%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721223402+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721223402+01'00') /Title (On Empire, Liberty, and Reform: Speeches and Letters. Edmund Burke) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4472 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(On Empire, Liberty, and Reform: Speeches and Letters. Edmund )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Burke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any would-be anthologist of Edmund Burke, even if he or she is content to rely solely on published items, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has a huge body of material from which to choose for inclusion in a single volume. A fair amount was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in Burke's own lifetime. Additions to the canon were made by his literary executors in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition of his )] TJ ET BT 100.352 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Works,)] TJ ET BT 134.012 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( originally published in eight large volumes between 1792 and 1827. A great deal more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been added in the Oxford University Press edition of the )] TJ ET BT 326.972 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writings and Speeches,)] TJ ET BT 439.292 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which began to appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1981 and of which eight out of the planned nine volumes are now in print. Ten volumes of published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters were published between 1958 and 1970 in the Cambridge/Chicago edition under the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorship of the late Thomas Copeland, a fine scholar to whom David Bromwich pays proper tribute.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bulk of Burke's published material is matched by the extraordinary range of topics with which it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned. Burke was of course a politician of great energy and with a remarkable capacity to master not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only what was his very extensive routine duty but also causes that he made particularly his own. He was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well an intellectual of very varied tastes and interests, which he presumably had some leisure to cultivate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prepolitical part of his life, that is almost until his forties, and then evidently sustained by ravenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading and a most enviable power of memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In selecting from this superabundance David Bromwich sets certain parameters for himself. As his title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates, his concern is with politics and public life. His chosen audience is the interested reader, not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialist scholar. There is a substantial general introduction, but the introductory material for each item and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the explanatory notes are limited. Textual problems are not discussed. Wherever possible, which means in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(154)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 August, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Bromwich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(533pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all but one case, complete texts are given rather than extracts. To fit in a wide a selection of complete texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a single volume, Bromwich is willing to be selective among what would conventionally be regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the longer classics of the Burke canon. The )] TJ ET BT 257.300 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Speech on Conciliation with America, )] TJ ET BT 445.628 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the )] TJ ET BT 466.292 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Speech on Fox's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India Bill)] TJ ET BT 79.688 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 103.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Letter to a Noble Lord)] TJ ET BT 221.360 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are in.)] TJ ET BT 254.348 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents)] TJ ET BT 497.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 503.012 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Appeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from the New to the Old Whigs)] TJ ET BT 182.684 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and, most challengingly, )] TJ ET BT 306.680 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reflections on the Revolution with France)] TJ ET BT 509.000 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are out. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to those classics that earn their passage, the reader is given a number of less frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduced items. Taken together, these provide a balanced and effective coverage. Every Burke enthusiast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will have variations to suggest; but hard choices have to be made and these are entirely defensible ones. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a well-judged selection informed by a persuasive interpretation of Burke.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British politics and constitutional issues are covered by speeches and published letters while Burke was MP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Bristol, together with a speech opposing reform of the House of Commons. The speech on Conciliation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the)] TJ ET BT 69.008 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol)] TJ ET BT 218.360 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( deal with the American crisis. Trade with Ireland was a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern of Burke in his Bristol years. Otherwise, the Irish coverage here is confined to a letter to his son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard in 1792, who was then acting as agent for the Catholic Committee. In place of the )] TJ ET BT 470.288 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reflections)] TJ ET BT 523.616 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader gets two pieces on France: a letter to Charles-Jean-Francois Depont, )] TJ ET BT 397.256 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picky Pokey)] TJ ET BT 456.224 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the Burke family, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving Burke's early reactions to French events, and the rather dense )] TJ ET BT 364.772 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Preface to Brissot's Address to His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constituents)] TJ ET BT 94.028 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, conveying his horror at what was happening by 1794. India is better represented than is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional in anthologies. As well as the speech on Fox's Bill, there are two small bits of the four-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening of the Hastings's trial in 1788 and three personal letters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Bromwich there is an underlying consistency in the way in which Burke approached these very diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues. He sets this out in his Introduction, where he states that Burke can never be pigeon-holed as either a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical or a conservative. He was neither of the left nor of the right, although Bromwich inclines him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphatically more to the very moderate left than to the right. To describe him as 'the founder of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatism' is simply to commit an 'error'. Nor is Bromwich much interested in placing him in a Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural law tradition. Burke steered a course between extremes: he rejected 'despotism' on the one hand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('innovation' on the other, both of which were enemies to liberty. Liberty depended on balance that was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved by checks and restraints. When the balance tilted to one side or the other it must be adjusted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate reform. Reform was not at all the same thing as innovation, still less revolution. It must operate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the complex fabrics of actual social and political life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contemporary terms Bromwich insists that Burke was always a Whig, even if in the turmoil of his last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years he became 'the last of the old Whigs'. Bromwich has, however, compiled his anthology in the belief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Burke does not belong exclusively to the eighteenth century. Nineteenth-century liberals trying to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain their concepts of liberty in the face of an emerging mass democracy found much to interest them in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke. Bromwich suggests that those of us who are concerned at the political effects of mass consumerism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulated by unaccountable economic power should also read Burke attentively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the three concepts chosen for the title of this collection, Bromwich's understanding of what Burke meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by 'liberty' and 'reform' are clearly expounded in his introduction. The texts that follow give the reader much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material against which to test Bromwich's interpretations. 'Empire', put first no doubt for good reasons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves more elusive. What Burke may have meant by it is not self-evident and Bromwich does not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to say on that, although there are interesting indications in the texts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those that he had most admired during his political life, Burke wrote in the 'Letter to a Noble Lord', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty had been 'a liberty inseparable from order, from virtue, from morals, and from religion' \(p. 476\). It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished in a particular context and in the conditions appropriate to that context. It is not, he told Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depont, 'solitary, unconnected, individual selfish liberty, as if every man was to regulate the whole of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct by his own will. The liberty I mean is )] TJ ET BT 258.332 109.205 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(social)] TJ ET BT 287.000 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( freedom' \(p. 405\). Liberty certainly cannot be enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the expense of others. Irish Protestants might think that the penal laws were the safeguard of their liberty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but liberty based on 'penalties', 'incapacities', 'exclusion and proscription' imposed on four-fifths of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population was indistinguishable from 'the most shocking kind of servitude' \(p. 421\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7622 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberty and claims to rights stated in absolute terms and applied indiscriminately were of course totally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompatible, as Burke argued at length in the 'Reflections'. The French Revolution was 'not less fatal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty than to government' \(p. 443\). Yet liberty was still a matter of right. 'It is not the reward of our merit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the acquisition of our industry. It is our inheritance. It is the birthright of our species. We cannot forfeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our right to it, but by what forfeits our title to the privileges of our kind' \(p. 405\). 'Liberty is a good to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved' and, using due caution, 'it ought to be the constant aim of every wise pubic counsel' to devise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to limit restraints on liberty. These words were written with the people of the American colonies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, a people who were totally imbued with 'the high spirit of free dependencies' \(pp. 170-1\). Attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cramp their liberty were both unjustified and wholly impractical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Making adjustments to enlarge liberty in response to the sense of the public was the duty of those entrusted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with political power. They should therefore be reformers. To reform was not, however, to yield to public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure or to introduce indiscriminate change. In the )] TJ ET BT 292.964 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letter to a Noble Lord )] TJ ET BT 403.976 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Burke used his Economical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reform programme as an exemplary case of what reform should be. 'I had a people to gratify, but not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflame, or to mislead' \(p. 481\). 'It was my aim to give the people the substance of what I knew they desired, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what I thought was right whether they desired it or not, before it had been modified for them into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senseless petitions' \(p. 479\). The reforming statesman in the British context was thus likely to be a member )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an elected legislature, accountable to a wider public but not under its direct mandate, as Burke famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told the electors of Bristol in 1774 \(p. 55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reform and indeed all statecraft must be guided by a wisdom that is both practical and sees beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate. Government, as Burke wrote in the )] TJ ET BT 262.316 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reflections)] TJ ET BT 315.644 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is 'a contrivance of human wisdom to provide for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human )] TJ ET BT 69.680 475.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(wants)] TJ ET BT 99.680 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('. While not engaging with)] TJ ET BT 226.832 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Thoughts and Details on Scarcity)] TJ ET BT 390.500 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Bromwich rejects any idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke saw society primarily in economic terms. 'Nothing would have repelled Burke more than the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the market runs society.' That is surely right. Even so, well constituted and properly functioning systems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government throughout the world, certainly including India, were marked by the prosperity of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations. Britain's eminence rested on her 'constitution and commerce' \(p. 46\). Burke applied himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unremittingly in his early parliamentary career to the promotion of commerce. But government was about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more than that. If liberty was inseparable from order, from virtue, from morals, and from religion' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(476\), governments must sustain an order that enable men to cultivate virtue, morals and religion. To do this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required a profound understanding of the nature of the political order within which one attempted to exercise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. The British constitution, like any other constitution, had been 'made by the peculiar circumstances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions, tempers, dispositions and moral, civil, and social habitudes of the people, which disclose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves only in a long space of time' \(p. 274\). The prudent statesman must be fully acquainted with these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things, and even then he should 'dare to be fearful' \(p. 414\). Reform might be necessary, but it was never to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be undertaken lightly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statesmen must therefore be guided by a strong sense of the practical and by a highly developed insight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the needs and conditions of particular societies. But government also involved the application of moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles. Bromwich points out the potential for conflict within Burke's thought between a 'contextualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of morals' and a morality derived from universal principles of natural law. He recognises too that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest statements about natural law come in the speeches against Hastings, particularly in a part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening address of 1788 that is not included in these selections. It is thus with 'empire' that Burke's moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs come most clearly into focus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did Burke conceive of an empire that included Ireland, the North American and West Indian colonies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the provinces that had recently passed into the control of the East India Company? He was unusually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quick to see these very different territories as constituting a single British empire, but he insisted that 'we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should conform our government to the character and circumstances of the several people who composed this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mighty and strangely diversified mass' \(p. 168\). Uniformity could not be imposed upon them. There was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, one inescapable common bond of empire and that was the supremacy of the British legislature. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought that the American colonies had been provoked into rejecting British sovereignty by the crass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompetence of British ministers, but he viewed the prospect of American independence with a sad )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6366 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignation. The best that he could say was that he preferred 'independency without war to independency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with it' \(p. 176\). He was thoroughly uneasy about Irish legislative independence after 1782. The East India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company must be accountable to parliament because it derived its 'trust' from parliament, and parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('alone is capable of comprehending the magnitude' of governing India' \(p. 291\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Burke the maintenance of British sovereignty over the empire was not, as it was to be for later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of imperial rulers, the essential guarantee for the security of metropolitan economic and strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests. He did accept that Britain could legitimately derive wealth and power from a properly conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire, but he invested empire with much higher purposes. His model of empire was Cicero's ideal for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome, a protectorate over subordinate provinces, each largely autonomous and governed in the way that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate to it, but subordinate to Britain so that Britain could ensure that justice prevailed throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole. In America this meant protecting the established liberties of the colonies and reconciling conflicts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest between them and with Britain. In Ireland it meant safeguarding the legitimate rights of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament and established church, while ameliorating the condition of the Catholics and bringing them into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life. In India it meant ensuring that India was governed by the laws and usages of its own peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that British abuses were curbed and punished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Burke empire was a God-given trust to Britain. Even in the )] TJ ET BT 340.316 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol)] TJ ET BT 486.668 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong statement of government as shaped by human wants, he wrote of 'the comprehensive dominion which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Divine Providence had put into our hands' \(p. 168\). References to the providential origins of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become much more insistent in the Hastings's prosecution. He wrote, for instance, of that 'astonishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispensation of providence by which we acquired Dominion where nature had almost forbid intercourse'. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed therefore that the justice that Britain was required to administer throughout the world emanated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from God. Justice would in most circumstances take the form of local law adapted to local circumstances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but where the local legal authority had manifestly acted against justice, as the Irish parliament had done with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the penal laws, or where Burke believed that local law was being grossly misinterpreted to justify injustice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in British India, Burke resoundingly proclaimed the authority of a divine law binding on all humanity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('We are all born in subjection, all born equally high and low, governors and governed, in subjection to one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great, immutable, pre-existent law, ... out of which we cannot stir.' He therefore impeached Hastings 'in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name, and by virtue, of those eternal laws of justice, which he has violated' and 'in the name of human nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself' \(p. 400\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the prominence that Bromwich gives to 'empire' in the title of his anthology seems to be fully justified. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When dealing with Europe, even with France convulsed by revolution, Burke could advocate cautious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meliorative, Whig policies of reform to preserve or marginally enhance the enjoyment of liberties deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded in existing societies. Confronted by the phenomenon, which Europeans had not experienced since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish irruptions into America, of huge alien populations suddenly brought under European rule, Burke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rose to the occasion by expounding a theory of universal justice based on a common humanity. 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