%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 38 0 R 52 0 R 75 0 R 127 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001061331+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001061331+01'00') /Title (The English in Love: The Intimate Story of an Emotional Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4887 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The English in Love: The Intimate Story of an Emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Langhamer?s hotly anticipated new book is part of a new wave of scholarship on romantic love, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Simon May?s )] TJ ET BT 151.688 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love: A History)] TJ ET BT 228.344 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Lisa Appignanesi?s )] TJ ET BT 331.664 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All About Love )] TJ ET BT 406.664 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and William Reddy?s )] TJ ET BT 513.656 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of Romantic Love)] TJ ET BT 158.336 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 207.777 m 175.328 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.328 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Langhamer has previously published several articles on the subject: ?Love and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtship in mid-twentieth-century England?, ?Love, selfhood and authenticity in post-war Britain? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?'Everyday advice on everyday love. Romantic expertise in mid-twentieth century Britain?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.760 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.760 179.265 m 486.752 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.752 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental point driving these works is that ?Love has a history. It has meant different things to different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people at different moments and has served different purposes?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langhamer?s previous monograph )] TJ ET BT 203.648 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Leisure in England 1920-60 )] TJ ET BT 391.304 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the same core time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, utilising feminist theory to explore women?s changing leisure pursuits across the life-cycle. Certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics are addressed in both texts, including the appropriate venues for courtship, the question of who should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pay for dates, the issue of sexual activity before marriage, and the rise of the cinema and dance hall as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leisure venues.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.332 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.332 67.473 m 119.324 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.324 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Langhamer?s new book takes this research further to integrate the experiences of men as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as women into these narratives, creating a social history of love. While her initial book is chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1539)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Langhamer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199594436)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199594436.do#.UjbnD8akpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Holloway)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 208.0915 175.3277 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.7597 179.5795 486.7517 191.4595 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 105.3317 67.7875 119.3237 79.6675 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8171 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the experiences of Mary and Margaret, her second also gives Herbert and Harry a voice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love )] TJ ET BT 133.352 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situates itself amongst the burgeoning history of emotions, and broader social, cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gender histories. As emphasised in Langhamer?s recent post ?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.616 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everyday Love and Emotions in the )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.616 754.563 m 528.596 754.563 l S BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 740.307 m 124.340 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.340 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 141.332 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? on the Queen Mary History of the Emotions blog, it also presents a rare history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love ?from below.? A history of love ? and indeed emotions ? based on the language used by ?ordinary? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people to describe their experiences is particularly welcome, as the majority of sources such as letters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries were created by individuals with higher levels of literacy, and more money to invest in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is rooted in the primary source material of the Mass Observation Archive at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sussex, which ?specialises in material about everyday life in Britain?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.632 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.632 642.771 m 383.624 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.624 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The organisation was established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1937 to catalogue ?the minutiae of daily life? using diaries and responses to a monthly questionnaire, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?directive?. Participants in the project, and therefore the subjects of Langhamer?s book, were predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower middle-class and upper working-class. The subjects studied are heterosexual couples engaging in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between 1920 and 1970, chiefly during the 1940s and 1950s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bold central argument of )] TJ ET BT 176.984 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love )] TJ ET BT 276.320 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that an ?emotional revolution? took place in England in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the years following the First World War. While more people married, at increasingly younger ages, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?revolution in the value attached to emotional intimacy within heterosexual encounters?. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle of the century, romantic love became inextricably attached to sexual satisfaction, and was granted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power to transform individuals both personally and emotionally. By the end of the century, it was located at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heart of modern marriage, and was ?widely expected to determine the decision to commit for life?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as love achieved this new position in the making and success of marriage, it also became more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to sustain, as ?people generally expect more all round...including from each other?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.932 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.932 459.699 m 488.924 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.924 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This shift led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the decline of life-long marriages by the end of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one \(chapters one to three\) adroitly maps the changing nature of romantic love between 1920 and 1970. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one utilises magazines, tabloid newspapers, advertisements, romantic fiction, non-fiction and films )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to argue for a new introspection after the Second World War. While singletons posting adverts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Matrimonial Post )] TJ ET BT 143.024 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1920s and 1930s sought steady and homely partners, post-war adverts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prioritised loyalty and affection, culminating in adverts for ?soulmates? by 1955. Shifting models of love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidelined practicality in favour of an all-embracing intimacy, which was imbued with a world-changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force. At the end of Langhamer?s period, Mass Observation accounts were increasingly likely to cite a belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ?true love? and ?love at first sight?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two explores the problems arising from this valorisation of love. Individuals placed increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis upon attempting to guarantee that they were )] TJ ET BT 295.976 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(really )] TJ ET BT 326.972 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in love, rather than simply infatuated. The mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?true love? was seen as control over one?s emotions, which distinguished love from passion. Just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were thought to fall in love more easily than men, they were also responsible for controlling any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lustful urges ? particularly those of their partners ? in order to safeguard a relationship. As so often in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, this gave women primary responsibility for abstaining from sex before marriage. 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Religion, nationality and ethnicity were also key. Explicit references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to religion \(?not a Jew?\) in publications such as )] TJ ET BT 265.652 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Matrimonial Post)] TJ ET BT 371.660 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( became rarer after the war, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed-faith marriages growing throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Advice manuals on the essential qualities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands-to-be were widespread. 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The evolution of courtship as a leisure activity was guided by the emergence of dance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halls and cinemas from the 1920s as venues for ?picking up?. Intimacy was encouraged by the romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music, soft lighting and physicality of the dance hall, with the ?superheated? atmosphere remaining a source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of unease over the century. The cinema was also described by school leavers as ?a good place for flirting?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, the Second World War marked a sea change as young people such as factory workers revelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the anonymity and freedom of cities. Dances and films could facilitate encounters at Army NAAFI Clubs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while pubs became more acceptable venues for women to socialise and meet men. The post-war decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also saw the emergence of coffee bars and Americanised milk bars and fast food chains such as Wimpy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically tailored to young consumers. These provided an exciting range of locations in which young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people could meet, socialise and flirt, away from the parental gaze. Nonetheless, older notions of suitability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and class were by no means swept away, with 63 per cent of Oxford-educated women in 1965 marrying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford-educated men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five questions the degree of privacy which couples enjoyed. Since the majority of young people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to live with their parents before marriage, finding time alone during courtship was no easy task. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The desire to avoid indecency at home drove many young couples into sexual encounters in public spaces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as darkened doorways, parks or bushes. The chapter outlines a curious shift whereby courtship became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously )] TJ ET BT 109.688 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(less )] TJ ET BT 130.688 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private \(taking place in public venues such as dance halls and cinemas\) and yet )] TJ ET BT 513.272 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private \(with diminished community and parental control\). Degrees of privacy varied according to class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the motor car providing a measure of ?mobile privacy? for those who could afford it. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parental permission remained important, with working-class men still required to visit a girlfriend?s home to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meet their families for dinner. Again, the Second World War marked a significant shift as ?love-making had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often to be done hurriedly? in ad hoc situations such as blackouts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 349.976 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 349.976 457.443 m 363.968 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The negotiation of issues such as money and sex is the subject of Langhamer?s sixth chapter. Men were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected to be the primary breadwinners, partly due to their higher wages. As in preceding centuries, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were also expected to purchase gifts for their sweethearts. While Langhamer argues that the quality of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gifts represented a man?s eligibility and moral character, the specific items possessing these qualities beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?going steady ring? are given surprisingly little attention. Practices could vary in relationships of unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth, where wealthier fiances may have felt compelled to pay their share. It became more common for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to contribute financially to dates from the 1940s ? albeit behind closed doors ? with the )] TJ ET BT 493.628 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World )] TJ ET BT 67.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agony aunt advising women in 1948 to pay suitors beforehand in private.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.644 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.644 331.395 m 431.636 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 431.636 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Covering some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenses of courtship allowed women to exercise greater control over men?s expectations for sexual activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in return for gifts and expensive meals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter again reinforces how the established rituals of courtship were disrupted during wartime with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrival of uniformed American GIs, where ?no one knew which rules to follow any more?. The disturbances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Second World War provide a recurrent theme in each chapter, where the spaces, rules and rituals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtship were subject to colossal change. Langhamer repeatedly describes how ?established matrimonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals? were ?destabilized? and ?dissipated?. One wonders whether the upheavals of romantic love \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss\) during wartime could have merited a study in their own right. Nonetheless, they are essential to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langhamer?s aim of mapping the changing nature of romantic love across the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three of the book \(chapters seven to eight\) turns to focus on the meaning of commitment. Chapter seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlines how marriage was an aspirational goal for young men and women by the middle of the century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with over three-quarters of brides in 1959 under the age of 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.612 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.612 136.323 m 346.604 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 346.604 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The purchase of an engagement ring was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an important rite of passage, which brought ?peer group acclaim? and ?could enhance status at home?, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as leading to more flexible evening curfews. The ring also sanctioned closer sexual intimacy, with numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women writing to agony aunts describing escalating pressure to ?do something which I know is wrong? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before marriage.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.312 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.312 79.299 m 133.304 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 133.304 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whilst )] TJ ET BT 171.308 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s Own )] TJ ET BT 247.304 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warned engaged women against giving in entirely to male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure before their wedding day, they were also advised to acquire ?adequate knowledge? of sex by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulting guides such as )] TJ ET BT 159.344 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Way to Healthy Womanhood )] TJ ET BT 321.656 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 341.984 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Way to Happy Marriage. )] TJ ET BT 486.632 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a change )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 349.9757 457.7575 363.9677 469.6375 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.6437 331.7095 431.6357 343.5895 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 332.6117 136.6375 346.6037 148.5175 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [38 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.3117 79.6135 133.3037 91.4935 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 58 0 R 61 0 R 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 8498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the preceding two centuries, suing for breach of promise was no longer a viable option when an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement was broken off, and had become viewed as an ?expensive and undignified? act.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.228 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.228 780.819 m 496.220 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The eighth and final chapter explores the nature of married life and the rise of divorce. After the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, enormous social, economic and cultural changes precipitated a ?marriage crisis? characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by spiralling divorce rates. Langhamer argues that the growing importance of romantic love acted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destabilising force, not least because the fusing of love and sex from the middle of the century made sex a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental part of a loving marriage. As noted in the previous chapter, courting couples were urged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstain from sex, meaning that their sexual compatibility ultimately remained untested before their wedding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day. Perhaps inevitably, during the 1940s and 1950s ?higher expectations bred greater disappointments?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion underlying the divorce reform movement in the 1960s was that individuals should not be forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to endure loveless marriages, but should be permitted the opportunity to form happier ones. Realising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream of ?true love? could provide a way to justify acts such as adultery and bigamy, so long as a couple ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feel )] TJ ET BT 54.344 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they are in love?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.988 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.988 612.003 m 177.980 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.980 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Divorce Law Reform Act was passed in 1969, becoming effective on 1 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1971, allowing irretrievable breakdown after a period of separation to serve as grounds for divorce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout history, romantic motivations have been balanced with practical ones in the making of marriage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians such as Amanda Vickery have firmly established that 18th-century women married for a variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reasons; ?A good match satisfied a range of criteria, including family advancement, the ideal of parity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character and affection?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.288 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.288 528.723 m 172.280 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 172.280 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In a similar vein, Langhamer recognises that certain working-class women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century prioritised domesticity over romance. Practical considerations could prove particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important during wartime, such as marrying to avoid war work. As today, the majority of couples came from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar socio-economic backgrounds, as parents ?shaped the romantic opportunities available to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender provides )] TJ ET BT 116.660 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love )] TJ ET BT 215.996 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a useful prism through which to view shifting attitudes to love in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. As Faramerz Dabhoiwala recently argued in )] TJ ET BT 288.620 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Sex: A History of the First Sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 92.012 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was from the 18th century that ?sexual ignorance and passivity came increasingly to be valued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as essential components of respectable femininity and heterosexual love?. In contrast, men were expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?take the initiative? and be ?sexually knowledgeable?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.956 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.956 388.419 m 314.948 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.948 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, Langhamer?s 20th-century women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were expected to control wayward passions in order to safeguard their love. This chiefly involved policing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lustful male partners, where ?it is up to the girl to keep them sensible?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.636 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.636 359.907 m 418.628 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.628 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Within Langhamer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overarching picture of change, it is sometimes striking how little gender roles during courtship appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have changed from the previous two centuries. One phrase from chapter six would be equally at home in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern study of love; ?Men invested money in courtship; women invested emotion while safeguarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their sexual reputation?.Certain reviews have described how in focusing on the social rituals of courtship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langhamer ?rarely gets very close to emotional experience. There?s no sense that actually being ?in love? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt any different in 1920 than in 1970?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.320 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.320 274.371 m 245.312 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.312 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However historians of emotion will recognise that it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible for any scholar to discover a ?true? )] TJ ET BT 260.636 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(feeling)] TJ ET BT 293.300 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of love in history unmediated by the accepted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and customs used to express it. Readers cannot fail to be drawn in to the emotional worlds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young women in the 1940s asking the )] TJ ET BT 219.008 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s Own )] TJ ET BT 295.004 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agony aunt, ?Is love real??)] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I am engaged to a boy who is very passionate and, though he has never tried to do anything )] TJ ET BT 64.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrong, his life seems to be one long fight against temptation. Are all men like this? It makes me )] TJ ET BT 64.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel that love is nothing but desire?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 235.664 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 235.664 164.835 m 255.656 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The key strength of this ambitious book is Langhamer?s ability to skilfully trace a number of complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional shifts decade by decade across her chosen time period. )] TJ ET BT 350.276 113.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love)] TJ ET BT 446.612 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( leaves readers with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasting impression of the shifting and changeable nature of romantic love in history. Readers are never in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt how the emotional landscape looked in 1920, how it changed in the 1940s, and how it ended up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970, all the while situated against the rich backdrop of the Mass Observation archive.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.2277 781.1335 496.2197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 157.9877 612.3175 177.9797 624.1975 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.2877 529.0375 172.2797 540.9175 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.9557 388.7335 314.9477 400.6135 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.6357 360.2215 418.6277 372.1015 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.3197 274.6855 245.3117 286.5655 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.6637 165.1495 255.6557 177.0295 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R 117 0 R 119 0 R 121 0 R 123 0 R 125 0 R ] /Contents 76 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Length 12727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon May, )] TJ ET BT 126.356 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love: A History)] TJ ET BT 203.012 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2011\); Lisa Appignanesi, )] TJ ET BT 418.976 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(All About Love: Anatomy of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(an Unruly Emotion )] TJ ET BT 159.680 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2011\); William Reddy, )] TJ ET BT 321.008 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Romantic Love: Longing and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexuality in Europe, South Asia, and Japan )] TJ ET BT 275.672 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, IL, 2012\). Previous noteworthy works include )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luisa Passerini, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe in Love. Love in Europe. Imagination and Politics in Britain between the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wars )] TJ ET BT 92.348 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1999\); )] TJ ET BT 174.008 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idem, )] TJ ET BT 203.336 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Europe of love: re-centring intercultural affairs?, )] TJ ET BT 445.592 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Review of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11, 2 \(2004\), 171?84 ;and Marcus Collins, )] TJ ET BT 312.668 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Love: an Intimate History of Men and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in Twentieth-Century Britain )] TJ ET BT 245.348 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.672 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.672 658.275 m 377.660 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Langhamer, ?Love and courtship in mid-twentieth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 431.948 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Journal, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50, 1 \(2007\); )] TJ ET BT 129.344 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idem)] TJ ET BT 152.672 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Love, selfhood and authenticity in post-war Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 420.968 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural & Social History, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9, 2 \(2012\); )] TJ ET BT 123.344 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(idem)] TJ ET BT 146.672 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Everyday advice on everyday love. Romantic expertise in mid-twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Journal of Feminist History, )] TJ ET BT 298.676 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Special Issue on )] TJ ET BT 379.664 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Romantische Liebe)] TJ ET BT 471.320 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(all other articles )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in German\), ed. Ingrid Bauer and Christa Hmmerle, 24, 1 \(2013\), 35?52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.280 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.280 586.995 m 472.268 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular see chapter four, ??Do you come here often?? Courtship, sex and leisure? in Claire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langhamer, )] TJ ET BT 124.664 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women?s Leisure in England 1920?60 )] TJ ET BT 314.324 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2000\), pp. 113?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.624 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.624 558.483 m 524.612 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.112 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.massobs.org.uk/index.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.112 544.227 m 275.120 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.120 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 292.112 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 26 November 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.500 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.500 544.227 m 504.488 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marriage Today. A Social Institution, )] TJ ET BT 247.688 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC2, 16 September 1964, \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 425.684 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 528.020 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(189\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.012 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.012 515.715 m 143.000 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mass Observation Archive \(MOA\), TC32, ?Women in wartime, 1939-45?; 32/3/E, ?WAAF: reports )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an observer 1941?2. The great Digby man-chase?, 28 December 1941, 2 \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 483.572 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Love, )] TJ ET BT 93.344 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 64\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.340 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.340 472.947 m 178.328 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MOA, FR3086, 11, \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 203.348 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 305.684 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 117\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.680 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.680 458.691 m 396.668 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s World, )] TJ ET BT 150.344 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11th December 1948, p. 20, \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 329.648 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 431.984 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 131\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.980 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.980 444.435 m 522.968 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel M. Pierce, ?Marriage in the Fifties?, )] TJ ET BT 277.304 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sociological Review, )] TJ ET BT 401.960 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vol. 11, No. 2 \(March 1963\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(217, \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 130.676 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 233.012 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 151\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.008 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.008 415.923 m 323.996 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s Own, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26th January 1950 \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 277.328 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 379.664 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 156\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.660 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.660 401.667 m 476.648 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s Own, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th August, 22 \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 265.676 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 368.012 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 161\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.008 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.008 387.411 m 464.996 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MOA, TC 12, ?Sexual Behaviour?, Box 11, File A, no. 564 \(cited in )] TJ ET BT 395.660 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English in Love, )] TJ ET BT 497.996 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 198\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 358.899 m 124.004 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery, )] TJ ET BT 152.324 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentleman?s Daughter: Women?s Lives in Georgian England )] TJ ET BT 475.628 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 41.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 330.387 m 151.004 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faramerz Dabhoiwala, )] TJ ET BT 176.312 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Sex: A History of the First Sexual Revolution )] TJ ET BT 468.632 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2012\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 354.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 301.875 m 157.004 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman?s Own, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9 May 1936, 188 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