violence? \(p. 162\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This form of ?positive security? had been promoted by, amongst others, Jan Smuts in 1919, but Clavin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that it came to occupy a central space in the identity of the League and the EFO only as other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic channels began to dry up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The EFO?s increasing interest in social questions and positive security provided an answer to a practical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical question: what should an organisation devoted to international peace do in a time of war? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the Second World War began in 1939, the EFO was in the midst of its greatest undertaking to date, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the origins of the Depression in the aftermath of war. For EFO officials, understanding the causes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last post-war collapse took on renewed importance now it seemed that history might repeat itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the perception from many quarters that the EFO was still engaged in ?fighting the last war? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midst of a new one, the EFO had secured a close enough relationship with the US State Department to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warrant an invitation to take up a new home at Princeton. Clavin?s depiction of the social history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League of Nations? diplomatic community is nowhere more compelling than the vivid account of the EFO?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?escape? from Switzerland, its arduous journey to the United States, and the subsequent ?academic rescue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missions? that were launched in aid of officials who found themselves inside the Third Reich?s ever shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was during the war that the EFO reached the height of its influence and innovation. Where previously its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dense reports had been undermined by their own meticulous and thus voluminous research and technical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations, EFO staff now recognised the need to produce concise volumes to be ?read on the run? by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allied leaders. Foremost among these was )] TJ ET BT 239.984 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 260.984 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transition From a War to a Peace Economy. )] TJ ET BT 480.632 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1943 this set out a comprehensive plan for reconstruction which drew on the wealth of statistical information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered by the EFO during its time in Geneva. It was unique in promoting international co-ordination at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when national plans were dominating and also in its ?determination not to divide the world into winners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and losers? \(p. 290\). Instead, the report highlighted the commonality of post-war economic experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the world following Versailles, and warned of a similar future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of Clavin?s monograph provides what is, to date, the most detailed account of the League?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with the emerging United Nations, both during and in the immediate aftermath of the war. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clavin addresses the question which has preoccupied generations of scholars: the extent to which the League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Nations should be judged a success or a failure. Interestingly, Clavin shows that EFO officials were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves complicit in the creation of a ?failure? narrative, a painful task but one regarded as necessary if a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new international organisation was to draw the support of the American public, something that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered vital to both a future United Nations and to American intervention in post-war reconstruction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet this concern for American public opinion stood in direct opposition to what Clavin identifies as a key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift taking place during the war years. During the inter-war period ? in line with a wider veneration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of public opinion in international diplomacy ? the EFO had undoubtedly sought to educate and mobilise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European public in support of its policies, particularly with regards to social policy and agriculture. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the same time EFO officials had also held to the classically liberal view that the public would need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated before they could be mobilised, and they saw themselves as unbiased experts and appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders in this process of education. The EFO?s move to Princeton marked, however, a decisive shift away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from this approach to ?politics? and ?public?. In Clavin?s view, whilst the ?the pre-eminent link between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds of international organisations before and after 1945 was the continuing emphasis on the balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technocracy?, a new ?lack of transparency? came to characterise the IMF, World Bank and the EEC after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. Assured of their own expertise, post-1945 financial organisations failed to communicate either with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public or with democratically elected leaders as the EFO had. The seeming secrecy of post-1945 institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would increasingly undermine their legitimacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The war-time United Nations alliance enters Clavin?s story in the penultimate chapter, where she seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why the EFO was excluded from the 1943 United Nations? world food conference, an event that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues the EFO had in fact initiated. This exclusion, Clavin claims, spoke of the need to keep daylight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the League and potential post-war organisations in the eyes of the American public. She explains )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7642 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the EFO?s subsequent exclusion from the key conferences at Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks in 1944, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in similar terms. Clavin is, however, able to argue for the influence of the EFO on the emerging post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order, whilst ensuring she does not overstate the continuities between pre- and post-1945 economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations. Unlike League organisations such as the Health Organisation or Child Welfare Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which would become the UN Health Organisation and UNICEF\), the EFO was not ?transferred wholesale? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to continue its work with a new title under the auspices of the UN. Instead, Clavin identifies a more subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and multi-layered process of ideological transference in the sphere of international economics. The EFO, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, had ?bequeathed a shared understanding of the recent history of the world economy ? [and had] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided an historical narrative of an interconnected world economy?, thereby preparing the ground for new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organs of economic oversight \(p. 307\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where a number of histories of interwar international organisations rely upon their afterlife in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirm their historical significance, Clavin seeks to measure the EFO?s power and influence within its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifespan. Her account treats the EFO as an ?actor, rather than a stage?, weighing in on economic debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than simply playing host to traditional economic agents: states, banks and businesses. Yet, her account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also reveals the impotence of the EFO, which often appeared to have observed rather than influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international economic policy, unable to intervene in spats between the allied nations around war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reparations, tariffs and currency stabilisation. Indeed, barely able to impact upon inter-allied economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, the EFO was entirely powerless to prevent the more widespread economic nationalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protectionism of the 1930s. Clavin shows how, through its inaction, the EFO became complicit in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic appeasement of Nazi Germany in latter part of the 1930s. Thus, whilst Clavin successfully argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the EFO brought into being the contemporary norm of international oversight of economic policy, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader I was left wondering at times if the economic story of the inter-war period would really have looked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all that different had the EFO not existed. Perhaps more detail about the EFO?s ?social work? in Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, for example, would have enabled readers to gauge the extent of the impact of the EFO on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities it claimed to serve. Thus, whilst )] TJ ET BT 255.680 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Reinvention of the League of Nations )] TJ ET BT 458.012 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a vibrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and cultural history of economic policy and its makers, it falls short at points in exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the EFO beyond Geneva within its short lifespan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clavin?s book is the product of over ten years of research in archives on three continents. It is vast in scope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it makes a rich and important series of contributions to the field. It is multi-layered and meticulously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed, but ? given the scale of the topic ? it inevitably leaves questions for future researchers to pursue. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Clavin states early on that Africa existed for the EFO only as an object not a subject)] TJ ET BT 503.612 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 509.612 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imperial realities of inter-war geopolitics were accepted without question. Nonetheless, I was left curious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how the work of the EFO intersected with the colonial development schemes of the 1930s, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as EFO leaders employed similar development discourses in their work in Europe. Clavin?s work is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant for the space it affords to the ?League of Nations most famous non-member of all: the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States? \(p. 10\). It illustrates the ways in which the United States nonetheless exerted influence, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics that the League, EFO and various European powers employed as they attempted to draw it into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new international diplomatic community. Less discussion is devoted to the world?s other emerging great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, the USSR, either before or after 1926, when it became a League member. Although Clavin notes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism played an important role in defining the ?other? in inter-war economic thought, she acknowledges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the ?relationship between liberal internationalism and international communism remains unclear? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the period \(p. 9\). Here too lies an important avenue for future researchers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, this is an impressive and meticulously researched monograph that has much to offer scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on all aspects of modern international history. For economic historians, it presents less a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the era than a fresh perspective, reinvigorating longstanding debates by reintegrating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently overlooked actor, the EFO, into the era?s economic landscape. For scholars interested in the roots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern global governance, Clavin?s work explores the changes and continuities between pre- and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945 institutions and it firmly locates the genesis of the contemporary plethora of financial organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the inter-war era. For an emerging generation of historians interested in the League of Nations, it is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential read. Clavin paints a vibrant portrait of an international diplomatic and bureaucratic community of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 5489 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulating individuals and ideas, setting the bar high for forthcoming studies of other League of Nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies. Finally, Clavin?s work deserves an audience beyond the academy at a time when the challenges of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide economic downturn have, once again, called into question the activities of international economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Zara Steiner, )] TJ ET BT 195.320 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lights that Failed: European International History 1919?33 )] TJ ET BT 509.996 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(2005\))] TJ ET BT 92.012 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 99.008 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zara Steiner, )] TJ ET BT 163.988 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933?1939)] TJ ET BT 500.648 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012\); M. Mazower, )] TJ ET BT 166.328 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Governing the World: The History of an Idea )] TJ ET BT 386.972 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2012\); S. Pedersen,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Back to the League of Nations: review essay?, )] TJ ET BT 294.956 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 430.940 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 112, 4 \(October 2007\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1091?117; a database of historians working on the League can be accessed online at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://leagueofnationshistory.org/database.shtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 615.507 m 295.340 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 298.340 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 312.332 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.332 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.332 615.507 m 369.320 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Armstrong, )] TJ ET BT 136.676 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the)] TJ ET BT 211.340 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Organization)] TJ ET BT 341.684 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 348.020 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A)] TJ ET BT 358.352 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Short History)] TJ ET BT 423.356 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1982\), p. 27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 118.004 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick O. )] TJ ET BT 115.676 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cohrs)] TJ ET BT 145.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Unfinished Peace)] TJ ET BT 260.000 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after World War I: America, Britain and the Stabilisation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe, 1919?1932)] TJ ET BT 159.344 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.664 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.664 558.483 m 310.652 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Clavin, )] TJ ET BT 114.692 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Depression in Europe, 1929?1939)] TJ ET BT 332.012 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\); P. Clavin, )] TJ ET BT 467.348 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Failure of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Diplomacy: Britain, Germany, France and the US, 1931?36)] TJ ET BT 404.300 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\); B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eichengreen, )] TJ ET BT 129.992 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919?1939)] TJ ET BT 488.636 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 501.459 m 149.000 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 446.691 m 245.660 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.660 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 443.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 425.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 425.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1536)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 424.185 m 328.316 424.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/58982)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://leagueofnationshistory.org/database.shtml)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=39130)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 615.8215 295.3397 627.7015 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://leagueofnationshistory.org/database.shtml) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.3317 615.8215 369.3197 627.7015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 118.0037 599.1895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6637 558.7975 310.6517 570.6775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 501.7735 148.9997 513.6535 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 447.0055 245.6597 458.8855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=39130) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 424.4995 328.3157 436.3795 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1536) >> endobj xref 0 50 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000678 00000 n 0000004678 00000 n 0000004787 00000 n 0000004897 00000 n 0000005006 00000 n 0000008567 00000 n 0000008695 00000 n 0000008779 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000017108 00000 n 0000017138 00000 n 0000017266 00000 n 0000017302 00000 n 0000017332 00000 n 0000017460 00000 n 0000017496 00000 n 0000017526 00000 n 0000017652 00000 n 0000017688 00000 n 0000017772 00000 n 0000025581 00000 n 0000025611 00000 n 0000025739 00000 n 0000025775 00000 n 0000025840 00000 n 0000033379 00000 n 0000033444 00000 n 0000041139 00000 n 0000041265 00000 n 0000046807 00000 n 0000046934 00000 n 0000047034 00000 n 0000047162 00000 n 0000047217 00000 n 0000047344 00000 n 0000047399 00000 n 0000047527 00000 n 0000047582 00000 n 0000047709 00000 n 0000047764 00000 n 0000047891 00000 n 0000047993 00000 n 0000048121 00000 n trailer << /Size 50 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48217 %%EOF