%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 22 0 R 48 0 R 62 0 R 76 0 R 81 0 R 98 0 R 138 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728211524+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728211524+01'00') /Title (The War on Heresy: Faith and Power in Medieval Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The War on Heresy: Faith and Power in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War on Heresy)] TJ ET BT 127.664 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the most recent of R. I. Moore?s writings on medieval heresy and repression, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been appearing since 1970. The most important are the anthology of translated texts entitled )] TJ ET BT 504.608 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Popular Heresy)] TJ ET BT 122.672 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of European Dissent)] TJ ET BT 288.008 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 314.336 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Deviance in Western Europe, 950-1250)] TJ ET BT 245.312 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.312 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.312 214.905 m 262.304 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.304 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The publication in 2006 of )] TJ ET BT 396.296 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heresy and the Persecuting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society in the Middle Ages: Essays on the Work of R.I. Moore)] TJ ET BT 330.968 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a mark of their impact.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.272 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.272 200.649 m 479.264 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since )] TJ ET BT 63.680 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War on Heresy)] TJ ET BT 157.328 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is aimed at a general as well as academic market, Moore has provided its full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography on his website \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.008 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://rimoore.net/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.008 160.137 m 261.680 160.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.680 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 278.672 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and there will be found also further reflections on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work \(under ?Text and context?\). As he writes, what he has brought over these decades to the study of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes is scepticism: in particular, about the relationship between what the Church?s texts said about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics and what was out there in reality. This scepticism has been consistent, but its deployment has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifted. In the )] TJ ET BT 103.340 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins)] TJ ET BT 140.012 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Moore still accepted the appearance and growth of the ?Cathar? sect, but he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned to diminish eastern links and to postpone the appearance of the sect, by eroding the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded by some historians as early sightings of it. In )] TJ ET BT 296.984 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET BT 488.636 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression of heresy was but one part of a large and original idea, concisely conveyed in the title. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1546)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 February, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. I. Moore)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846681967)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Profile Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.profilebooks.com/isbn/9781846681967/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Biller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.3117 215.2195 262.3037 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.2717 200.9635 479.2637 212.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.0077 160.4515 261.6797 172.3315 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://rimoore.net/) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 9647 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response model of some historians ? the Church thinking ?there?s some dissidence over there, let?s repress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it? ? was side-stepped by the shift of attention to medieval society?s new-found )] TJ ET BT 418.292 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(need)] TJ ET BT 440.948 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to persecute. And now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War on Heresy)] TJ ET BT 140.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there has been a bold extension. Moore?s scepticism has become even more radical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it has a new target. This comes in the latter part of the book, with the suggestion is that ?Catharism? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a construction. 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With heresy and its repression this has meant decades of grappling with the texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reporting heresy in the period roughly from 1000 to 1050 and the chronicles, letters and early polemics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 12th century, with occasional forays past 1200. But now extensive exploration of the systematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholastic )] TJ ET BT 84.344 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(summae)] TJ ET BT 123.668 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the inquisition records of the 13th century has become key to the )] TJ ET BT 460.952 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War on Heresy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s big idea.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore sets his new work within the history of scholarship on high medieval heresy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.640 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.640 597.747 m 450.632 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.632 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( First of all, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, work has been confined to a canonical body of texts on medieval heresy, something strikingly shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the substantial overlap in the selection of texts in two independently produced anthologies of translations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own )] TJ ET BT 74.684 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birth of Popular Heresy)] TJ ET BT 191.012 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and A. P. Evans and W. Wakefield?s )] TJ ET BT 374.636 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heresies of the High Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 536.948 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 539.948 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 539.948 554.979 m 553.940 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, it has been ? astonishingly ? only in recent years that the texts used by historians of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy and its repression have been subjected to rigorous critical analysis and scrutiny. Moore traces this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to the 1990s, and in particular the French historians whose papers were published in a book whose title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the point, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inventer l?hrsie?)] TJ ET BT 208.988 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Monique Zerner.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.628 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.628 497.955 m 357.620 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.620 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The drift of modern scholarship is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this direction. 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Take just two texts from the 1240s: a treatise against heresy written by Moneta of Cremona )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(c.1241\) has around 450,000 words, while a manuscript containing inquisition depositions of 1245?6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Toulouse Bibliothque Municipale 609\) contains about 380,000. It becomes a risky enterprise talking about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is )] TJ ET BT 71.348 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 86.684 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there in texts of this size. More importantly, if, like Moore, you are writing a very big book, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you are not yourself a specialist scholar in these areas, you have to be more reliant on the guides you choose. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question for the reader changes from ?How convincing do I find Moore?? at the start of the book, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?How convincing do I find the scholars upon whom he has chosen to rely?? later on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the four books of Alan of Lille?s treatise )] TJ ET BT 267.968 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Faith)] TJ ET BT 311.636 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was devoted to heretics to whom dualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propositions were attributed, and there is a description of heretics? dualist theological in the first part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay?s )] TJ ET BT 183.968 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albigensian History)] TJ ET BT 280.304 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, both of which have been taken to be descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cathars? in contemporary Languedoc and based in some way on experience of them. Part of Moore?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.3477 695.5975 163.3397 707.4775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.6397 598.0615 450.6317 609.9415 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 539.9477 555.2935 553.9397 567.1735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.6277 498.2695 357.6197 510.1495 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.9397 469.7575 546.9317 481.6375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.3037 455.5015 453.2957 467.3815 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.3357 441.2455 313.3277 453.1255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.3077 372.2215 341.2997 384.1015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 9273 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dualist mirage? case is that these are derived instead from the straw figure of the dualist heretic that had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in theology. There were two traditions. On the one hand there was a line of Cistercians, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular from Clairvaux and at the forefront in dealing with and repressing heresy, whose writings laid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the foundations for the dualist heretic. On the other hand there was the ?ivory tower? dualist heretic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed in the academic theology of the schools in Paris, in the writings of Peter Lombard and his pupils, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in routine academic exercises. The doctrine of two principles was ?regularly deployed as target practice in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the classrooms of Paris? \(p. 201\). The two lines came together in Alan of Lille, an academic at Paris who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately retired to Cteaux, while Peter?s description of dualism was ?obviously? put together out of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercian accounts \(pp. 254?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The inspiration here is Hilbert Chiu.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.004 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.004 654.771 m 227.996 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.996 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Surveying medieval academic theological treatises, Chiu argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the possibility that they might contain reflections on or reactions to contemporary dualist heretics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorously attacking anyone who has suggested this \(especially Biller\). He finds the treatises, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Lombard?s )] TJ ET BT 118.664 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Four Books of the Sentence)] TJ ET BT 250.640 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s, very preoccupied with dualist theology, using ancient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, retailed by St Augustine and others. Focussing on one book, ?Against heretics?, in Alan of Lille?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four-book treatise )] TJ ET BT 122.660 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Faith)] TJ ET BT 166.328 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he finds a hold-all, containing doctrines not relevant to contemporary ?Cathars?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To minimise the possibility of Alan having had experience of heretics in southern France, Chiu casts doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on him having lived there.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A systematic study of dualism in 12th-and 13th-century theological treatises would be a good thing to have, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this may not come from Chiu, who does not seem to grasp some quite elementary aspects of academics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this period. The essential work-tools produced by the 12th century, with the )] TJ ET BT 412.976 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ordinary gloss)] TJ ET BT 482.648 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the bible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Peter Lombard?s )] TJ ET BT 138.992 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Four Books of Sentences)] TJ ET BT 257.972 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, provided handy selections and rapid retrieval of snippets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a vast range of patristic writings. The consequent fact that these works and treatises using them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained here and there some ancient material on dualism is a commonplace, and does not indicate special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation. Any work of theology contains topics such as God, the creation, and good and evil. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics )] TJ ET BT 65.684 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can)] TJ ET BT 83.012 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but )] TJ ET BT 104.348 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do not have)] TJ ET BT 160.340 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be developed towards the topic of dualism. Their presence does not in itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate special preoccupation. Finally, treatises varied. Some were not especially interested in dualism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancient or modern \(i\); some were interested in and distinguished both \(ii\); some were specifically directed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against contemporary dualism \(iii\). Peter Lombard?s )] TJ ET BT 290.312 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Four Books of the Sentences)] TJ ET BT 426.956 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a good example of \(i\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite Chiu?s desperate attempt to make it contain ?detailed discussions of dualism?. An instance of \(ii\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Nequam?s )] TJ ET BT 140.648 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Speculum speculationum)] TJ ET BT 260.300 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. After its prologue, the )] TJ ET BT 375.284 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opening)] TJ ET BT 413.948 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( words of Nequam?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are, ?If there were two principles of all things?? \(Si duo essent principia rerum?\). ?The old error of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manichees compelled me to write?, says Nequam, ?alas renewed in our days? \()] TJ ET BT 414.584 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vetus error ? diebus nostris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(renovatus)] TJ ET BT 81.344 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.340 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.340 314.883 m 108.332 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 108.332 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The juxtaposition of then and now could hardly be more explicit. There could hardly be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater contrast with Peter Lombard! Finally, an example of \(iii\) is Moneta of Cremona?s treatise against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary heretics. It plunges us into the world of Italian cities in the early to mid 13th century and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical debates between heretics and Catholics, and Moneta draws his propositions from what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary heretics said and what they wrote, some of which is in effect footnoted, with citation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author and the relevant part of his treatise. Chiu?s attempt to force all these works into one mould simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flounders. His reading of his main author, Alain de Lille, hardly scratches the surface. Nearly 50 years ago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marie-Thrse d?Alverny pointed out that there was an earlier version with a narrower focus than the text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed in the Patrologia Latina, omitting the chapters on penance, confirmation, extreme unction and prayer.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 186.579 m 54.008 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The relevance to Chiu?s ?hold-all? view of the book is obvious, but he has not looked at it ? it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear even that he knows about it. Investigation of the topic ?Alan on contemporary heretics? needs research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into another of )] TJ ET BT 107.672 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Faith)] TJ ET BT 151.340 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s books, the one directed against Waldensians. It has been noticed that in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earliest surviving Waldensian letter \(1218\), the Waldensians access patristic material through Gratian?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decretum)] TJ ET BT 81.332 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.332 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.332 129.555 m 104.324 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.324 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It has also been noticed that some of the Waldensian arguments described by Alan derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Gratian: a parallel that bears upon his accuracy in reporting them, and an important comparison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, finally, is one illustration of the strata: first, the known evidence, secondly Chiu?s treatment of it, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally Moore?s use of Chiu. D?Alverny paraded the trickle of evidence about Alan and southern France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judiciously not making too much of it but also making it clear that it did show Alan spent some time down )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.0037 655.0855 227.9957 666.9655 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.3397 315.1975 108.3317 327.0775 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 186.8935 54.0077 198.7735 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.3317 129.8695 104.3237 141.7495 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 65 0 R 68 0 R 71 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 63 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Length 9191 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there. He dedicated )] TJ ET BT 129.980 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Faith)] TJ ET BT 173.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the count of Montpellier. He dedicated his )] TJ ET BT 394.952 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Distinctiones)] TJ ET BT 458.288 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the abbot of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great Benedictine monastery in lower Languedoc, Saint-Gilles. Two posthumous )] TJ ET BT 425.636 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exempla)] TJ ET BT 465.620 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( depict him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecturing in the schools at Montpellier. Most telling is the fact that in his )] TJ ET BT 384.344 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Distinctiones)] TJ ET BT 447.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he glosses a Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word with its equivalent in vernacular Occitan.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.640 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.640 752.307 m 279.632 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.632 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Next level, Chiu. Omitting all the evidence apart from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first dedication enables him to write of Alan, ?whether he ever went to the south is contentious?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.940 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.940 738.051 m 534.932 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Final level, Moore, following Chiu. Again there is silence about all the evidence apart from the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedication, while the denial becomes more declamatory. ?There is nothing in Alan of Lille?s disappointingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undocumented life to connect him with the Languedoc? \(p. 220\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us move forward to the use of the inquisition depositions Languedoc, dipping in at p. 261. Here Moore is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing the ?Cathar? rite of )] TJ ET BT 182.312 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(melioramentum)] TJ ET BT 257.636 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which inquisitors called )] TJ ET BT 381.296 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adoration)] TJ ET BT 428.636 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As the note in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(website indicates, Moore draws here on Mark Pegg's )] TJ ET BT 290.456 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Corruption of Angels: The Great Inquisition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1245-1246)] TJ ET BT 86.012 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 92-103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.008 626.259 m 167.000 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.000 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(To avoid misunderstanding ? it goes without saying that there is complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propriety in Moore?s use and acknowledgement of other scholars\). Pegg?s monograph is ?brilliant?, writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore, and it has a ?devastating critique of the methods of his predecessors? in the use of inquisition records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 345\). What is at issue, then, in our assessment of Moore, is the character of a work that has influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him so much and given him the green light to carry his brand of deconstructionism into the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisition records.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pegg whittled away the conventional picture of ?Catharism? in Languedoc, which had included a ?Church? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that even for some years had its specific headquarters, a hierarchy of bishops, their successors and deacons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal rituals and the use of a liturgical book laying down how they were to be carried out, written theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a financial system. The erosion techniques were simple. The first and fundamental technique was silence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about evidence. The silence was of two sorts. First, analysis was confined to one source, the 1245?6 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiries contained in MS Toulouse 609. So, the depositions of the lord of Gaja-la-Selve, Peter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mazerolles, are in Toulouse 609. So Peter is in Pegg?s book. His mother Helis?s deposition is in another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 428.931 m 110.336 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.336 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So she is not in Pegg?s book. The loss of some complexity in our picture of one family?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement with ?Catharism? is not in itself very significant, and this is presented only as an illustration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cordon sanitaire)] TJ ET BT 131.348 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Pegg has placed between Toulouse 609 and other evidence. One useful image in E. H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carr?s much-mocked )] TJ ET BT 139.988 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What is History?)] TJ ET BT 221.324 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the notion of a Club of Historical Facts, with historians deciding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on entry. With one simple stroke Pegg has excluded from the Club a whole heap of evidence. A detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of a ?Cathar? Council, bishops, ordinations, contact with Italian Cathars ? such as the rare and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precious testimony of a letter from a bishop of ?Cathars? in Cremona being received by a bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cathars? in Languedoc: through silence Pegg can keep his readers ignorant of all of this. The other silence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is about Toulouse 609 itself. It is a manuscript, in some areas difficult. So very few readers are going to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able both to access and read it. This is an opportunity for the scholar exploiting its contents to keep quiet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about parts that contradict what they are saying.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As earlier with Chiu, let us look at an example of the strata, first the evidence, then Pegg, then Moore. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence in Toulouse 609. Here in translation an example of a confession. ?Stephen of Rouzgas [and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others] ? adored the said heretics, each of them individually saying three times for themselves, on bended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knees in front of them, ?Bless?, and adding, ?Lords, pray God on behalf of this sinner, that he may make me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a good Christian and lead me to a good end? \(f. 4v\). The degree of complexity in the ritual makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurprising that deponents often recounted how a heretic had ?taught? and ?instructed? \(docere, instruere\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them how \(quomodo\) to perform it, showing \(ostendere\) them the its exact form \(modum\) \(e.g. 5v, 117v , )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(124r-v, 175r, etc\). The next level is Pegg?s chapter 13, entitled ?Words and nods?. After describing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adoration, Pegg retails variations on it. He is entirely silent about all the statements that the ritual was taught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to people. And then, from p. 94, he packs his sentences more and more with a thesaurus of ?respect? words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and phrases: giving a ?respectful nod?, ?being civil?, showing ?habitual politeness?, perpetuating ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(etiquette?, giving ?a couple of courteous hellos and goodbyes?, ?civilities?, ?honors?, ?mark of respect?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?routine )] TJ ET BT 76.340 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cortesia)] TJ ET BT 115.004 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. Prose laden with these words, acting on the reader like so many hidden persuaders in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising, softens up readers for Pegg?s conclusion, that ?the friar-inquisitors objectified a style of highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingent politeness into the classifiable form, )] TJ ET BT 264.332 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(adoratio)] TJ ET BT 305.672 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, so that it forced people to see their past and future )] TJ ET endstream endobj 64 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.6397 752.6215 279.6317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9397 738.3655 534.9317 750.2455 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.0077 626.5735 166.9997 638.4535 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3437 429.2455 110.3357 441.1255 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 79 0 R ] /Contents 77 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Length 7734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nods and benedictions as much more formulaic than they ever were?. Finally, Moore. The inquisitors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1246 attached ?great significance to body language ? asking whether people had ?adored? the good men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were looking for evidence of a ritual of which they had read in their scholastic texts, called the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(melioramentum)] TJ ET BT 109.340 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. ? But those who were questioned merely described what they knew as formal but everyday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gestures of respect whose exchange was simply a matter of )] TJ ET BT 320.612 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cortezia)] TJ ET BT 359.276 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. ? routine good manners? \(p. 261\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore does not identify the ?scholastic text? he says the two inquisitors, Bernard of Caux and John of Saint-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre, had been reading, and he is of course silent where Pegg is silent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What would Moore?s construction look like if he used as his prop when surveying the depositions of 13th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Languedoc other Anglophone scholars who read this evidence? Two outstanding examples are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Barber and Claire Taylor. Moore?s silences would now no longer be influenced by Pegg?s, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these are historians who read all the inquisition registers rather than just one, and apply to them scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is scrupulous as well as critical. From the many things that feature in their work that do not feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly in )] TJ ET BT 90.008 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War on Heresy)] TJ ET BT 183.656 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I pick out two examples ? first of all debates. Moore knows about the large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and formal debates between ?Cathars?, Catholics and Waldensians that are described, for example, in le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vaux-de-Cernay?s )] TJ ET BT 126.980 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albigensian History)] TJ ET BT 223.316 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. If he followed Taylor into the penances of the inquisitor Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sellan, he would enter an extraordinary world of smaller occasions. ?William of Caveroque? Waldensians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to his workshop ? He disputed with Franciscans whether a man should kill?. ?Bernard Raymond ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went to the heretics, wanting to test who were the better, the Waldensians or the heretics ? He disputed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone about the faith of the heretics and the faith of the Waldensians, and he confirmed the faith of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics?. ?William of Breuil saw heretics, heard their preaching and disputed with them about the creation?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The brothers Bernard Durand and Gaubert received three heretics ? who stayed in their house for a day and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a night, and there was a disputation between them and the priest of the place which lasted virtually the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day?. ?Raymond Pellegri ? kept the heretics? book, where anyone who wanted to would read?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.912 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.912 469.443 m 508.904 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.904 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penances are suffused throughout with this sort of detail, from a world where all sorts of people knew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology and argued about it. Theology was the football and disputations the TV of countless ordinary folk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Languedoc. Do we see them as passive recipients of ?ivory-tower? theology projected down upon them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow \(it is not clear how\) by Parisian academics?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second example is Montsgur. Had Pegg or Moore followed Barber they would have found a fine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very solidly based account of something they sideline and ignore. ?Cathar? leaders successfully petitioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montsgur?s co-lords for permission to use it as the headquarters of their Church, and this they did for some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. Evidence survives about their activities there ? their bishops, ordinations, preachings and so on ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a good glimpse of what ?Catharism? was like when living under protection. Of course, the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Montsgur is the object of modern popular fascination is convenient. Point to modern myth-making and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you can then ignore the real past existence and character of ?Catharism? in Montsgur. It is an easy trick to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The heart of )] TJ ET BT 95.660 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET BT 266.312 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a sociological model. But the version provided here ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended chronologically and thematically into the theology of the Paris schools and the inquisition records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Languedoc ? has ceased to be in a mutually modifying dialogue with the evidence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore is of course not responsible for the quality of Chiu?s and Pegg?s work, but he is the person who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen to rely on them rather than on good scholars. That, of course, is not his view of the field. I outlined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier Moore?s account of the history of scholarship, and need to turn to this now. To recap, in Moore?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes there was an unquestioned and rather narrow canon of texts on heresy and its repression, and scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were largely uncritical of these documents until the 1990s. A Manichean split has come about now, between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who uphold traditional views, because they are uncritical of documents, and the sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document-critics, whose searching analyses lead to necessarily to deconstruction. The critical force is with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a jaw-dropping claim. To begin with, it leaves out Germany. 1927 was the year of publication of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the ?type? of the heretic and sect and how this is deployed in the medieval Church?s texts, written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Herbert Grundmann, who went on to produce many more fundamental critical articles, especially on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 78 0 obj [76 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.9117 469.7575 508.9037 481.6375 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 84 0 R 87 0 R 90 0 R 93 0 R 96 0 R ] /Contents 82 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Length 9017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source-critical problems in depositions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.328 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.328 795.075 m 243.320 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1953 was the year of publication of Arno Borst?s towering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterpiece, )] TJ ET BT 97.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Katharer)] TJ ET BT 161.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is the principal modern account of ?Cathars?, and its long opening chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeds systematically through the sources. The section sub-titles - i. ?The chroniclers of the 11th century?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ii. ?The letter-writers \(c. 1140?1160\)?, iii. ?The Critical Polemicists \(c.1160?1230\)?, etc ? all tell their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story. That is, that these sources have their own generic characteristics and concerns, and that therefore they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shape)] TJ ET BT 62.012 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( things accordingly. Needless to say, Borst?s texts were not drawn from a narrow canon. And 1968 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the publication by Alexander Patschovsky of the most searching and critical account of an inquisitor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthology that we are ever likely to see.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.308 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.308 695.283 m 245.300 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.300 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These are central, fundamental and famous works. Secondly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is no equation between being acutely critical of documents and writing them off. A group of five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(document, orthography and language experts came to Monique Zerner?s conference on the document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emanating from the Council held by ?Cathars? in Saint-Flix in 1167. They were from the from the Institut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Recherche et d?Histoire des Textes, where people know a thing or two about texts. It was these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionals who pronounced the document authentic.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.640 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.640 624.003 m 318.632 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.632 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was left to the non-professionals, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deconstructionist historians, to go on clinging to the their faith that it was a forgery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore?s own approach to documents has a distinct profile. On the one hand he is concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context of a document and the possibilities that an author is exaggerating or fabricating or that a text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is forged, and on the other hand he tends not to be interested in relating the specific genre of a text to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and shape. So, for example, he is unlikely to analyse a letter in terms of contemporary treatises on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letter-writing. In his review of Lucy Sackville?s )] TJ ET BT 267.308 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heresy and Heretics in the Thirteenth Century: The Textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Representations)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.344 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.344 512.211 m 134.336 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.336 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there was a telling display of irritation at the fact that this brilliant exploration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct genres of texts in the Church ? and the ways in which these variously depicted heretics and heresies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? did not lead on to straightforward demolition. And Moore?s use of critical commentary is one-directional. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is designed to minimise the existence of a text or its apparent meaning. How do you get round conciliar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decrees pointing to heresy in Toulouse? Politics. Gervase of Canterbury mentioning a letter written by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count of Toulouse in 1177, saying that heretics in Toulouse speak of two principles? Ask why another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source does not mention it. Drop in a phrase like ?if authentic?, or in the last resort simply simply assert that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a text is a forgery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, it has been suggested that the deconstructions of the two sects conventionally regarded as the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sects of the high middle ages, ?Waldensianism? and ?Catharism?, are signs of our historiographical times. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confess to having paid too little attention to the differences. The leader in the case of the Waldensians, Grado )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merlo, is very interested in textual genres, sees texts as positioned, and tries to take as much into account as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible: there are no obvious silences. The passionate element in his enquiry is investigating historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? calling everything into question ? rather than demolishing. And that is what led him to call for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of what lay behind the singular construct )] TJ ET BT 295.316 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valdismo)] TJ ET BT 340.652 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as also the historiographical positions of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant historians. And though he raised deconstruction of singular )] TJ ET BT 362.636 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valdismo)] TJ ET BT 407.972 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into plural )] TJ ET BT 463.640 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valdismi)] TJ ET BT 506.312 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not rig the enquiry to predetermine the answers. In fact, at a conference in 2008 he announced a change of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.688 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.688 257.859 m 81.680 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merlo?s successful demonstration of the specificity of this or that local manifestation of Waldensianism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable to the worthwhile element in Pegg?s work, the concrete localism of his depiction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Catharism?. Both share in the wide, complex and varied revolution in the study of the lived Christianity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval people that has taken place over the last half century. Scholars have been trying out exciting new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches and ideas, and an important part of the work is unpacking traditional approaches. Now, when an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired and intellectually revolutionary scholar tries out this or that mind-game in the study of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishioner, however destructive they are, there is always a safety-net. No-one is really going to doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stone-built parish church is there, that baptisms are carried out, that lawyers are examining marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases and that the pope is raising money. There is no such net for those the Church called heretics. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own names are hardly used, the Order of the Poor of Lyon and the Church of Good Christians. The ordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts of their administration, such as letters or )] TJ ET BT 256.328 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rationes)] TJ ET BT 295.664 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of annual financial accounting, have long been lost. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the Church has destroyed virtually all of their works of high theology and their liturgical books. Those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things most likely to help modern minds grasp that they were once )] TJ ET BT 356.660 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real)] TJ ET BT 375.992 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have gone. The medieval Church )] TJ ET endstream endobj 83 0 obj [81 0 R /Fit] endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.3277 795.3895 243.3197 807.2695 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj [81 0 R /Fit] endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.3077 695.5975 245.2997 707.4775 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 89 0 obj [81 0 R /Fit] endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.6397 624.3175 318.6317 636.1975 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 92 0 obj [81 0 R /Fit] endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 114.3437 512.5255 134.3357 524.4055 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 95 0 obj [81 0 R /Fit] endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.6877 258.1735 81.6797 270.0535 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R ] /Contents 99 0 R >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Length 11183 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured their death in the middle ages, and now modern deconstructionism goes further, erasing their past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality. I am puzzled about the difference between my hatred of medieval persecution and Moore?s. My )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hatred does not have to be helped by the notion that whenever an inquisitor ordered someone to be burnt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death his own imagination had conjured up what that person believed. I can see the moral calculus at work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that persecutors who get it wrong are even worse than persecutors that get it right: so add that to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indictment. But the cost is high: denying to men and women in 13th-century Languedoc what they believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in when they chose an agonising death. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. I. Moore, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of Popular Heresy)] TJ ET BT 263.336 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1975\); )] TJ ET BT 347.996 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of European Dissent)] TJ ET BT 507.332 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1977\); and )] TJ ET BT 118.676 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(950?1250)] TJ ET BT 112.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987; 2nd edn, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.328 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.328 615.507 m 319.316 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heresy and the Persecuting Society in the Middle Ages: Essays on the Work of R. I. Moore, ed. M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frassetto \(Leiden and Boston, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.000 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.000 586.995 m 295.988 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore?s summary in a review, )] TJ ET BT 215.984 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(H-France Review)] TJ ET BT 300.956 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12, 44 \(2012\), 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.948 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.948 572.739 m 443.936 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Text and context? on the website, and ?The war among the scholars?, )] TJ ET BT 418.928 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War on Heresy)] TJ ET BT 491.576 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 332?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 544.227 m 118.004 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. 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Brunn, )] TJ ET BT 114.680 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Des contestataires aux ?Cathares?)] TJ ET BT 283.004 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.996 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.996 501.459 m 410.984 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilbert Chiu, )] TJ ET BT 130.352 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intellectual Origins of Medieval Dualism)] TJ ET BT 349.340 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sydney, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.332 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.332 487.203 m 483.320 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Pegg, ?Questions about questions: Toulouse 609 and the Great Inquisition of 1245?1246?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trials and Treatises: Texts on heresy and Inquisition, )] TJ ET BT 324.356 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. 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  • Back to \(10\))] TJ ET BT 42.816 321.898 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 321.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With his permission Moore has made use of Chiu?s MA dissertation, ?The intellectual origins of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval dualism? \(2009\). 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Thomson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately observes and discusses Nequam?s discussion of contemporary heretics? views, pp. ix?x.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 222.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 220.707 m 124.004 220.707 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 207.850 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marie-Thrse d?Alverny, )] TJ ET BT 194.300 207.845 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alain de Lille: Textes indits)] TJ ET BT 332.300 207.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1965\), p. 159.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.292 207.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.292 206.451 m 496.280 206.451 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 193.594 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.589 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quellen zur Geschichte der Waldenser)] TJ ET BT 249.980 193.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Patschovsky and K.-V. 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