%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 34 0 R 39 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001212530+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001212530+01'00') /Title (China's War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5036 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(China's War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is the culmination of an ambitious multi-year research project, of which I was a part, wherein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rana Mitter proposed to re-examine as many aspects as possible of China?s experience of the highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destructive, eight-year war with Japan. Other collaborative projects have attempted comprehensive efforts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past, such as the successful conference organised by Ezra Vogel and others at Harvard University, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a useful bibliography, but Mitter?s Leverhulme-funded endeavour has focused on including a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of scholars who view the Nationalist regime in a different way \(more on this below\). This book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has been informed by Mitter?s conversations with scholars formally and informally affiliated with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project, is therefore one of the best contributions to our current understanding of the war, particularly at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of elite political actors such as Chiang Kai-shek, Wang Jingwei, and Mao Zedong.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitter?s book was preceded by three important volumes on the war from the Chinese perspective, beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Lloyd Eastman?s )] TJ ET BT 144.344 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seeds of Destruction)] TJ ET BT 243.668 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1984\), followed by Hans van de Ven?s )] TJ ET BT 440.624 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China)] TJ ET BT 63.356 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2003\), and Diana Lary?s )] TJ ET BT 191.984 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chinese People at War)] TJ ET BT 323.972 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.964 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.964 117.369 m 375.956 117.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.956 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There have been other important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to our understanding of the war, particularly in recent years, but many have been restricted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain areas of China or particular subjects, examples being Stephen Mackinnon?s )] TJ ET BT 435.932 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wuhan 1938 )] TJ ET BT 499.928 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(obviously, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to Wuhan\) and Parks Coble?s important )] TJ ET BT 276.980 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Japan)] TJ ET BT 343.304 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1991, which focused primarily on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chiang?s intraparty struggles\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.664 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.664 60.345 m 195.656 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 195.656 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mitter?s book synthesises important aspects of these works, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1548)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 February, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rana Mitter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846140105)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(480pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aaron Moore)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.9637 117.6835 375.9557 129.5635 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6637 60.6595 195.6557 72.5395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9458 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mackinnon?s emphasis on the refugee experience \(see chapter six, especially\). Coble, who called for more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social historical work on the war, ably narrated in )] TJ ET BT 275.300 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Japan )] TJ ET BT 344.624 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the incessant crises faced by Chiang Kai-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shek, including those involving rivals from his own party, which is reflected in Mitter?s nuanced treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Japanese collaborators such as Wang Jingwei and Zhou Fohai.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical treatment of the Nationalist regime prior to Eastman rarely used primary materials in Chinese, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a variety of reasons \(such as limited archival access, even in Taiwan\), and tended to fall into either the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Tuchman / ?Vinegar Joe? Stilwell camp of complaining about Nationalist incompetence, on the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, or uncritical reproductions of wartime propaganda, on the other. First Eastman entered this field by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harshly criticising the GMD \(Kuomintang\) \(beginning with )] TJ ET BT 322.328 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abortive Revolution)] TJ ET BT 418.652 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1974\), insisting on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently reactionary character of Chiang?s regime. Eastman cited disparaging comments by Tang Enbo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the generalissimo himself, echoing many Chinese Communist Party \(CCP\) arguments that it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nationalists? corruption and suppression of revolutionary forces that lost them the war, and China. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants began taking up crude arms and attacked retreating Nationalist forces \(141?2\), how could one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly claim that Chiang?s government was channelling Chinese patriotism against Japanese invasion? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, scholars such as Hans van de Ven made a major contribution to re-writing this view of the GMD in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 137.360 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, along with other historians working roughly at the same time such as Parks Coble and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederic Wakeman, Jr. Seeing the Nationalist Party leadership as facing considerable opposition both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside and inside its own ranks, historians like van de Ven urged us to view the GMD?s war against Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realistically, and noted the party?s successes when guiding a growing, but disparate, national consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward resistance against Japan. Finally, Diana Lary was certainly not the first to point out that the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of China?s war with Japan must also be a social history, but her work has been an important culmination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparate efforts through the years to explore the stories of refugees, women, and ordinary soldiers \(as in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early work, )] TJ ET BT 91.664 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warlord Soldiers)] TJ ET BT 174.668 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). As Lary put it, the Second World War in China ?was different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional patterns of foreign conquest ? [it was] a fundamental disturbance to Chinese society that produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound and permanent change ?? \(p. 195\). This sentiment is repeated throughout Mitter?s work as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this sense, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China?s War with Japan)] TJ ET BT 219.020 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a revisionist history \(although it might appear so at first glance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to those unfamiliar with the field\) but a very skilful syncretic project, pulling the best of diplomatic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, and military history into a highly readable format. This will make Mitter?s book one of the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places to begin for casual or beginning readers of Chinese modern history, with the caveat that their study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot end here \(Mitter provides a good ?Further reading? section at the end of the book\). Mitter uses some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the most important archives: Chongqing Municipal, Shanghai Municipal, and No. 2 in Nanjing, but future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researchers, while needing to touch base with these collections, should not neglect Taiwan, and I believe an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on regional archives in provinces such as Hubei, Yunnan, and Shaanxi will add important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information to the Chinese resistance. Of course, the Communist Party archives are likely to also have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story to tell, but I am not holding my breath for access to useful or new \(unpublished\) materials. Mitter also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisits the Chiang Kai-shek diaries, which have been the subject of some attention in print already \(see Jay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor?s 2009 )] TJ ET BT 106.004 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Generalissimo)] TJ ET BT 176.000 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and, in the same year, Wang Qisheng in )] TJ ET BT 373.628 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of Modern Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.016 243.603 m 87.008 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.008 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), but he is able to integrate them into the larger narrative and show us how they change our view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war; he also makes reference to the well-known Zhou Fohai diary throughout, which has been crying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out for better inclusion into the historiography \(however, see Brian G. Martin?s article in )] TJ ET BT 463.952 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China)] TJ ET BT 63.356 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2008 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.356 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.356 200.835 m 110.348 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 110.348 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Newspapers such as the )] TJ ET BT 237.644 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(North China Herald)] TJ ET BT 334.988 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and foreigners? accounts at the Yale Divinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library archives help Mitter flesh out the general narrative as well as the complex and mercurial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international relations of the wartime period. In this sense, Mitter has responded to scholarly reviews of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parks Coble?s )] TJ ET BT 105.344 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Japan)] TJ ET BT 171.668 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which asked that the intraparty GMD struggle be combined with the older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of China-qua-Allied power, as well as its international relations \(see Akira Iriye?s review of Coble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The China Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 147.020 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1993 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.020 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.020 129.555 m 194.012 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.012 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \). Thus, non-specialist readers will be unaware of the mass of scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting Mitter?s view of the war, including his own original research, and may take exception to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayal of the GMD efforts and the decisions made by collaborationists. Especially in the latter case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptical readers should review Poshek Fu?s path-breaking )] TJ ET BT 320.288 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passivity, Resistance, and Collaboration )] TJ ET BT 518.960 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1993\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitter?s first book )] TJ ET BT 126.344 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manchurian Myth)] TJ ET BT 213.332 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2000\), and Timothy Brook?s )] TJ ET BT 361.988 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collaboration)] TJ ET BT 430.004 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.996 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.996 72.531 m 481.988 72.531 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0157 243.9175 87.0077 255.7975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3557 201.1495 110.3477 213.0295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 180.0197 129.8695 194.0117 141.7495 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.9957 72.8455 481.9877 84.7255 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7943 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One area in which this volume particularly excels is the situation of Chongqing \(Chungking\) at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese war experience, and the return to focusing on the period after Pearl Harbor. While Nanjing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-war capital, and we have a lot of recent studies on Shanghai, the Communist effort, Hong Kong, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese-occupied areas such as Dalian, Qingdao, Tianjin, and Manchukuo, Chongqing \(the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital\) has been a relatively minor concern for historians \(there are, of course, important book chapters by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chang Jui-te and Edna Tow on the Chongqing bombing\). Mitter rightly reminds us of the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chongqing, which was heavily bombed by the Japanese, but which also became the nexus of an international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort to weaken and eventually destroy the Japanese empire. Here Mitter wisely divides the war effort into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two key stages: 1938?41, ?Resisting alone,? and \(following Pearl Harbor\) 1941?5, ?The poisoned alliance.? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, the period from the fall of Wuhan to Pearl Harbor is poorly understood, and Mitter draws on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners? accounts, Chinese reporters, and post-war published Chinese resource collections, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Qu da houfang )] TJ ET BT 109.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Shanghai, 2005\), to show how civilians weathered the crisis in Sichuan. Mitter and Lary are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in agreement: the war was transformative for China?s sense of itself; for Mitter, this is especially true when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government had to move to Chongqing, which ?helped to consolidate ideas of a united China that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanned the whole of the country?s land mass? \(p. 172\). In chapters ten to twelve, Mitter shows why he, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author of )] TJ ET BT 80.672 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manchurian Myth)] TJ ET BT 167.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 190.988 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Revolution)] TJ ET BT 283.652 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2005\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.644 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.644 569.235 m 335.636 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.636 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is able to tell this tale particularly well; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combining CCP, collaborationist, and GMD resistance narratives is extraordinarily difficult, but he manages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to present the story with unusual clarity. In these chapters, he is also indirectly challenging the approach of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastman and Tuchman, as well as the more widespread Western memory of the war \(shaped by reporters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Theodore White, intelligence officers such as Graham Peck, and various Western soldiers? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians? memoirs\), by emphasising how the regime survived by wit and willpower almost entirely on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own. These chapters are, to this reader, the most important contribution that the book has made to the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we talk about the Second World War in China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?poisoned alliance? between China and the United States is a story we know well by now, but Mitter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses it as an opportunity to complicate the one-dimensional view of GMD corruption being the paramount )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reason for the regime?s failures after 1941. On pages 260 to 262, Mitter presents America?s man-in-China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Stilwell, as a rather poorly-informed gambler with other nations? assets, who simultaneously fed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press statements that bolstered his position at the expense of Chiang?s. Although Stilwell could hardly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed to even match Nationalist achievements from 1937 to 1941, he managed to win ?the war for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington?s ear? \(p. 342\) which, in the age of dependency on Lend-Lease, was almost everything. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows this with a nuanced view of one of China?s infamous wartime famines in Henan, which was largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a consequence of Chiang?s destruction of the Yellow River dikes. Mitter admits that Chiang?s regime must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be blamed for the famine, which was exacerbated by policies that served the wartime state, but he follows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this with a fairly hard-hitting comparison with the British armed forces? cynical decision to withhold relief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in wartime Bengal?and South Asia could hardly be said to have suffered encirclement and sustained attack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Japanese Empire as mainland China was \(pp. 273?4\). China?s failing economy and long-suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people created the conditions that necessitated a strong government response \(in the name of survival\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, ironically, was the Nationalists? undoing. When analysing the ruthless secret service war carried on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the collaborationist government in Nanjing and the GMD in Chongqing, Mitter puts it succinctly: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The public saw the agents not as ideological stalwarts, but as weak men given power to exercise for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own benefit? \(p. 297\). By 1945, this was arguably true for the regime altogether. With Stilwell failing in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command of Chinese troops and Stalin backing the GMD over the CCP as the only reliable resistance force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in East Asia, one wonders just who could have done a better job of holding down the Japanese Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army with limited industry, a currency continually destabilised by the enemy, a multi-lingual force with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting loyalties, little or no air power, and unreliable access to critical fuels and materials?all in region that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been under the control of warlords until 1936.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitter concludes his narrative by bluntly stating that, without the resistance, ?China would have become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese colony as early as 1938? \(p. 388\) instead of becoming a critical part of the Allied war against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan. Because he has written such a readable and well-informed book, it is hopeful that it will help shift our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical memory of China?s role in the Second World War. There are two important lessons for the casual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.6437 569.5495 335.6357 581.4295 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 10617 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student of East Asian history to take from this new work: first, the resistance, which saved China from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outright colonisation, was primarily a Nationalist endeavour, despite CCP claims to leadership and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimate victory in 1949; second, that the effort was the consequence of genuine public support for the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort in China. On the second point, the discussion becomes quite challenging for scholars today. R. Keith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schoppa?s recent monograph on refugees, )] TJ ET BT 239.960 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In a Sea of Bitterness)] TJ ET BT 342.620 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2011\), argues strongly that, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing the diaries of ordinary civilians, nationalism and dedication are almost nowhere to be found. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in my own work on soldiers? diaries, )] TJ ET BT 264.644 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing War )] TJ ET BT 327.980 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2013\), I have found many instances of Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops earnestly dedicating themselves to the war against Japan, particularly from 1937 to 1939.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.948 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.948 695.283 m 508.940 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.940 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitter does cite some personal accounts, it is first and foremost a study of high level political and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors. Still, these monographs tell slightly different tales of the war experience, suggesting that, even with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remarkable progress we have made in the last two decades in re-evaluating the war in China, we still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a long way to go. Furthermore, China scholars continue to note that it was a terribly fractious place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1930s and 1940s, which strong regional governments, dialects, ethnic diversity, and local cultures. Is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible to speak of a ?Chinese? resistance at all? Mitter shows us that this is where we must begin ? with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nanjing/Chongqing government under Chiang Kai-shek ? but that subsequent attention to local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences may change the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Synthesizing years of research by dozens of scholars, including many original findings of his own, Mitter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has provided a powerful, readable, and accessible account of the conflict in China, focusing on its leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures and major turning points, which will help readers navigate this complicated, confusing, and terrible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. What is needed now are more studies of the social history of the conflict, particularly those that might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combine various local histories; this will help us resolve some of the contradictory images we see from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different studies but, in my view, this can only be accomplished through the gruelling task of exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s rich regional archives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd Eastman, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seeds of Destruction)] TJ ET BT 242.336 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford, CT, 1984\), Hans van de Ven, )] TJ ET BT 440.300 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(China)] TJ ET BT 93.356 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2003\), Diana Lary, )] TJ ET BT 237.992 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Chinese People at War)] TJ ET BT 369.980 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.300 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.300 389.667 m 521.288 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Mackinnon, )] TJ ET BT 166.340 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wuhan 1938: War, Refugees, and the Making of Modern China )] TJ ET BT 474.308 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\), Parks Coble, )] TJ ET BT 162.344 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Japan:)] TJ ET BT 235.664 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chinese)] TJ ET BT 274.328 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 279.656 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 316.328 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 321.656 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 339.656 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 344.984 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japanese)] TJ ET BT 389.636 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 394.964 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism, 1931?7)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.668 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.668 346.899 m 237.656 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 121.004 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Generalissimo: Chiang Kai-shek and the Struggle for Modern China )] TJ ET BT 475.664 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MA, 2011\); Wang Qisheng, ?Chiang Kai-shek?s reading: an inquiry based on Chiang?s diary, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s?1940s?, )] TJ ET BT 138.008 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern Chinese History)] TJ ET BT 309.332 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3, 1 \(2009\), 11?25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.652 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.652 304.131 m 460.640 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian G. Martin, ?Collaboration within collaboration: Zhou Fohai?s relations with the Chongqing )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government, 1942?1945?, )] TJ ET BT 194.660 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth-Century China)] TJ ET BT 317.000 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 34, 2 \(April 2008\), 55?88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.652 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.652 275.619 m 502.640 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Akira Iriye, ?Review of Parks Coble, )] TJ ET BT 245.312 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Facing Japan)] TJ ET BT 311.636 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, in )] TJ ET BT 335.300 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The China Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 435.968 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 133 \(March 1993\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(170?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 247.107 m 150.332 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poshek Fu, )] TJ ET BT 120.356 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passivity, Resistance, and Collaboration: Intellectual Choices in Occupied Shanghai, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1937?1945 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stanford, CT, 1993\), Rana Mitter, )] TJ ET BT 291.332 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Manchurian Myth: Nationalism, Resistance, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collaboration in Modern China)] TJ ET BT 217.700 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2000\), Timothy Brook, )] TJ ET BT 411.020 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collaboration: Japanese )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China)] TJ ET BT 267.356 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.008 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.008 190.083 m 443.996 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rana Mitter, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Revolution: China?s Struggle with the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 426.344 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.992 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.992 175.827 m 558.980 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Keith Schoppa, )] TJ ET BT 155.012 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In a Sea of Bitterness: Refugees during the Sino-Japanese War)] TJ ET BT 457.304 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011\); Aaron William Moore, )] TJ ET BT 211.664 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Writing War: Soldiers Record the Japanese Empire)] TJ ET BT 459.632 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 133.059 m 149.000 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 108.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.theguardian.com/books/2013/jun/06/china-war-japan-rana-mitter-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 78.291 m 440.612 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 443.612 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/10182755/Chinas-war-With-Japan-1937-1945-the-struggle-for-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 49.779 m 542.936 49.779 l S BT 34.016 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival-by-Rana-Mitter-review.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 35.523 m 212.984 35.523 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 215.984 36.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.9477 695.5975 508.9397 707.4775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.2997 389.9815 521.2877 401.8615 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6677 347.2135 237.6557 359.0935 ] >> endobj 47 0 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