%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916175858+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916175858+01'00') /Title (Modernity Britain: Opening the Box, 1957-1959) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5217 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain: Opening the Box, 1957-1959)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 121.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( marks the third part of Kynaston?s )] TJ ET BT 293.324 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tales of a New Jerusalem)] TJ ET BT 417.320 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series. The first volume ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austerity Britain 1945?51)] TJ ET BT 159.356 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? covered the immediate post-war years of the Attlee government, while its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor, )] TJ ET BT 86.000 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family Britain 1951?57)] TJ ET BT 202.004 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, took the story up to the end of the Eden administration. Interestingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family Britain)] TJ ET BT 105.020 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was supposed to encompass the two years covered in this book: the back page of )] TJ ET BT 498.284 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austerity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 68.024 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows four projected volumes, with )] TJ ET BT 245.672 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family Britain)] TJ ET BT 316.676 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( looking at 1951?9. \(The other two projected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes incidentally were )] TJ ET BT 163.664 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Opportunity Britain)] TJ ET BT 259.340 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, covering the 1960s, and )] TJ ET BT 382.988 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crisis Britain)] TJ ET BT 448.676 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, taking in the 1970s.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As things now stand, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Opening The Box)] TJ ET BT 221.672 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first of two projected volumes covering the period 1957?62 ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both )] TJ ET BT 58.352 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austerity Britain)] TJ ET BT 138.692 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 162.020 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family Britain)] TJ ET BT 233.024 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also made their debuts as two-parters before being collected into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one volume. Confused? You will be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The years covered in )] TJ ET BT 137.312 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 224.312 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begin with Harold Macmillan succeeding Anthony Eden as PM, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end with the former?s triumph at the 1959 general election. During the period in question Britain saw its first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major race riots; the birth of its first major rock ?n? roll star in Tommy Steele; the introduction of, among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other things, Ready Brek, Old Spice, and Fry?s Turkish Delight; the tragedy of the Munich Air Crash; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the start of the )] TJ ET BT 106.004 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black and White Minstrel Show)] TJ ET BT 257.996 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It saw the publication of )] TJ ET BT 383.648 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Which?)] TJ ET BT 420.308 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Magazine; the launch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1544)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 February, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Kynaston)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780747588931)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(432pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/modernity-britain-9780747588931/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malin Dahlstrom)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7276 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sputnik; the debut of Judi Dench; and the beginning of the television broadcast of the Queen?s Christmas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message. In addition, 1959 saw a Hungarian rag-salesman win the rights to distribute Levi?s jeans in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UK. For Kynaston, these years marked the beginning of modernity. Granted, this notion ?may have meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different things to different people, and the pace of change varied considerably from place to place, but by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1957 it was unmistakably becoming the dominant \(albeit top-down\) zeitgeist? \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some aspects of Britain in the late 1950s are still with us today; complaints about the country being little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than America?s poodle on the international stage and the idea that government welfare encourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people to be lazy scroungers are just as prevalent now as they were then. Additionally, there is still a gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between what the viewing public and television critics rate highly ? not to mention the presence of Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forsyth on prime-time television. Those who think that the emergence of the English Defence League is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely contemporary phenomenon may be surprised to read of the White Defence League marching through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London in 1958 parading banners with slogans such as ?Keep Britain White?, while students chanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposing slogans \(p. 309\). Meanwhile, a BBC report on how television influenced children showed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teenagers still expressed little inclination towards politics, on the grounds that ?they cannot see how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?politics? impinge on them, or what they have to do with their lives ?We found a widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disenchantment with politicians. ?It?s sort of corrupt.?? \(p 323\) Then again, some things have changed ? an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andy Capp cartoon in which he takes satisfaction in thumping his wife would have no place in today?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers ? well, one would like to think so anyway \(p. 74\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key planks of Kynaston?s argument is based around the fact a lot of progressive changes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking place in the idea of the ?built environment? ? the desire was ?to dump the past, get up to date and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embrace a gleaming, functional, progressive future? \(p. 46\). The spring of 1957 saw the start of the building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Birmingham?s Inner Ring Road, the Park Hill development in Sheffield, and the Bradford Development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plan. The last of these was proclaimed by the City Engineer as making Bradford one of the few cities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain to be ?not only worthy of the 20th century, but also proud to look the 21stin the face? \(pp. 46?7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later in the year, the Saxton Gardens development began in Leeds, with the opening of a ten storey block of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flats, with six further blocks of between five and nine storeys to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The future seemed to consist of flats and high-rise housing; but as the well-known housing consultant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Denby pointed out, although architects delighted in the new approach, ?I have still yet to find one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who lives in such a block himself!? \(p. 48\) Although some councils attempted to reduce the gulf between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned and the planners, more often than not said gulf remained. In Wolverhampton more than 14,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council house tenants turned down the offer of moving into luxury flats being built in an eight storey block, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citing high rents, lack of gardens and a lack of privacy as their main reasons for rejecting a move \(p. 135\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another key plank of late 1950s town-planning ? moving people out of the cities into ?overspill? estates ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also provoked mixed reactions. A )] TJ ET BT 198.656 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham Mail)] TJ ET BT 284.324 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reporter investigating the Kingshurst estate just outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castle Bromwich saw ?pleasant homes, with bright paint and neat curtains, wide roads and rural street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names?. But talking to the residents, he heard a ?tale of bewilderment, disinterest, loneliness and dislike? \(p )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(293\). The moral of the story was that it was hard to form a community when the majority of its members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw themselves as exiles from somewhere else. \(p 293\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other developments in the period included the trial of parking meters in Westminster; the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building of the M1 near Luton, and the construction of the Chiswick Flyover ? the first major two-level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highway to be built in London since the war. Kynaston argues that ?the sense in 1959 was of being on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eve not only of a new decade but also of urban change of a fundamental nature with unknowable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences? \(p. 320\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late 1950s also saw something of a consumer boom, fuelled by a combination of the end of hire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase restrictions and reductions in purchase and income tax as well as a general feeling of optimism. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the summer of 1959, television sets were owned by roughly two out of every three homes, while one in two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owned a telephone. However, only one in four homes owned a washing machine, and the ratio for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refrigerators was one in ten \(p. 337\). Most television sets had a 17? screen, but a 21? screen had recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been developed, which more people were now buying as a result. Other buying trends that indicated a move )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7844 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from the past included the increasing availability and use of electric razors; the increase in sales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filter-tipped cigarettes compared to untipped cigarettes; and Bronco?s coloured toilet paper going national. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, the Mini ? ?fatally underpriced at just under 500, including purchase tax? ? was launched in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1959. \(Oddly enough, the car was a direct result of Suez: petrol rationing during the crisis inspired the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BMC?s Leonard Lord to demand that his chief designer come up with a small car that had a low fuel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption.\) Teenage consumers ? the term was coined by Mark Abrams in 1959 to describe those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 15?24 ? spent their money on, among other things, ?Clothing, footwear, drink, tobacco, sweets, soft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinks, slacks, pop records, gramophones, romantic magazines and fiction paperbacks, the cinema [and] the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dancehall? \(p. 341\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The worry was that the working classes were being swept along ?in a degrading consumer frenzy? \(p. 344\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willmot and Young, in their )] TJ ET BT 173.348 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Family and Class in a London Suburb)] TJ ET BT 356.696 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, collected much evidence to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer durables were the latest weapons in the class war. The middle-classes were somewhat censorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the working classes? new-found affluence ? ?The working class is better off, which is a good thing )] TJ ET BT 524.240 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(if)] TJ ET BT 530.912 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know how to use their money. Which they don?t, I?m sorry to say? \(p. 298\). The working-classes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandably, saw such disapproval as the hallmark of snobbishness; ?The middle-class people here are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snobs. They put on airs and graces. They are all out for show ? nothing in their stomachs, but with nice suits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on? \(p. 298\). No doubt this ?Keeping up with Joneses? scenario being played out in Woodford was being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated elsewhere across the country \(not all were convinced by the new appliances available: a survey of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class men in 1959 revealed that many didn?t possess a washing machine on the grounds that ?my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife is my washing machine?\), but not necessarily everywhere. For many, it wasn?t a case of buying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something because of ?the green-eyed monster? ? ?It?s because we?re all reaching up for the same sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing at the same sort of time? \(p. 345\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The late 1950s also saw the rise in the popular consciousness of the idea of meritocracy. The mid 1950s had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen the appearance of Kingsley Amis? titular hero )] TJ ET BT 282.620 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lucky Jim)] TJ ET BT 331.604 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who became ?a literary-cum-social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon? \(p. 203\). In the words of Philip Oakes, he was the first ?hapless hero to climb from the crib of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Welfare State ? His bones are reinforced by Government dried milk. His view of the world is through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Health spectacles. And he looks back ? not in anger ? but with surprise that he has been allowed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barge through the privileged ranks of bores and phonies, towards some kind of success? \(p. 203\). Oakes was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing in early 1957, a year that would see the publication of John Braine?s )] TJ ET BT 403.628 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Room at the Top)] TJ ET BT 483.296 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hero, Joe Lampton, quickly replaced Jim Dixon as ?the symbol of new, meritocratic social forces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamically and hungrily on the move? \(p. 203\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was there any evidence for the rise of meritocracy outside of fiction? The team that produced the world?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first controlled fusion reaction in 1958 were grammar school boys, while James Drake, Britain?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motorway creator, was born in Accrington. Meanwhile Denis Rooke ? son of a South London commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traveller ? headed the team of the )] TJ ET BT 196.964 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Methane Pioneer)] TJ ET BT 279.944 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that transported liquefied gas from the Gulf of Mexico to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canvey Island during a perilous 23-day journey in 1959. In the city, Frank Kearton at Courtauld?s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordon Richardson at Schroder?s were at the head of the post-war revival of the Square Mile. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meritocrats flourished in the media and the arts; Harold Evans, Malcolm Bradbury, Keith Waterhouse, David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey and John Thaw to name but five. On the other hand, for all the talk of meritocracy, all but two of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan?s Cabinet had gone to public school, and all but four had gone to Oxbridge; both opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders had gone to Oxford. A study in 1958 entitled )] TJ ET BT 289.652 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Boss)] TJ ET BT 333.320 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( concluded that ?while some men have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to get to the top without special advantages, the odds were heavily against them ? The men who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were most likely to succeed were those with family connections in business, and those who had been to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public school. Most likely of all were the Old Etonians? \(p. 218\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many of the meritocrats, a grammar school education had given them the chance to rise as they had. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reminiscences of the grammar schools are understandably mixed; for Roy Greenslade, his grammar school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience was ?a five year course in how to succeed without understanding why? \(p. 212\). Other accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more benign, although exasperation about the enforcement of petty rules seems to have been a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint. In any case, the position of the grammar schools in the late 1950s was being threatened by two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors beyond their control. The 11-plus exam which decided who was eligible for a grammar school spot ? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7550 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assuming the parents of the child could afford to send them if they did pass it ? was coming under fire as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of a debate over intelligence testing in general. As well as doubts over its efficacy, the 11-plus was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as inherently cruel and divisive. The other factor was the poor reputation of secondary moderns, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were seen as a dustbin for those not bright enough to get into grammar school. Manchester?s chief education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officer summed things up: ?it has seldom been possible to persuade parents or children that they [secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderns] offer a reasonable alternative to the grammar school? \(p. 230\). Or as A. J. P. Taylor put it, ?Run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away to sea rather than go to a secondary modern? \(p. 230\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of social unrest the Notting Hill riots marked the most serious civil disturbances of the decade. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There had been racial unrest in the area towards the end of August 1958, and Monday 1 September marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the climax of it. In the evening a large number of white youths ? some estimates put the number at 2,000 ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?smashed their way through a large swathe of Notting Hill? \(p. 171\). The local blacks, fortified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforcements of Jamaicans from Brixton, fought back. Another night of violence followed on Tuesday, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before rain temporarily bought a halt to proceedings on Wednesday.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Racism was still somewhat prevalent in Britain. In June 1958, local magistrates in Wolverhampton renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the licence of the Scala ballroom despite the fact it operated a colour bar. Racial prejudice was fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread, with many small ads for furnished apartments being bookended with phrases like ?no coloured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people? or ?sorry, no coloured?. The troubles led to the question being raised of whether a cap on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration should be introduced. However, the last thing Macmillan wanted a year before a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election was hugely divisive debate on immigration, and the Cabinet agreed it was paramount to avoid any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major pronouncements on the subject. Most Tories took the line with regard to the riots that ?there was fault )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on both sides?. A few MP?s spoke out in favour of immigration controls, but they were in the minority. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regards to public opinion, the evidence seems to be that the veneer of racial tolerance was rather a thin one: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but at ?least that thin veneer existed, and arguably owed something to a widespread underlying decency on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the part of a still very conservative population? \(p. 178\). Oswald Mosley stood as a candidate at the 1959 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general election, warning an audience against cheap coloured labour; ?no matter how skilled you might be, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you can?t compete with a man who is prepared to live upon a tin of Kit-E-Kat a day? \(p. 357\). Hearteningly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he ended up losing his deposit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politically these might be described as the ?never-had-it-so-good? years, as Macmillan famously put it at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting in Bedford during 1957. The Conservatives made a solid recovery following the Suez debacle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although they were largely aided by a Labour Party that was struggling with its defence policy, specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its commitment to unilateralism. The shadow cabinet knew they would need to jettison it to be electorally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credible, but this went against the wishes of much of the rank and file. The former unilateralist Aneurin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bevan came under heavy fire at the party?s 1957 conference, telling the floor that a unilateralist government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have to send its foreign secretary figuratively ?naked into the conference chamber?. In response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heckling from the floor, he referred to unilateralism as ?an emotional spasm.? For many Bevanites, it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment of ?deepest betrayal? ? yet more than one Bevanite would, in later years, tie themselves in knots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to square Bevan?s post-Attlee views on nuclear disarmament with his former opposition to the bomb.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 231.603 m 48.008 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The 1957 conference is largely seen to have marked a turning point, when ?Labour and radical sentiment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole started to become increasingly detached from each other? \(p. 76\). In particular the period saw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gulf open up between Labour and the unions over unilateralism. At the July 1959 TUC conference on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isle of Man, Frank Cousins declared that ?I have never believed that the most important thing in our times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to elect a Labour government. The most important thing is to elect a Labour government determined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carry out a socialist policy? \(p. 324\). Given that everyone was now expecting an autumn election, this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last thing Gaitskell needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sequel to this was the birth of the CND movement. After months of meetings, Good Friday 1958 saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the start of a four day, 45 mile march from Trafalgar Square to Aldermaston in Berkshire. The emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the CND provided more problems for the Labour Party, which as the future Tony Benn put it, ?was at sixes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sevens? over its nuclear policy. But the problem was that CND was largely ?a movement of eggheads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for eggheads?, in the words of A. J. P. Taylor \(p. 126\). Opinion polls seemed to show that the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public?s view of the nuclear issue was generally somewhat fatalistic ? ?There?ll be a war if there?s going to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 231.9175 48.0077 243.7975 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7563 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be one? \(p. 127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The biggest crisis the Conservative government faced was undoubtedly the resignation of three ministers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Macmillan?s government in early 1958. The cause of the crisis was the clash between Macmillan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his Chancellor, Peter Thorneycroft, over spending cuts. At a cabinet meeting on 3 January, Thorneycroft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded that in addition to a previously agreed 100 million cut in civil and defence expenditure, a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50 million of savings, including the abolition of family allowance for the second child, was required. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan stood his ground, and Thorneycroft resigned on 6 January, along with Treasury ministers Enoch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Powell and Nigel Birch. The next day Macmillan was due to head off on a long planned Commonwealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tour, and at the airport uttered another one of his )] TJ ET BT 269.636 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bon mots)] TJ ET BT 313.304 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that would pass into the history books, referring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the resignations as ?a little local difficulty.? The Conservative press ? and indeed the party ? were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to make too much fuss over the resignations, and when Parliament reassembled on 21 January, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorneycroft delivered a resignation speech which was heartily cheered, and followed by a solid vote of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence for the government for the principles which he had been prepared to resign over. As one reporter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put it, ?if this sounds bewildering, that was just about the way it seemed? \(p. 109\). Some historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invested the episode with significance by reading Thorneycroft )] TJ ET BT 339.956 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 360.956 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as proto-Thatcherites heroically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing up to a Keynesian spendthrift. But despite the existence of the Institute of Economic Affairs, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would lay much of the intellectual ground for Thatcherism, those advocating small-state-free-marketeering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a very small minority in 1958; the up-and-coming generation of economists were very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keynesians. There might be something in Ted Heath?s laconic verdict that the only thing historic about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episode was that it amounted to a failed challenge to Macmillan \(p. 110\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1959 general election saw the Conservatives running on their campaign basis of ?never had it so good? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in the spring of 1959 they had adopted the slogan ?Life?s Better With the Conservatives: Don?t Let Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruin It?, and remorselessly drove it home ? accompanying posters often depicted a family washing a car, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered around a fully-stocked table. Macmillan himself was rapidly becoming the Conservatives' biggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral asset, appealing to a broad cross-section of society. By contrast, Gaitskell came across as more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cerebral, and more difficult for voters to warm to ? although ironically, of course, in private Gaitskell was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fond of parties and extramarital activity, whereas Macmillan preferred to sit down with a book by Austen or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trollope. The star of Labour?s campaign was undoubtedly Wilson, who accused the Tories of selling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister like ?a packet of tablets?, and never tired of pointing out in his broad Yorkshire accent that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were ?13 Old Etonian ties? in the cabinet \(p. 349\). Bevan looked tired in comparison, and railed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the PLP as being ?rotten through and through: corrupt, full of patronage and seeking after patronage: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprincipled? \(p. 349\). Among others Margaret Thatcher, Shirley Williams, Jeremy Thorpe, Tony Crosland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Maxwell and \(of all people\) John Arlott contested seats. Technically it was the first ?TV? election, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the small-screen had little impact on the hustings; though it was perhaps one of the few areas where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour outshone the Conservatives. Gaitskell?s TV appearances galvanised Labour?s campaign for a while, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but on 28 September he gave a speech in which he ruled out tax rises under a Labour government. Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hailisham?s response was that ?The Lord hath delivered them into our hands?, while less biblically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bevan?s reaction was, ?He?s thrown it away. He?s lost the election? \(p. 357\). Indeed, the result was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative majority of 100 ? ?an astonishing triumph for a government already almost eight years old? \(p )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(364\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What gave the Conservatives such a conclusive victory? Richard Crossman wrote in his diary that it boiled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down to the fact that ?Tory voters are far more afraid of another Labour government than Labour voters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afraid of another Tory government? \(p. 364\). For Kynaston though, it was more a case that ?whatever the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractions or otherwise of Labour?s case, the electorate just did not want to change horses at a time of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity? \(p. 364\). In the words of more than one contemporary, many voted for their stomachs in the 1959 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general election.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with )] TJ ET BT 123.008 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain: Opening The Box)] TJ ET BT 300.992 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is that one doesn?t come away from the book feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Britain in the late 1950s was on the verge of a social revolution; the reader unaware of what happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next will be in for something of a surprise. Some seeds of change were undoubtedly present: but many had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not yet germinated. The ?satire-boom? hadn?t begun; the Beatles and the Stones had still to form, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8363 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sundays were still a by-word for boredom. In the 1960s Harold Wilson would go on to associate himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the white heat of technological revolution; but at this point in his career one of his primary concerns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that the music of Gilbert and Sullivan was about to go out of copyright. Social attitudes showed little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of loosening: after two devoting two pages to the downfall and conviction of rising Tory MP Ian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey for committing a homosexual act and the kicking of the Wolfenden report into the long grass, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can hardly expect the reader to be convinced by a succeeding paragraph or two claiming that ?to an extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes unappreciated, there were clear signs at the late 1950s of the hold of ?respectable? morality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting to break up? \(p. 255\). Kynaston is more on the mark when he states that ?more bleak years lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ahead? for homosexuals \(p. 254\). \(Incidentally, there is no mention in )] TJ ET BT 371.960 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 458.960 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devlin-Hart exchange over the Wolfenden report, a large oversight surely?\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kynaston employs the same style in )] TJ ET BT 210.008 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 297.008 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as in the previous two volumes in this series: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blizzard of quotations from contemporary diaries and letters adorn most pages, and Phillip Larkin rubs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shoulders with the likes of Florence Turtle and Harold Macmillan. Kynaston is also fond of the tactic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving readers who know the history of the period a nod and a wink; for instance, March 1957 saw a young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(RADA graduate named Brian Epstein arrested for soliciting a homosexual act; while in July a ?tousled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteen year-old wearing a checked shirt and tight black jeans? played at a village fete in Woolton: the young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man in question turns out to be John Lennon. )] TJ ET BT 254.012 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 341.012 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is very much what might be described as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old-fashioned work of narrative history. It is a very readable book; but those looking for analysis will more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often than not look in vain. Kynaston?s technique is to pile up varying viewpoints from contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources without ever really trying to distinguish between them. Those who know their E. H. Carr will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember his chapter on causation: the ?candidate who, in reply to our question, was content to set out one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the other half a dozen causes of the Russian revolution and leave it at that, might get a second class, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely a first; ?well-informed, but unimaginative? would probably be the verdict of the examiners?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.916 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.916 469.443 m 534.908 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kynaston, of course, is a historian of some repute ? but even so, he remains open to the charge of neglecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 71.012 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of history in favour of the)] TJ ET BT 197.660 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( how)] TJ ET BT 220.664 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There is on the whole a severe lack of analysis in )] TJ ET BT 465.608 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 552.608 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps best typified by his treatment of the Notting Hill riots. Kynaston describes, but fails to offer any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of final word on the subject; instead devoting the rest of the chapter to living standards. In a sense this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is quite a difficult book to review, on the basis that in many places one has to do Kynaston?s analysis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him. Moreover, the lack of analytic rigour in )] TJ ET BT 251.312 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 338.312 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( means that it compares unfavourably with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another recent account of the same period, Dominic Sandbrook?s )] TJ ET BT 350.612 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Never Had It So Good.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.928 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.928 369.651 m 474.920 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kynaston?s style of organising his material might also be described, perhaps a touch unkindly, as somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scattergun. In particular he is guilty of using sport as filler; random football or cricket results will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpolated into chapters at various points, but there is no systematic treatment of either as a whole. \(For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, Kynaston notes the nationalisation of the previously regional Football League Divisions Three and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four; but doesn?t explain why this took place.\) Returning to the ?scattergun? charge, Kynaston?s argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be that he is trying to give us a feel of life as it unfolded; it is a historical fact that, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester United?s 5-4 victory at Arsenal occurred in the same week as the debut of the BBC?s arts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(program )] TJ ET BT 77.672 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monitor)] TJ ET BT 117.008 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But nonetheless, Kynaston?s writing style does lay itself open to the famous Eltonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge of history being little more than ?one damn thing after another?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.616 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.616 229.347 m 390.608 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion then, while the author of )] TJ ET BT 222.656 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 309.656 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has provided another readable addition to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tales of a New Jerusalem)] TJ ET BT 158.012 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series, the jury remains out on the case he makes that the period in question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marked a turning point in post-war British history. One suspects that the second volume of )] TJ ET BT 471.980 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which will encompass the years 1960?2, will make a much stronger argument. But in that case, why split )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity Britain)] TJ ET BT 121.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into two volumes in the first place? Commercial reasons were undoubtedly the reason for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this decision; but it leaves us with the task of reviewing what is essentially half a book, which is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly fruitful exercise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.9157 469.7575 534.9077 481.6375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.9277 369.9655 474.9197 381.8455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.6157 229.6615 390.6077 241.5415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 4140 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most famously, Michael Foot in )] TJ ET BT 222.020 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Aneurin Bevan: a Biography, vol. 2: 1945?60)] TJ ET BT 441.992 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.316 795.075 m 550.976 795.075 l S BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 780.819 m 90.344 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. H. Carr, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What Is History?)] TJ ET BT 201.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1962\), p. 54.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.656 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.656 766.563 m 366.644 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominic Sandbrook, )] TJ ET BT 167.012 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Never Had It So Good: A History of Britain from Suez to the Beatles )] TJ ET BT 498.992 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 738.051 m 149.000 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Elton, )] TJ ET BT 142.328 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Practice of History)] TJ ET BT 255.320 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1967\), p. 36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.644 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.644 723.795 m 420.632 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/book-review-modernity-britain-opening-the-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 669.027 m 560.936 669.027 l S BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(box-19571959-by-david-kynaston-8720950.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 269.000 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.000 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/jun/23/modernity-britain-david-kynaston-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 626.259 m 467.984 626.259 l S 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