%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140820174608+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140820174608+01'00') /Title (Verwandtschaft - Erbrecht - Knigswahlen) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4519 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Verwandtschaft - Erbrecht - Knigswahlen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The origin of the imperial college of electors has remained an enigma, despite a lengthy procession of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs devoted to it. This set collects the majority of Armin Wolf?s large-scale contributions to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution of the enigma, along with various short papers and book reviews, and several new studies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included. It turns out that the solution is, in principle, surprisingly simple, but the subject is also broad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intricate. Wolf?s essential theory is that originally those eligible to succeed to the throne were entitled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elect the successor. Rights of succession were transmitted by direct inheritance; and since few imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasties lasted many generations, decisive importance accrued to rights passing down cognatic lines \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tochterstmme)] TJ ET BT 108.008 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Attrition led to a reduction in the number of established electoral dynasties, and the Golden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bull of 1356 enshrined the electoral rights of four dynasties who remained. While the deep background may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be traced to Wolf?s preface \(pp. 971?1010\) for a facsimile edition of the Golden Bull published in 1968, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory itself was first proposed in 1978 in the magazine of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.608 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.608 143.625 m 473.600 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In formal scholarship Wolf?s investigation began in 1980 with a separate but closely related question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing the first of four areas among which the contents of this collection may be divided. The earliest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German monarchs must follow each other in hereditary succession in order for the theory to hold true, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who competed for the throne would all have had substantial hereditary credentials. In a paper absent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the collection, Wolf demonstrated that in 1002 Emperor Henry II?s main rival for the throne was a son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1538)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armin Wolf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9783465041801)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1184pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klostermann Vittorio Gmbh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.klostermann.de/epages/63574303.sf/de_DE/?ObjectPath=/Shops/63574303/Products/9783465041801)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankfurt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald C. Jackman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.6077 143.9395 473.5997 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8326 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Emperor Otto I?s hitherto unknown granddaughter Richlint, who was perceived essentially as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primogeniture heiress. The genealogical inference was prepared with consummate care, solicitude for extant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, and sensitivity to the relative ability of disparate and fragmentary primary sources to contribute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their worth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.008 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.008 752.307 m 104.000 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.000 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the same publishing year, however, this pivotal finding was shot down. Citing a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources and considerations of possible relevance, Eduard Hlawitschka rejected it primarily because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally accepted genealogy of the so-called Konradiner family resulted in a forbidden consanguinity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the marriage between Richlint and her inferable husband. Hlawitschka followed with several papers and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book reconstructing aristocratic genealogy in exclusion of Richlint. In 1990, however, the present reviewer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulated enough information to overturn the traditional Konradiner genealogy and argue reliability for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key inferred affiliations in a revised reconstruction. Shortly thereafter Wolf published an extended paper \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(163?238\) disclosing hereditary credentials for the many candidates to the German throne from 1002 to 1125.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hlawitschka then devoted a lengthy paper to undermining these standpoints, but adding little to the balance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of argument. In his obligatory response \(pp. 239?339\), Wolf focused explicitly on the contest for the throne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1002, showing the movements of a variety of persons interested in and able to affect the outcome. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inferential data for their involvement on a hereditary basis flow impressively once Richlint?s existence is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted. Whereas the contest of 1002 has often been probed in the misguided hope of detecting contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles of free election and hereditary succession, Wolf?s essay is now the most detailed study of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events and should be the starting point for their investigation. It lends full credence to the enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hereditary character of the imperial succession in that early period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hlawitschka published his next book with the Monumenta Germaniae Historica in its )] TJ ET BT 446.648 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schriften)] TJ ET BT 489.980 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claiming to bring the 25-year dispute to its final resolution in his favor. The happy result stemmed from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single observation: the present reviewer supposedly had failed to notice that Duke Konrad of Swabia is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in a diploma of 994, where a Count Konrad of Ufgau is also named: therefore Duke Konrad was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not count of Ufgau, and the revised Konradiner table is therefore invalidated. This ?discovery? is actually a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraud, since at no point had the reviewer equated the two Konrads of the diploma.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.936 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.936 428.931 m 439.928 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.928 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The imagined defect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adduced by Hlawitschka to undermine Wolf?s conception of royal heritability, was so subtle that it eluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolf himself, who makes no mention of it in his summary of the Konradiner controversy \(pp. 341-53\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hlawitschka subsequently published, with the Monumenta Germaniae Historica in its )] TJ ET BT 447.644 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hilfsmittel)] TJ ET BT 498.320 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annotated catalogue of the ancestors of early German monarchs, relying heavily on his fraud.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.908 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.908 371.907 m 494.900 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 494.900 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic moderation Wolf responded with a 120-page compilation of less doctrinaire and impeachable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material on imperial ancestors, of which the foreword and conclusion appear in the collection \(pp. 361-6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second area of division concerns the hereditary credentials of electors between 1198 and 1298 along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the credentials of some elected monarchs, notably Rudolf of Habsburg \(1273\) and Konrad of Teck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1292\). The disputed election of 1198 spawned a large correspondence involving Pope Innocent III and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legates and two rival candidates and their electors, all of which was saved in a special volume, the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thronstreitregister)] TJ ET BT 125.360 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Some electors were comparatively obscure, but Wolf accepts all who signed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence in an electoral capacity as credentialed individuals, therefore as descendants of, in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, King Henry the Fowler, the first monarch of the Ottonian dynasty. Among the electors of 1198 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posing particular problems of background was Margrave Godfrey of Ronsberg. In 1981 Wolf convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that this person?s paternal grandmother was a daughter of the Welf prince Henry the Proud by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first wife, identifiable as a sister of King Konrad III of Staufen. In the collection \(pp. 505?37\) this paper is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merged with a further study of the Ronsberg dynasty. The combined piece affords a special sense that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important aristocratic connections sometimes must be inferred from fragmentary sources, yet may still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make key contributions to medieval constitutional history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A comprehensive investigation of Rudolf of Habsburg?s background appeared in 1992 and again contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital details of relationship achieved by painstaking inference \(pp. 633?78\). The first Habsburg monarch was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well supplied with hereditary throne-right \(even discounting his possible descent from a junior line of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently extirpated Staufer\). Particularly noteworthy is the series of monarchs buried at Speyer, chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burial site of the Salian emperors. Rudolf?s inclusion in their number was justified especially by his descent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Emperor Henry III via the dukes of Zhringen. Rudolf was a great-nephew of Berthold V, the last )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.0077 752.6215 103.9997 764.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.9357 429.2455 439.9277 441.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.9077 372.2215 494.8997 384.1015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7949 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhringer duke and the first to be elected king in 1198, although he refused the office. Rudolf of Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died in 1291 and soon was succeeded by Duke Konrad of Teck, an agnatic Zhringer who was a great-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson of Berthold V?s uncle. A study of Konrad of Teck appeared as a miniature coffee-table book in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993 and later received an expanded edition, in part due to the unwillingness of local historian Rolf Gtz to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admit that Konrad became, as Wolf describes him, ?king for a day?. The collection offers an expanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of the last chapter from the second edition \(pp. 761?70\), providing the story of Konrad of Teck?s life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his death by assassination on the day following his election, with reference to Gtz?s renewed efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have Wolf?s well-supported conclusions rejected.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the studies touching the credentials of monarchs and electors are in the nature of discussion pieces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are on a smaller scale, and their critical framework is unrealized. The most interesting perhaps is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hitherto unpublished investigation into the electoral competence of the Alsatian count Albert II of Dagsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1198 \(pp. 539?54\). With a plausible skein of evidence, Wolf traces the Dagsburg line from the marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Count Albert I of Namur with a daughter of the French Carolingian prince Charles of Lorraine, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother was King Henry the Fowler?s daughter. Albert I of Namur was succeeded by his sons Robert II and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert II in turn, but the elder of these evidently left a minor son named Albert. The latter was succeeded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another Albert, very probably his son, who was count of Moha \(near Brussels\). Wolf then argues that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert II of Moha is identical to Albert I of Dagsburg and adduces various sources and considerations that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deems favorable to such an identification. It would seem that Albert II of Dagsburg represented the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne-right that passed through Charles of Lorraine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certain details suggest nevertheless that the counts of Dagsburg did not continue the male line of the counts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Moha and would therefore be, in the reviewer?s opinion, their cognatic descendants. The question is then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether electoral competence could still have been transmitted. Wolf in fact is reticent regarding the force of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electoral competence in terms of its contribution to his reconstruction of the Dagsburg line of descent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also several open slots where rights could have passed to Dagsburg via unknown ascendants. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reviewer, orderly transmission of electoral competence via Ottonian )] TJ ET BT 381.272 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tochterstmme)] TJ ET BT 455.264 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a heuristic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct. Too many genealogical connections are still missing to be certain always about specific electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credentials, and it is wise to emphasize, as Wolf implicitly does, that the aristocratic memory could reach far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back, especially if it was a matter of tracing agnatic lineage to a great-granddaughter of King Henry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One should imagine that credentials were sometimes constructed from more than one underlying criterion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet the needs of the moment. For example, the kings of Bohemia became established as electors according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a right manifest in the election of the Staufer king Philip in 1198. In Wolf?s large tables \(see pp. 26, 570, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(658, 662, 666\) the lineal basis of Bohemia?s right is traced back seven generations \(five in dynastic terms\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor Otto II via the mother of Duke Vladislav I. Yet Vladislav?s wife, Richeza of Berg, is very likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be a granddaughter of Emperor Henry III?s daughter Judith )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.268 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.268 288.627 m 336.260 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.260 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which provides the Bohemian kings with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close connection to the Staufer; thus they would have represented a discrete )] TJ ET BT 400.604 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tochterstamm)] TJ ET BT 469.268 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, albeit secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the dynasty of Berg. Surely this Staufer relationship was the principal justification for Bohemia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion in the electorate of 1198.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third area of division consists of papers treating succession in late medieval European monarchies. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the descendants of Emperor Frederick II by Bianca Lancia reveals the extraordinary manner in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which claims, in this case to the Sicilian kingdom, were kept current through intermarriage among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendant lines \(excerpts at pp. 555?62\). Wolf is undoubtedly justified in inferring endogamic structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship as normative in the medieval aristocracy; cognatic ties were far more important than hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admitted. A distillation of medieval royal succession principles \(pp. 1033?83\) clarifies the enormous vitality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of claims transmitted lineally to and through females. The circumstances in which women actually became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reigning queens are elucidated in an English-language study \(pp. 1085?94\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth area can be said to consist of papers on early legal texts relating to the college of electors and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the final stages of development preceding the Golden Bull. A book published by Wolf in 1998 tracing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electorate from 1198 to 1298 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.324 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.324 65.043 m 190.316 65.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.316 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( met with opposition from Franz-Reiner Erkens in a monograph of rejection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by the Monumenta Germaniae Historica in its )] TJ ET BT 306.656 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Schriften)] TJ ET BT 349.988 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series. The collection includes Wolf?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.2677 288.9415 336.2597 300.8215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.3237 65.3575 190.3157 77.2375 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response \(pp. 729?45\), where each of Erkens? objections is shown to be deficient. Concern has focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perennially on the dating of the )] TJ ET BT 187.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenspiegel)] TJ ET BT 260.648 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s prescriptions restricting the electorate to six and excluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king of Bohemia. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 176.336 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenspiegel)] TJ ET BT 249.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains two relevant passages, and the second is clearly an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpolation made after 1273 \(but predating the earliest exemplars\). In that year Rudolf of Habsburg was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen by the six mentioned in the interpolation, without the participation of the Bohemian king, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral presence had hitherto been common. One should add that through this passage the Saxon author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved a wry imbalance, with Saxon princes \(the duke of Saxony and margrave of Brandenburg as against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Frankish count palatine of the Rhine\) predominating in the lay portion of the electorate. That is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant, because the Bohemian king by no means came to be excluded, despite constant repetition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage in the numerous 14th-century manuscripts of the )] TJ ET BT 310.640 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenspiegel)] TJ ET BT 383.960 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The passage is spurious in its very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final stages of the formation of the college are served by two major papers. The first is a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the train of events in 1298 that culminated in the election of Rudolf of Habsburg?s son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert \(pp. 771?841\). On this occasion the future college of three archbishops and four lay princes united for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first time and promulgated the election with a written )] TJ ET BT 310.652 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reformacio sacri status imperii)] TJ ET BT 462.320 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paper it is determined that )] TJ ET BT 162.332 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kurfrsten)] TJ ET BT 214.340 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and analogous terms arrived suddenly into currency in association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with this election \(pp. 843?80\). These contributions, and also an amply illustrated discussion of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconography of the college \(pp. 881?963\), provide an appreciation of the charged legalistic environment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last throes of development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The largest study in the collection is the hitherto unpublished introductory piece \(pp. 1?162\). It begins as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to new criticism from Erkens, who broke off his first exchange and assembled a list of demands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Wolf?s outlook supposedly needs to meet. Wolf offers in return a comprehensive overview of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory. Electoral eligibility resides in descent from previous monarchs going back to King Henry the Fowler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but is limited according to significant relationship as perceived in customary law, and by dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediacy. The )] TJ ET BT 115.004 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenspiegel)] TJ ET BT 188.324 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( upholds Isidore of Seville?s assertion that significant relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaporates after six generations; dynastic immediacy, or the observable contrast between primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary cognatic descendants, concerns the extinction of dynasties and the transmission of their electoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights. In addition, the )] TJ ET BT 143.348 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenspiegel)] TJ ET BT 216.668 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( disqualifies from princely rank any dynasty that holds its principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fief from someone other than the monarch. In the course of this survey the attrition of the thirteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electorate is reviewed, as is the problem of the )] TJ ET BT 259.964 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sachsenspiegel)] TJ ET BT 333.284 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s passages on election. The stance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papacy and canon lawyers and its likely impact during the Interregnum from 1245 to 1273 is underlined. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descendants of Henry the Fowler are illustrated with an extensive set of large genealogical tables, after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which follows a discussion of the possibilities for tracing rights through a maze of princely and comital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasties, all of which adhere to some form of heritability. A lengthy compilation of persons described by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources as )] TJ ET BT 86.000 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(princeps)] TJ ET BT 127.328 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a significant achievement, although it should be cautioned that the earliest persons on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the list might derive their princely status from the Carolingians rather than in descent from Henry the Fowler.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction concludes with philosophical and methodological issues. Worth mentioning here is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that aristocratic relationships transmitting rights constitute a body of ?new sources? with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain superior characteristic. While the reports of chronicles are merely the remnant of an age, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships exist before, during and after the period concerned. Given the problems that often assail )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogical reconstruction, principled investigation should follow as a necessity. The rationale suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above for the Bohemian king?s membership in the electoral college is likely to satisfy the investigative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criteria that are needed. Indeed, this instance serves as a validation, one among many, of the theory, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions raised of political manipulation. Generally speaking, the theory does not require a thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration in order for it to be valid. Rather, it is justified by observing the extent to which it is mirrored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in individual instances.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theory currently exists in the same basic form in which it originally appeared. The author?s efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate its virtue have encountered some determined opposition, and it would be a mistake to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the opponents are merely desirous of having the ideas honed. Historians in general have concentrated on )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 5318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of a history constructed from the aggregate testimony of source evidence. Yet the sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for medieval constitutional evolution do not exist in a form conducive to bulk analysis: information that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible does not equate with information that is vital. Enlightenment is seldom easily achieved. Many vague, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentary and disparate sources must sometimes be juxtaposed in order to cut through to the heart of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue. To judge from this collection, it is through such efforts that reality may ultimately emerge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Wiebe and A. Wolf, ?Tchter vererbten Wahlrecht. Wie die weltlichen Kurfrsten zu ihrem )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wahlrecht kamen?, )] TJ ET BT 160.316 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(MPG-Spiegel)] TJ ET BT 225.632 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(1978\), 32?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.952 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.952 658.275 m 358.940 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Wolf, ?Wer war Kuno ?von hningen?? berlegungen zum Herzogtum Konrads von Schwaben \(? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(997\) und zur Knigswahl vom Jahre 1002?, )] TJ ET BT 277.316 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsches Archiv fr Erforschung des Mittelalters)] TJ ET BT 519.632 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1980\), 25?83.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.336 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.336 615.507 m 188.324 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Hlawitschka, )] TJ ET BT 143.336 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Konradiner-Genealogie, unstatthafte Verwandtenehen und spttonisch-frhsalische )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thronbesetzungspraxis)] TJ ET BT 175.352 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hanover, 2003\), pp. 155?6; see my review in )] TJ ET BT 401.972 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Francia)] TJ ET BT 440.636 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32, 1 \(2005\), 236?9. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other Konrad is no doubt the Swabian duke?s son, since we have good evidence that there was a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son Konrad.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.672 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.672 558.483 m 176.660 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Hlawitschka, )] TJ ET BT 143.336 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Ahnen der hochmittelalterlichen deutschen Knige, Kaiser und ihrer )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gemahlinnen. Ein kommentiertes Tafelwerk)] TJ ET BT 275.324 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, i \(Hanover, 2006\). Hlawitschka continued with a second )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(installment of )] TJ ET BT 133.352 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ahnen)] TJ ET BT 164.012 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and a third has recently been announced.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.624 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.624 515.715 m 419.612 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Bhler, ?Die Wittislinger Pfrnden?, )] TJ ET BT 258.656 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jahrbuch des Historischen Vereins Dillingen)] TJ ET BT 475.304 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 71 \(1969\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29?30. Subsequent arguments against this descent are based on chronicles of the fifteenth century and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the misinterpretation of a contemporary report applicable to the date of Judith?s birth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.616 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.616 472.947 m 544.604 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Wolf, )] TJ ET BT 109.340 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Entstehung des Kurfrstenkollegs 1198?1298)] TJ ET BT 348.668 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Idstein, 1998; 2d ed. 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.988 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.988 458.691 m 541.976 458.691 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 443.359 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 425.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 425.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1538)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 424.185 m 328.316 424.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/77042)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.9517 658.5895 358.9397 670.4695 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.3357 615.8215 188.3237 627.7015 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.6717 558.7975 176.6597 570.6775 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.6237 516.0295 419.6117 527.9095 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.6157 473.2615 544.6037 485.1415 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.9877 459.0055 541.9757 470.8855 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 424.4995 328.3157 436.3795 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1538) >> endobj xref 0 54 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005210 00000 n 0000005319 00000 n 0000005429 00000 n 0000005538 00000 n 0000009099 00000 n 0000009227 00000 n 0000009311 00000 n 0000009340 00000 n 0000009468 00000 n 0000009504 00000 n 0000009602 00000 n 0000017981 00000 n 0000018011 00000 n 0000018138 00000 n 0000018174 00000 n 0000018204 00000 n 0000018332 00000 n 0000018368 00000 n 0000018398 00000 n 0000018526 00000 n 0000018562 00000 n 0000018653 00000 n 0000026655 00000 n 0000026685 00000 n 0000026813 00000 n 0000026849 00000 n 0000026879 00000 n 0000027005 00000 n 0000027041 00000 n 0000027106 00000 n 0000035209 00000 n 0000035335 00000 n 0000040706 00000 n 0000040834 00000 n 0000040889 00000 n 0000041017 00000 n 0000041072 00000 n 0000041200 00000 n 0000041255 00000 n 0000041383 00000 n 0000041438 00000 n 0000041566 00000 n 0000041621 00000 n 0000041749 00000 n 0000041804 00000 n 0000041932 00000 n trailer << /Size 54 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42028 %%EOF