%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 35 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721164732+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721164732+01'00') /Title (The Roar of the Lion: The Untold Story of Churchill's World War II Speeches) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4379 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Roar of the Lion: The Untold Story of Churchill's World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(II Speeches)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Curt Zoller compiled his )] TJ ET BT 187.004 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annotated Bibliography of Works about Sir Winston Churchill)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.352 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.352 236.289 m 504.344 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.344 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 2004, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the number of books about Britain?s best-known prime minister was close to 700. In the decade since, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number has grown larger still, leading to an obvious question: What more is there to say about the man and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his career, particularly about his leadership during the Second World War? Judging from Richard Toye?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latest book the answer is, a great deal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toye, who has already contributed to the Churchill canon with his acclaimed )] TJ ET BT 406.292 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s Empire)] TJ ET BT 501.296 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, )] TJ ET BT 66.020 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd George & Churchill )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 196.688 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 196.688 138.753 m 210.680 138.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 210.680 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, tackles a subject that until now largely has been ignored by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. In )] TJ ET BT 99.680 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Roar of the Lion )] TJ ET BT 202.688 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he examines Churchill?s wartime speeches ?how they were written and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered and, not least, how they were received both at home and abroad, by friend and foe alike. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce this study, Toye deftly combines secondary source material with archival research, especially in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s own, often overlooked speech-writing files. The result is a book that is by turns informative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging, and, all too often, frustrating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1542)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 January, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Toye)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199642526)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199642526.do#.UiWsI39X98E)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Matthews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.3517 236.6035 504.3437 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 196.6877 139.0675 210.6797 150.9475 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7930 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, Churchill?s reputation as a speechmaker has been a prisoner of the success he achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the fall of France in 1940 and the victory at El Alamein in 1942. What most people know of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches is largely ?confined to a few famous phrases excerpted from a limited number of radio broadcasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the summer of 1940'. The result is that these ?quotable bits? have crowded out other equally important, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less memorable speeches made throughout the war \(pp. 2, 229\). Nothing better illustrates this point than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech delivered by Churchill that same summer. With their nation?s defeat, it was altogether likely that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French navy ? the world?s fourth largest ? would fall into German hands. Before he would let that happen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill took what he later called ?a hateful decision, the most unnatural and painful in which I have ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been concerned?. With much of the French fleet anchored at Mers-el-Kebir near Oran in North Africa, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordered the Royal Navy to destroy his former ally?s warships before they could be used by the Nazis against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. Churchill?s address to the House of Commons the following day, like the attack itself, is all but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten, at least in the English-speaking world; but the immediate impact of both could not have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant. The ruthlessness of the assault demonstrated to the world, and especially to the United States, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain, in Churchill?s own words, would ?prosecute the war with the utmost vigour?. For the first time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative MPs joined their Labour and Liberal colleagues cheering the new prime minister, one witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded, ?like mad? \(pp. 62?3\). Even if, as Toye suggests, this show of support was stage managed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlainite MP, Henry ?Chips? Channon, detected a change. ?At the end of his speech?, Channon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in his diary, ?the House rose, cheered, waved Order Papers ? as I have so often seen them do for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neville. Only it was not little Neville?s turn now. Winston suddenly wept?,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.996 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.996 526.467 m 409.988 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.988 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Toye does not fully quote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this part of Channon?s diary, which is unfortunate. It is a minor oversight, but there are others that are not ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about which more later.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it is impossible to scrutinize every public utterance made by Churchill between 1939 and 1945, one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book?s strengths is that it examines a number of speeches made during the war?s later years which, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time, caused quite a stir even though they have long since receded from memory. On at least two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions, for instance, Churchill caused major diplomatic rows with Britain?s wartime allies: first, in 1943, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he suggested that planning the post-war world should be left to ?the three great victorious powers, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Commonwealth of Nations, the United States, and Soviet Russia? \(p. 157\). This triumvirate pointedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded China and sparked outrage not only among Chiang Kai-shek?s Nationalists but also among their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American supporters, the so-called China Lobby. Much the same thing happened a year later, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill told the House of Commons that his government would oppose any attempt to overthrow the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franco regime in Spain, this time arousing the displeasure of both Washington and Moscow. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish tempest was soon overshadowed by the D-Day landings in Normandy, it was not forgotten. During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1945 general election, the Labour-supporting )] TJ ET BT 271.640 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Herald)] TJ ET BT 335.300 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( resurrected the incident with an article )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(headlined, ?A VOTE FOR CHURCHILL IS A VOTE FOR FRANCO? \(p. 182\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor was Churchill shy about involving himself in American domestic politics when he felt British interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were at stake. Even before the United States entered the war, the Anglo-Americans adopted a ?Europe First? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy, meaning that Germany?s defeat would take precedence over Japan?s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.900 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.900 245.859 m 424.892 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.892 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( After Pearl Harbor, and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the war, a vocal minority in Congress demanded that America?s military might should instead be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to deliver a ?death-blow against the Japanese?. Worse, during Churchill?s May 1943 visit to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington, one Democratic senator, Kentucky?s A. B. ?Happy? Chandler, falsely accused the British of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing little to contribute to Tokyo?s defeat. Scheduled to address a joint session of Congress, Churchill, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he later told his Cabinet colleagues, gave the sort of speech more commonly heard in Westminster than on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Capitol Hill. ?Let no one suggest that we British have not at least as great an interest as the United States in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unflinching and relentless waging of war against Japan?, he told the assembled members of Congress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were soon ?heartily with him?. Having won over his audience in much the same way as he did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Commons, the prime minister then rounded on Chandler, though not by name. ?Lots of people?, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed, ?can make good plans for winning the war if they have not got to carry them out?. It was a pointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that in America one man, Franklin Roosevelt, already had that responsibility and it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foolhardy to hand it over to anyone else. As FDR was already contemplating an unprecedented fourth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign for the White House in a year?s time, Churchill?s intervention did not go unnoticed. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.9957 526.7815 409.9877 538.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.8997 246.1735 424.8917 258.0535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 5271 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American newspaper columnist Drew Pearson later wrote: ?it looks as if the Prime Minister had already laid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the groundwork for ?44'. More immediately, Churchill?s speech did nothing to change the minds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chandler and the other ?Europe First? critics. But the policy didn?t change, either \(pp. 160?1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill was decidedly more circumspect when it came to domestic British politics, in particular when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject was post-war reconstruction. For good reason. Though leader of the Conservative Party from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 1940, he was also ?national leader? of a coalition government. This forced Churchill to maintain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delicate balance in the House of Commons where Tory MPs still held a majority of seats, but where his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration depended on the participation of both Labour and the Liberals. Conveniently, for Churchill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he could argue that it was premature to talk of what would happen after victory. To his mind, the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing ? indeed, the only thing ? that mattered was winning the war. After the triumph at El Alamein, soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by Sir William Beveridge?s report on the future of social services, that position was no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenable. A post-war Britain could be detected just over the horizon, and the Beveridge Report laid out a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blueprint for how that Britain could be a very different nation from the one that had emerged after the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill tried seizing back the initiative with a March 1943 broadcast known as the ?Four Years? Plan?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although its title made it sound more like a speech that would have originated in the Kremlin than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Downing Street, Churchill?s intent was to sketch an outline of Britain?s transition during the first few years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of peace. According to Toye, the broadcast allowed Churchill to ?relieve pressure for immediate reform by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paying lip service to its importance? ? at some future date. This may explain why it caused so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion and why a government analysis found that public reaction to it was ?more varied than for any of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s previous war speeches.? While one listener called the broadcast ?almost pure socialism?, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal )] TJ ET BT 71.672 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(News Chronicle)] TJ ET BT 148.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( chastised parts of Churchill?s remarks as ?typically Tory? \(pp. 203?6\). Nor, for that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter, did the speech remove domestic issues from Churchill?s agenda. Before the year was out, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened Labour rebellion over demands to nationalise the coal industry forced him to intervene. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making clear that he himself could support such a move, no government, he told the House of Commons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could take such a far-reaching step without first receiving a mandate from the people in a general election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 170?1\). That is just what happened in 1945, sweeping both him and the Conservatives from power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Important as these later speeches were, Churchill?s reputation as an orator still largely rests on the ones he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave during the war?s early years. And that is where the trouble lies with this book. According to Toye, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?powerful myth? envelops Churchill?s role in the war, one in which through his speeches alone he rallied the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British people by making them ?feel the same way? or by putting ?into words what they were all feeling but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not express themselves?. This myth, he explains, is ?crucial?, not least when it comes to the ?popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of the summer of 1940'. In fact, says Toye, historians would have us believe that whenever Churchill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoke ?people were reduced to a condition of helpless ecstasy every time he opened his mouth? \(p. 3?4, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Well.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7588 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toye is surely right that Churchill did not command unanimous support during the war, a fact he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates by lacing his book with contemporary reactions to the wartime speeches. Along with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published diaries of politicians and other officials, he has again turned to two other underutilized sources. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between May 1940 and December 1944, the Ministry of Information \(MoI\)?s Home Intelligence Division )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced weekly reports on public reaction to, among other things, ?ministerial broadcasts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncements? \(p. 7\). To that can be added the reports and, especially, the individual diaries collected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sociological research organization, Mass-Observation \(MO\). Toye mines both of these rich seams of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material to drive home the point that Churchill?s oratory failed to win over all of his listeners even when, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Home Intelligence Division reported, his prestige was at ?its highest level?. In a victory speech after El )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alamein, Churchill famously told the nation ?this is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.? His masterful phrasing was not enough, however, to impress the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aunt of one MO diarist. After the broadcast, she turned to her niece and remarked: ?He?s no speaker, is he?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 148?50\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This points to a problem with Toye?s use of these two sources. More than once, while the Home Intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Division reported overall support for a Churchill address, Toye is quick to highlight negative comments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the same speech found in the MO files, even when those comments represented ?minority feeling? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(108\). Moreover, these negative reactions often say less about Churchill?s oratory than they do about a war-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weary, but also fickle public. According to one MO report, by mid-April 1942 what most Britons wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?more action and less talk, they are feeling that the present is no time for oratory?. Yet even as this same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(report noted complaints about the ?flatness? of Churchill?s recent speeches, and that some Britons were now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling him an ?old windbag?, they nonetheless had come to expect him to deliver ?great and moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches every time? \(p. 138\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Toye concedes, ?MO diarists were self-selecting, and were disproportionately drawn from the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes? \(p. 8\). But the problems do not stop there. John Lukacs has praised the MO diaries, saying they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?breathe with the presence of authenticity?. But he also notes that the organization?s researchers ?made no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretense to anything ?scientific? and did not attempt to quantify all their data?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.632 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.632 402.675 m 425.624 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.624 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And, it must be said, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times the diarists sound like a ready-made awkward squad, or ?confirmed grousers? as one of them called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s critics \(p. 149\). There was no greater collection of grousers than those serving in the military, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the words ?bastard? and ?Winston Churchill? seemed to go hand-in-hand. \(pp. 131, 174, 269, n. 39\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to one sailor, the Royal Navy had ?special dislike for him, as we do all his dirty work? \(p. 140\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contrast those remarks with reaction to one of Churchill?s most controversial actions: his 1944 intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Greek Civil War. Thanks to censorship summaries of their letters, Toye reveals that Churchill?s policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was ?highly popular? with British soldiers sent to Greece to carry it out \(p. 191\). Instead of a random letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, or a diary entry there, these censorship reports promise a broader, invaluable insight into the feelings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British servicemen and women and, perhaps, their relatives and friends. But Toye only refers to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summaries in this one instance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Public opinion surveys were conducted during the war by the Gallup organization and these, too, show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread support for Churchill. Yet, Toye by and large dismisses these findings by noting that questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been raised about the polls? methodology. Beyond that, he argues that, especially during the war?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early years, there was a lot of pressure to conform, to give ?socially acceptable? answers \(p. 7\). Why Toye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes that average Britons would have been any more honest when interviewed by an official from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MoI?s Home Intelligence Division \(a government agency after all\), or why they would have been more open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with MO interviewers or, even in diaries handed over to these same strangers, he does not say. Even after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making allowances for sampling errors and the like, the fact remains that Churchill?s popularity during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war was, in Toye?s own words, ?astonishingly high? \(p. 6\). This was still the case when large discrepancies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared between Churchill?s MO ?satisfaction figures? of 66 per cent, and a Gallup approval rating of 81 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent for the same month \(p. 228\). That month, March 1942, happened to be one of the worst of the war: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British forces were reeling under hammer blows from the Japanese, including the loss of Singapore just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weeks earlier; Axis forces threatened Egypt; and German U-boats were winning the Battle of the Atlantic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is astonishing is not the gap between these surveys of public opinion but that they were still so high )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6317 402.9895 425.6237 414.8695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 6862 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite this string of disasters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the purposes of his study, Toye also disregards public opinion surveys because most were ?not directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the reception of speeches per se but to approval/disapproval of Churchill as Prime Minister? \(p. 227\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fault, though, is with his premise, that Churchill?s oratory, and its impact, can be assessed in isolation. Toye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits as much when, at the end of his book, he quotes a December 1942 MO report. According to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment, Churchill?s personal popularity along with reaction to his speeches, rose or fell in ?very close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with the general feelings of cheerfulness or depression about the war situation? \(p. 227\). Which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is rather stating the obvious.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads back to the crucial year between May 1940 and May 1941. Toye is adamant that Churchill?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches during this period did not ?rally the nation?, nor were they ?the decisive factor influencing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s willingness to fight on? \(pp. 44, 72\). But oratorical skills are but one tool of leadership, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing on the impact of one speech or another without placing them in context is to miss the point. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill understood that. Unlike Chamberlain, he made full use of the powers and prestige of his office as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as other media. His private secretary John Colville later recalled that during those desperate 12 months )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he seemed to be everywhere, inspecting military forces and munitions factories, and especially visiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation?s bombed-out cities ? all captured by the newsreels to be shown in cinemas throughout Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around the world. Contrast that with the approach taken by Adolf Hitler, who was seldom heard or seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the war started to go wrong for Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To be fair, there is something to Toye?s argument that time has clouded memories of the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s speeches, especially those delivered in 1940. And here, perhaps, is this book?s greatest missed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity: Are the Churchill speeches we hear today, those ?quotable bits?, the same broadcasts that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made over 70 years ago? This is not to suggest, as have some, that an actor impersonating Churchill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivered the addresses on radio. Toye puts that fairytale to bed early on in his book \(p. 11\). But in at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one instance, Churchill?s June 1940 ?Finest Hour? speech, there are two, and possibly more, versions all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purporting to be the original broadcast. That is impossible. Compare, for instance, this version:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsKDGM5KTBY)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 390.675 m 296.096 390.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.096 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with this:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/subjects/history/ww2clips/speeches/churchill_finest_hour)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 338.163 m 478.316 338.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.316 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first, flatter version chimes with criticism of the broadcast noted by Mass-Observation. Some said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill sounded ?tired?, others ?suggested that he was drunk? \(p. 58\). According to the BBC, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the second, livelier version is the one that was broadcast on the evening of 18 June 1940. Worse, still, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC archive posts another version of the speech which, in fact, combines portions of this broadcast with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s ?The news from France is very bad? address made the night before. It can be heard here:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/battleofbritain/11428.shtml)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 228.627 m 311.336 228.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.336 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is important is that the version found on the BBC?s ?School Radio? site is the one used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentaries, such as ITV?s 1973?4 )] TJ ET BT 219.308 189.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World at War)] TJ ET BT 285.308 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series. It is the version that people, including those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(listened to the actual broadcast, think of when they think of this speech. But is it what the British people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heard in the summer of 1940? There are hints here and there that Churchill ?re-recorded? some of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime speeches for Decca Records around 1949. Strangely, none of Churchill?s biographers mention this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and neither does Toye. More?s the pity. It is a mystery that, if solved, could help explain why reactions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Churchill?s broadcasts when they were given differ from the impressions we have of them today. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said all that, )] TJ ET BT 133.676 91.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Roar of the Lion)] TJ ET BT 233.684 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a valuable addition to the study of Churchill?s wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premiership and demonstrates that there is still much to say about the man and his work. What is remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not the number of complaints that contemporary listeners registered about this or that speech, but the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 390.9895 296.0957 402.8695 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LsKDGM5KTBY) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 338.4775 478.3157 350.3575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bbc.co.uk/schoolradio/subjects/history/ww2clips/speeches/churchill_finest_hour) >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 228.9415 311.3357 240.8215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.bbc.co.uk/archive/battleofbritain/11428.shtml) >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 6807 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of times Churchill hit his mark. That was never more true than during the early days of the Blitz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when his broadcasts helped reassure the British people. The novelist Naomi Royde Smith put it best when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she described one of those broadcasts in September in 1940. ?The statement of facts made?, she wrote in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diary, ?the danger is presented, [and] long successions of monosyllables beat on in the ear like the sound of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.330 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an army marching to drums ... It sounds simple enough, but how few men can do it? \(p. 74\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curt Zoller, )] TJ ET BT 123.680 659.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annotated Bibliography of Works about Sir Winston Churchill)] TJ ET BT 424.028 659.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Washington, DC, 2004\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 645.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 643.875 m 118.004 643.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Toye, )] TJ ET BT 135.668 631.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churchill's Empire: The World that Made Him and the World He Made)] TJ ET BT 479.876 631.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010\); )] TJ ET BT 98.348 616.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd George & Churchill: Rivals for Greatness)] TJ ET BT 331.676 616.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.336 616.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.336 615.363 m 488.324 615.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Rhodes James, )] TJ ET BT 174.008 602.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chips: The Diaries of Sir Henry Channon)] TJ ET BT 375.344 602.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1967\), p. 260.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.668 602.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.668 601.107 m 546.656 601.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 588.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Masters and Commanders: How Four Titans Won the War in the West, 1941-1945)] TJ ET BT 64.016 573.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 2009\), pp. 45, 50.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.652 573.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.652 572.595 m 286.640 572.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lukacs, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 559.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Five Days in London: May 1940)] TJ ET BT 286.652 559.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2001\), p. 34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.956 559.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.956 558.339 m 492.944 558.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 533.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 519.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 504.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/aug/16/roar-lion-churchill-war-speeches-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 503.571 m 464.600 503.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 467.600 504.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 490.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Extra)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 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