%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140918080132+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140918080132+01'00') /Title (Empire of Scholars: Universities, Networks and the British Academic World, 1850-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3958 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Empire of Scholars: Universities, Networks and the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Academic World, 1850-1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tamson Pietsch is a lecturer in Imperial and Colonial History at Brunel University, London. Her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic pathway from Australia to Oxford mirrors that of her predecessors who feature in this study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Empire of Scholars?. We need to know more, she argues, about who made knowledge in the Empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social and intellectual context which informed that knowledge. Her main concern is the institutional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social practices employed by universities and academics across the British settler world ? that is, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks linking the metropolitan centre to Canada, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchanges between these white settler colonies. Such networks, argues Pietsch, encouraged ?fluidity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between ?British and ?colonial? or ?settler? academia but have been neglected despite the growing interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in imperial networks, transnational exchanges, and the construction of colonial knowledge. Yet they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important in fostering a sense of being part of the empire and, more specifically, the ?British World? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2?5\). Until the 1930s American universities and academics were only on the fringes of these networks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans were rarely admitted; the Afrikaans and French-speaking universities in South Africa and Canada )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively are also not included in this study \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1541)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tamson Pietsch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719085024)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719085024)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Bush)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7554 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pietsch?s starting point is the mid 19th century with the establishment of the earliest settler institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of the first academic links. Settler universities adopted old world models but also reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial politics, often funded by the settler state to provide the sons of colonial elites with a character-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building classical education. To meet the new needs of expanding and developing settler colonies, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities broadened their curricula to include engineering, medicine and other technical subjects. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new competition from Germany more emphasis was placed on research in both settler and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities and scientific, professional and applied subjects were now seen as ?central to national and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial development? \( p. 31\). Changes in the ethos of empire after 1870 saw the expansion and tightening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperial bonds, including the development of a stronger framework for strengthening imperial, and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic, networks. In 1907 the League of Empire sponsored an Imperial Conference on Education; in July )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1912, the first Congress of the Universities was held in London, representing 53 universities and with 60 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of delegates having had direct experience of living and working in the Empire. A Central Universities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bureau of the British Empire was established at the Imperial Institute in 1913. The ethos of these academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks reflected the dominant ideological context of the day; the 1912 Congress was ?framed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered and gentlemanly, racial and familial discourses fundamental to imperial cultures of the era? \(p. 1\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Indian and South Asian universities and colleges were excluded from these networks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The First World War further strengthened academic connections, particularly scientific networks, and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections continued to expand in the inter-war years. During the war, claims Pietsch, the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities, British and settler, was ?indispensable to national survival? \(p. 145\). In 1921, the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress of Universities of the British Empire took place and congresses were subsequently held every five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. In the 1930s the Universities Bureau of the British Empire began to function as a professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association that rationalised relations between the universities, with settler universities increasingly using its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointments service \(p. 158\). The Bureau also represented British and settler universities on the League of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations Committee on Intellectual Cooperation founded in 1922 and embraced a new language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationalism. More emphasis was placed on the need to extend academic interchange programmes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and the United States as well as the Dominions \(as the settler colonies were now known\). The advent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of airmail in the 1930s speeded up the circulation of research findings and air travel increased mobility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1918, however, forces working to erode networks also gained momentum. These included anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial challenges to colonial knowledge and scientific racism, the impact of refugee scholars fleeing from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism which resulted in new connexions and new ways of thinking, and the increasing influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American academia and philanthropic foundations. The Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations now funded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research in the empire and provided travel grants to settler academics to study in the United States. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these latter organisations, argues Pietsch, that most explicitly sought to infiltrate and reform British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic practices, a form of American cultural imperialism \(pp. 174?8\). The Second World War and after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed the further development of transatlantic links, as well as anti-colonial nationalism in the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settler colonies. The Universities Bureau became the Association of Universities of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth and, in 1963, the Association of Commonwealth Universities. With the decline of empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Britain?s turn to Europe in the 1950s the interests of metropole and its old ?white? commonwealth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where stronger nationalist sentiment fuelled demands for greater settler autonomy, also diverged. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1960s the ?Empire of Scholars? was in the past, although cultural and academic links persisted. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charting these developments Pietsch divides her study into four parts which elaborate on the main themes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her study. The first part, ?Foundations: 1802?80?, addresses the development of settler universities; these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took a variety of forms but all sought to ?localise the universal culture taught in British Universities? \( p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21\). Part two, ?Connections: 1880?1914? focuses on imperial expansion and tightening of networks. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the ?connective mechanisms? that forged ?bridges across the empire?, including libraries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic publications and the development of university presses in the dominions, travelling scholarships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for students and leaves of absence for staff. Pietsch also considers appointment practices and the issues of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access and exclusion they raised. Networks were facilitated by speedier communications, greater mobility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the founding of institutions whose aim was to strengthen imperial links, such as the Imperial Studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Group \(1887\), and the Victoria League and League of Empire \(both founded in 1901\). The third section, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Networks: 1900?39?, highlights ways in which academic networks ?reshaped the geographies of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academia? \(p. 55\) and became fundamental to ?the dynamics of knowledge production? \(p. 119\). Personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks played a prime role in making academic careers and professors in settler institutions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental in helping their students secure entry into British universities. Some of these stayed in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, in turn, also helped settler students, further consolidating and expanding networks of support \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(110?11\). Despite greater emphasis on merit than patronage in the late 19th century, personal contacts also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained important in appointments, and selection practices adhered to a ?global colour line? \(p. 72\). Settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities had to rely on personal systems of trust when academic staff were recruited in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private recommendations were regarded as more trustworthy than public testimonials \(p. 66\). The final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section, ?Erosions: 1919?60s?, is somewhat brief, reflecting the books main preoccupation with the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before and during the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key themes that emerges from Pietsch?s study is exclusion; these academic networks were white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Anglo-Saxon? and male. As Pietsch points out, settler and British universities ?fostered and rewarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine cultures of sociability? from which women were excluded \(p. 80\). Women and Asian and African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars and students were excluded from this academic club of the British World. University education was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended to women in Britain and the settler colonies in the 1880s. By 1900 there were an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of women graduates, some of whom found academic employment as demonstrators and assistant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecturers in settler universities. Settler women also studied in English and Scottish universities on travelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarships. After the First World War more women were appointed as lecturers but, as Pietsch stresses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barriers remained severe. By the 1930s the women professors accounted for no more than 1.5 per cent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic staff and had unequal working conditions and lower pay. Perceptions about the gendered character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of different branches of knowledge also restricted women?s participation in academic life \(pp. 79?80\). Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes Pietsch, women were ?vital components? in helping academic husbands with research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitating male sociability. Through marriage into academic families women also helped sustain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduce an ?intellectual elite? that further cemented networks across the academic world \(p. 80\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exclusions on racial grounds were even more pronounced. Rhodes scholarships to study in Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established by Rhode?s will in 1901, were designed to forge bonds across the English speaking world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus imperial loyalty. It was only after 1940 that the scholarships were opened up to Asian and African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students. By the late 1930s, however, there was an increase in overseas students from the ?non-settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire? studying in Britain who, excluded from the racially exclusive academic world, forged their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks. British universities now became a site of intellectual exchange for African and Asian students who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to challenge the colonial knowledge produced by inter-imperial academic networks \(p. 179\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority of academics were also disrupting the academic and imperial status quo. At the London School of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economics \(LSE\), the Polish-born anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski began to criticise imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of race. His fellow academic ?outsider? at the LSE, Harold Laski, who was Jewish, was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporter of Indian independence. In 1938, the LSE appointed the West Indian economist, Arthur Lewis, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first black faculty member \(he was given a chair at Manchester in 1945\). The Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accelerated these changes. There was greater emphasis on the need for colonial development and, following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recommendations of the 1944 Asquith Commission on Higher Education, university education was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended to the ?non-settler? colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pietsch has found a fresh angle on the history of late empire. Her detailed and informative monograph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a comprehensive study of the culture of academia in the later imperial era and also includes insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the development of modern universities, including the fact that PhDs were only introduced in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities in 1917. American universities, which adapted the German, rather than the English, academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model awarded doctorates before that time and thus drew Canadian students away from the imperial orbit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 33?4\). PhDs were only awarded in Australian universities from 1946. Peitsch?s study also reminds us of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an era when university education was for the privileged few. In 1938 there were only 3,994 academics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UK teaching 50,002 students in 16 institutions \(p. 185\). Proportions of women, and, more so, students from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the non-settler empire, remained miniscule \(p. 178\). How things have changed!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Empire of Scholars?, however, is clearly derived from a PhD and, whilst it has undoubted value for )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6641 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialists in the field, it reads rather densely in places and the arguments regarding the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks are not always clearly articulated. The conceptual framework is influenced by recent studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration, networks, knowledge production and cultures of empire )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.968 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.968 766.563 m 371.960 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.960 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but the interweaving of ideas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodern geographers as applied to networks does not always sit well with the empirical detail. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more emphasis on science than the humanities and the newer social sciences, which, notes Pietsch, gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater recognition after the First World War as being vital to producing ?educated citizens of an imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy? and promoting peace \(p. 154\). The social sciences, in particular, were important in articulating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-colonialism, although Pietsch devotes little attention to this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pietsch is strong on how universities evolved, developments in institutional structures and curriculum and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how this helped to sustain empire but less so on the implications of the colonial knowledge they produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the role of universities in the process of decolonisation. More may have been said here about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of the humanities, including anthropology, to government policies designed to ?manage? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of anti-colonialism and to promote colonial development. The LSE, which Pietsch infers was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beacon of academic progress towards greater inclusivity, now harnessed social science expertise to inform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new colonial policies to manage the transition from Empire to Commonwealth whilst retaining British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence. The expansion of the humanities, combined with the greater emancipation of women after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World War, also enabled more women to enter academia.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.612 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.612 554.979 m 349.604 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On balance, though, this book has succeeded in its aim of writing settler universities into the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British academia \(p. 199\). Pietsch provides an extensive bibliography and has used an impressive range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival sources to illuminate a neglected aspect of imperial history. Her study provides insight into a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held together by informal personal ties as well as institutions, which was also a ?masculine, exclusionary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting and unequal world? \(p. 200\). Profound changes occurred after the Second World War that disrupted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and changed this world irrevocably. Of particular significance is the global dominance of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic knowledge and institutional structures and the weakening of Britain?s imperial relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its ?settler? colonies. Despite these changes, the academic culture and networks spanning the British world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminated in Pietsch?s study were influential in shaping modern academic institutions and practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secured long-lasting links that have endured into the present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular G. B. Magee and A. S. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 295.316 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Empire and Globalisation: Networks of People, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Goods and Capital in the British World, 1850?1914)] TJ ET BT 314.036 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2010\); Frederick Cooper, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History )] TJ ET BT 327.356 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 2005\); Saul Dubow, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of Knowledge: Science, Sensibility and White South Africa, 1820?2000)] TJ ET BT 494.000 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 277.875 m 149.000 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance Barbara Bush ?Colonial research and the social sciences at the end of empire: the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Indian Social Survey, 1944?57, )] TJ ET BT 245.660 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History)] TJ ET BT 498.992 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41, 3 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2013\), 451?74.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 235.107 m 194.324 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks the reviewer and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 193.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 175.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 175.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1541)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 174.345 m 328.316 174.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63051)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.9677 766.8775 371.9597 778.7575 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6117 555.2935 349.6037 567.1735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 278.1895 148.9997 290.0695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3357 235.4215 194.3237 247.3015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 174.6595 328.3157 186.5395 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1541) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004679 00000 n 0000004788 00000 n 0000004898 00000 n 0000005007 00000 n 0000008568 00000 n 0000008696 00000 n 0000008780 00000 n 0000008845 00000 n 0000016452 00000 n 0000016517 00000 n 0000023932 00000 n 0000024044 00000 n 0000030738 00000 n 0000030768 00000 n 0000030896 00000 n 0000030932 00000 n 0000030962 00000 n 0000031090 00000 n 0000031126 00000 n 0000031253 00000 n 0000031308 00000 n 0000031436 00000 n 0000031491 00000 n 0000031619 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31715 %%EOF