%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150901181249+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150901181249+01'00') /Title (Ambiguous Republic: Ireland in the 1970s) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4383 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic: Ireland in the 1970s)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a rare thing for a reviewer to read a book which on its own terms, in its content and argument, leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing open to serious criticism. Professor Diarmaid Ferriter?s )] TJ ET BT 342.980 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic: Ireland in the 1970s)] TJ ET BT 546.632 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one such book. In reading this excellent study, besides being struck by the many parallels made apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the political and economic state of the Republic of Ireland in the 1970s and in the second decade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 21st century, one is struck by the sense that the 1970s were a foundational period for the Irish state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it had been existence for five decades. A transitional period also, between the economic upturn of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s and the crippling slump of the 1980s and long before the ?Celtic Tiger? began to roar. While old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems persisted, there was conspicuously less of a sense of angst about the worthiness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence project and the very existence of the Irish state, than there had been in the 1950s, when ?half a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million people left the country? \(p. 8\). While the 1970s was for most of the rest of democratic Europe a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of disillusionment after the heady days of the 1960s \(though also one of far-ranging and far-reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratisation\), in Ireland, in just about every area of political, economic, cultural, social and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, Irishmen, and increasingly Irish)] TJ ET BT 208.652 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(women)] TJ ET BT 242.648 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were thinking anew. With the passing of the certainties of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older generation of nationalists and the country?s increasing involvement in international affairs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement towards EEC membership, questions were inevitably raised about the ?identity? of the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1537)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid Ferriter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846684685)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(704pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profile Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.profilebooks.com/isbn/9781846684685/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shane Nagle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish state. If answers to the question were found, these were generally not the result of intensive intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection, but of actions and decisions made in the context of the immediate challenges facing the country, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly the Northern situation and the economy. This is not to say, however, that the 1970s was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stagnant decade for Irish culture; quite the opposite was the case, as Ferriter shows, particularly in the area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of music, and an Arts Council for Ireland was established in 1973 \(p. 264\). Even down to the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual idiosyncrasies in the realm of high politics the parallels made apparent between 1970s Ireland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Ireland are striking: the ?Lynch speak? of Jack Lynch \(p. 81\), Irish Taoiseach between 1966 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1973, and 1977 and 1979; can be set alongside the ?Bertiespeak? of Bertie Ahern, Taoiseach between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997 and 2008, both of them Fianna Fil prime ministers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the 1970s was a decade in which individual Irish citizens, intellectuals, academics and even civil servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were thinking anew, superficiality and short-termism seemed to characterize much governmental thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the period. That an Irish government committee deliberating in 1972 on, among other things, the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a national flag in any united Ireland could consider this as ?a relatively unimportant matter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiable? \(p. 189\) seems, to say the least, remarkably myopic, especially to those of us looking back at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent ?flag protests? in Northern Ireland of 2013. In reading the section in chapter 18 on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin/Monaghan bombings of 1974, one is struck by the disconnect between popular sentiment and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish government?s reaction to what was by any definition a deliberate terrorist attack on the Irish state, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one which may have involved the military personnel of another state, a response which can be fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised as lackadaisical and apathetic. In short, the government of Liam Cosgrave, as Ferriter makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear, was prepared to excuse refusing to adequately investigate a terrorist attack that cost the lives of 31 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish citizens on the grounds of political expediency and a belief that such an attack had been practically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable in the context of the violence in the North. \(pp. 199?201\) Though the Northern conflict had major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects on the politics of the Irish state and its political reputation, events such as the Dublin/Monaghan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombings and the response to them seem to underline the difficulties of Irish governments during the 1970s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in trying to effect successful strategic influence on Northern affairs \(the abortive Sunningdale Agreement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding\). This was due to difficult relations with British governments, an unwillingness to confront )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the realities behind Ulster Unionism, and perhaps most of all the state?s fear of the possibility of internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Ferriter shows, little really differentiated the Northern ?policy? of the Lynch and Cosgrave governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besides the superficial nationalist rhetoric of the former, but this nonetheless reflected the feeling of the party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(base and Fianna Fil?s self-image. The Irish government?s response to the Dublin/Monaghan bombings, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to any activism in the state that could be construed as lending succour to Republicanism, well bears out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferriter?s contention that the state still possessed a ?conservative, authoritarian governing culture, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to prize the stability and endurance of the institutions of the state and created a very wide definition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dissent? \(p. 7\). The particular hostility of Fine Gael politicians to Irish Republicanism was also no doubt a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of the party?s continued perception of itself as the builder of the Irish state and the one that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented it from being killed at birth \(and since\) by violent insurrectionary republicanism. Yet, as ever, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fine Gael governments presided over a state the constitution of which had been the ?brainchild? of their old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy, the father of Fianna Fil, Emon de Valera. On the other hand, some Irish politicians who could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be described as sympathetic to Irish Republicanism were occasionally willing to utilise an overly simplistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist historical narrative in order to convey a sense of pride in the independent role of the Irish state, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular in the area of foreign affairs, as when Garret Fitzgerald \(one of very few genuinely cerebral Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians of the period\) put forward the view that as a result of Ireland?s ?colonial? history the country was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better placed to carve out an international role focused on a defence of human rights \(p. 429\). Or, as Ferriter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts it in his earlier Irish history )] TJ ET BT 191.012 145.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 338.024 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?In the conduct of foreign policy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional desire to act differently from Britain may suggest that enthusiasm for Europe was partly bound up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the self-conscious need to be different from the former coloniser? \(p. 685\). Similarly, in seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a virtue of a necessity, politicians and governmental circles built a narrative around the state?s entry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the EEC in 1973 centred on the notion of Ireland re-joining the European community of nations after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries of British rule, and five subsequent decades of economic dependence on Britain.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7626 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet however much Irish parliamentary politics, to the extent that ?ideology? figured in them, may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to have been structured along a ?Civil War? divide 50 years old, Ferriter makes a convincing case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in chapter one that the actual day to day ?cut and thrust? of Irish politics was based more on ?clientelism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and constituency politics than anything else, influenced by the Irish system of multi-member constituencies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and expressed in typically salty terms in Charles Haughey?s advice to Bertie Ahern: ?don?t worry about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old bullshit going on in Leinster House ? just concentrate on your constituency? \(p. 66\). Irish politics also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be dominated by personalities, even not particularly impressive ones such as Jack Lynch. Fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or unfairly, neither Lynch nor Cosgrave \(to say nothing of Charles J. Haughey\) come off particularly well in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferriter?s estimation. Irish prime ministers were by now it seems, at least in the case of Lynch and Cosgrave, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more amenable to government by committee and cabinet consensus than their revolutionary generation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors. In reading the chapters on ?Remembering the fight for freedom? and ?History wars? one is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck by the ?squeamishness? of the Irish state in the matter of commemorating the revolutionary period in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any way that might possibly be construed as lending at least an implicitly ?permissive? attitude towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary paramilitary violence. In the context of the Irish government?s response to, for example, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin/Monaghan bombings, there is nothing surprising about such ?squeamishness?. The fact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembering that the Irish state had come into being as a result of a campaign of revolutionary or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurrectionary violence was sundered from historical context and became tied to contemporary politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ?rear-view mirror? sense of Irish history was also reflected, however, in the perspectives of some Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic historians. Nonetheless Ferriter draws a judicious balance between making clear the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity of the revisionist agenda in historiography that was gaining ground in this period, while also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceding that revisionism for all its value to historians was as easily politicized as the old nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative \(p. 247\). Yet, however much revisionism may have been growing in importance in during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s, it was the continuation of a process reaching back at least 30 years, and revisionism itself was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break with the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also offers an interesting perspective on the advance of secularization in 1970s Ireland, noting that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves were afootearlier than has generally been thoughtto break the Catholic Church?s near complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly on education, and the willingness of some Irish Catholic priests to countenance far-reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in religiously-influenced legislation to accommodate northern Protestant sensibilities in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculative united Ireland. Ferriter also interestingly points out that the high-point of 1970s Ireland, the visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Pope John Paul II in 1979, had been prompted more by a sense on the part of the Irish hierarchy that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious devotion was on the wane in Ireland than by an appreciation of the traditional devotion of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Roman Catholic Church \(p. 622\). We see here in Ferriter?s pages less the ?triumphal? Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier decades than one increasingly concerned, albeit quietly, about its long-term future, though of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the deliberate and systematic covering-up of sexual abuse carried out by Catholic priests and religious in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions throughout the Republic draws the focus back on an institution that did not feel itself compelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to obey the law of the state over its own laws. Courageous figures such as the television presenter who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(announced on the highly popular )] TJ ET BT 194.996 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 215.996 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Late Late Show )] TJ ET BT 293.672 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as early as 1967 that ?As I sit here tonight, the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Brothers are abusing our children?, were unfortunately rare exceptions in a society in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued deference to the Church in many aspects of life prevailed \(p. 380\). At the very least, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church?s previously powerful claim to be the political and social conscience of the state became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly weakened during the 1970s. In other areas, however, prominent churchmen played more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive and popular roles, as in the 1976 campaign to prevent building on Wood Quay, an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological site for the exploration of Dublin?s medieval Norse history \(p. 251\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book, which is not a straightforward chronological narrative of the 1970s in Ireland, is divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically into sections on political and administrative culture, the effects of ?the Troubles? on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic \(given the book?s focus, the extent to which events in Northern Ireland are treated relate to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct effect on the Irish state\), commemoration and popular culture, Irish legal culture of the 1970s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policing, foreign affairs, the economy, social change, and change in the sphere of education and the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish feminism in the 1970s. The book certainly cannot be faulted for lack of detail or comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breadth, and the thematic structuring prevents the evidence from overwhelming the reader and distracting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8645 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the underlying argument. If anything, there is perhaps too much evidence, too many sources for a kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history that is primarily based on documents from political archives. The book is strongly oriented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards state papers and files, the papers of various past political figures and civil servants, and the papers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Fianna Fil parliamentary party, but it also includes various periodicals and magazines of the period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferriter?s command of such a large body of sources, ranging from governmental files to popular magazines, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a model for any historian. He also quotes from a number of letters written by members of the Irish public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and diaspora to Lynch and Cosgrave, which open a window on popular attitudes both at home and abroad. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of a concluding chapter is one of the book?s very few handicaps, though a fairly minor one. In any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, the reader is left to draw hisor her own conclusions by the end of the book, but the weight of evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely speaks for itself. Regarding the relative importance of different factors in forcing popular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental re-evaluations of what Ireland was in the 1970s; the Northern conflict, the legacies of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle for independence, and of course, the ever present debate on the economy all seem to this reader to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain a presence in each of the book?s main sections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Ferriter?s previous books, in particular )] TJ ET BT 248.312 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 395.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 401.324 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic )] TJ ET BT 503.984 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for both academic and popular audiences, but it is quite simply a monumental piece of scholarship that will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a ? if not )] TJ ET BT 93.668 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 111.332 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? standard work on Ireland in the 1970s for many years to come, written by one of Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premier historians working today. Given the parallels between 1970s Ireland and Ireland today it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easy to fall into the trap of adopting a ?rear-view mirror? perspective of the period. Ferriter, however, avoids )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this by underlining that Ireland during the 1970s was still undergoing modernization, albeit this being in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final stages. As he writes in )] TJ ET BT 169.664 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 316.676 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in the 1990s, ?Irish people were listening to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing things that would have found no outlet in the 1970s?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.000 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.000 497.955 m 336.992 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.992 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is a book that underlines the ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Irish state of today remains an ?ambiguous republic?: as the 1970?s saw the fading of de Valera-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era nationalism and the wide-ranging effects of the Northern conflict, the opening decades of the 21st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century have seen equivalent changes in terms of a collapse in deference to the Catholic Church and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society forced to confront new problems raised by the spectacular death of the ?Celtic Tiger?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic )] TJ ET BT 136.676 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a study of Irish history and it is hard to fault the book on any level as such. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book?s focus reminds the reader of the extent to which, for numerous reasons, Irish history, as with that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any country, continues to be shaped by the national paradigm, and perhaps more than that, a received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom of much of the historiography of the 20th century, and one that still retains some currency: that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?special path? of national histories. This idea has strongly influenced Irish historiography both of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist style and of the revisionist ?school?, and holds appeal to this day in controversies over such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions as the ?colonial? nature \(or not\) of early modern and modern Irish history. Where does )] TJ ET BT 501.584 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Republic )] TJ ET BT 79.676 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand in relation to writing on the ?)] TJ ET BT 248.000 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 301.328 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? of Irish history? I should firstly say that I am not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using this as a point with which to criticise Professor Ferriter by ?accusing? him of writing a ?)] TJ ET BT 486.296 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 539.624 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history: he is far too sophisticated a historian to accept any such commonplace notions. However, one can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that many histories like )] TJ ET BT 179.000 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic )] TJ ET BT 281.660 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps exaggerate the extent to which Ireland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?distinctive? problems really were that ?distinctive?. Though Ferriter notes the international dimension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some Irish events and problems, and while he hints at the possibility of a comparative subtext in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other European countries in the introduction, this is not sustained in the text. Given the extent to which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems which shaped Ireland?s 1970s were pan-European ones, for this reviewer, as a comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, the apparent absence of a real comparative perspective is hard to ignore. Without meaning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that good comparative history is a simple matter that can be dealt with in a few pages here and there, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or that Professor Ferriter should have in effect written a different book to this one, the absence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative perspective in some of the book?s sections is perhaps problematic insofar as there is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that Ireland?s ?distinctive? problems were central not just to the distinctiveness of Ireland?s 1970s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also to the general shortcomings and failings of Irish government, politics, society and economy during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that period. This book is, after all, written with an eye on the Ireland of today, and the crises which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beset the Irish state since 2008 are )] TJ ET BT 201.644 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European )] TJ ET BT 251.972 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ones.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Ireland, Greece, Spain, and Portugal \(for example\) were undergoing far-reaching changes in the 1970s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their transitions from dictatorship to democracy; and also with respect to the latter?s withdrawal from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.9997 498.2695 336.9917 510.1495 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 6963 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its colonial empire. On a level closer to Ireland?s, Belgium too was undergoing far-reaching political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional change. Reading Ferriter?s comments on the excessively ?localist? and ?macho? and worse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet ?machine?, ?clientelist? and anti-intellectual character of Irish politics one would be forgiven for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking that such masculine and ?parish pump? politics were distinctively Irish when in fact they were not. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Ferriter quotes one contemporary Irish commentator that ?the real legislative influence of [Irish] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deputies is marginal? \(p. 15\), this is a comment that could be applied to numerous parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracies of the same period with centralised political parties, and, for some, powerful labour movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aligned with left-wing parties whose electoral bases were concentrated in certain areas and communities. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to imagine that on the island of Ireland ?parish pump? politics were limited only to ?the south?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either, at any rate before the Northern Irish Parliament was dissolved by the British government. Ferriter?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appraisal of Fianna Fil as ?one of the most successful [political parties] in the world? \(p. 16\) hints at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of comparison, without pursuing it. Certainly there was nothing distinctively Irish about one party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing itself as the ?natural? party of government. Though ?the Troubles? were certainly something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive in Europe, Ireland was still not the only country whose politics, government and apparatuses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice and law enforcement were deeply affected by the threat of violent internal subversion, as we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the examples of Italy and West Germany, where the Red Army Faction?s campaign \(albeit a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor one compared to those of Irish paramilitaries\) led to a national crisis in 1977. Even in the section of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book most appropriate for comparison, on ?foreign affairs?, which deals largely with the state?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing relationship to the European Community and the implications of this for national sovereignty, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the reasons behind and context for Irish pro-EC arguments and sentiments, there is no real attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage in comparison, except perhaps for asides in chapters 35 and 37. These are perhaps unfair criticisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given the stated focus of )] TJ ET BT 154.328 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic)] TJ ET BT 253.988 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, given that the book does not aim to set out a comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective and then fail to offer one. Perhaps it would be better to say that these criticisms are more an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal for some future Irish historian \(hopefully\) to build on the work of Ferriter in )] TJ ET BT 436.952 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a comparative study of Ireland?s 1970s. When he or she does so, they will find )] TJ ET BT 439.952 454.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambiguous Republic )] TJ ET BT 542.612 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be an invaluable guide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diarmaid Ferriter, )] TJ ET BT 154.328 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of Ireland)] TJ ET BT 301.340 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, 2005\), pp. 664?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.996 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.996 373.155 m 485.984 373.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/books/ambiguous-republic-ireland-in-the-1970s-by-diarmaid-ferriter-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 318.387 m 536.612 318.387 l S BT 34.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.1643345)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 304.131 m 85.016 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 88.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.drb.ie/essays/challenging-the-state)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 275.619 m 257.324 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 260.324 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/books-arts/the-turbulent-decade-that-still-casts-its-shadow-over-us-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 247.107 m 558.596 247.107 l S BT 34.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28821714.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 232.851 m 107.024 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.024 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 229.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 211.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 211.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1537)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 210.345 m 328.316 210.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 185.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/70065)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.irishtimes.com/culture/books/ambiguous-republic-ireland-in-the-1970s-by-diarmaid-ferriter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.1643345)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.drb.ie/essays/challenging-the-state)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.independent.ie/entertainment/books-arts/the-turbulent-decade-that-still-casts-its-shadow-)] TJ ET BT 535.604 113.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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