%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 39 0 R 53 0 R 64 0 R 72 0 R 86 0 R 97 0 R 134 0 R ] /Count 10 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140713020748+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140713020748+01'00') /Title (Medicine in the English Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5371 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Medicine in the English Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the very best synoptic writing on the medieval medicine of any country has, in recent decades, been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elicited by the English evidence. The tradition goes back to C. H. Talbot's )] TJ ET BT 391.472 358.859 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine in Medieval England )] TJ ET BT 542.780 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1967. Its brevity and absence of footnotes masked long familiarity with manuscripts and considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originality of thought, about continental European as well as English material. That same tradition is again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified in Carole Rawcliffe's much longer )] TJ ET BT 262.136 316.091 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine and Society in Later Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 498.104 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1995. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes there, by contrast, attest the bulk and variety of evidence on which the sociological approach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject had by then come to rest. If medical historiography has come of age - as is now often, quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonably, claimed - then medieval England has been one of its forcing-houses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faye Getz's )] TJ ET BT 92.828 247.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine in the English Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 270.476 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not therefore lack distinguished - perhaps daunting - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestry. What does she bring to the task of surveying her subject in a mere 92 pages of text? First, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most basic level, she has found a publisher willing to allow such a brief exposition to be supported by over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40 pages of endnotes. A book as short as Talbot's can enjoy a scholarly buttressing comparable in density to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rawcliffe's. Second, Getz's work has revealed a rare combination of strengths. She is a master of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical prosopography. In the journal )] TJ ET BT 220.652 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 349.640 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990, 3: 245-83\) she emended and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amplified the 1965 biographical dictionary of Talbot and Hammond, )] TJ ET BT 366.644 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Medical Practitioners in Medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 74.684 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But then Getz is also an authority on Middle English medical texts, notably a translation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbertus Anglicus's pharmaceutical writing \()] TJ ET BT 252.812 133.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Healing and Society in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 453.788 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1991\). Finally, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her contribution to volume 2 \(1992\) of the )] TJ ET BT 239.996 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the University of Oxford )] TJ ET BT 411.320 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among other papers shows, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she has the measure of medieval English medicine's institutional profile.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this book she plays vigorously to these triple strengths. There are two essentially prosopographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on doctors, followed by one on texts, and then one on law and institutions - with a coda on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obverse of all this, well-being without doctors. Such apparently straightforward thematic organization is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(155)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 September, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faye Getz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peregrine Horden)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7670 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact unusual. The table of contents displays no chapters on, for instance, surgery, women, infirmaries, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical education. Nor are any distinct periods within the Middle Ages initially marked out. Each chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treats the Middle Ages, from Anglo-Saxon times to the Renaissance \(from 750 to 1450: p. xi\), more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole. This is far from being the mere textbook that its title, compass and length might suggest. Instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the usual arrangement of material, we are treated, rather, to a provocative essay in interpretation. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation that depends, at several stages, on binary divisions of its subject matter. As I shall show, I do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always find these divisions entirely apt; but in every case they compel further thought about how best to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualize what remains a poorly understood terrain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the end of this review I shall briefly raise some general questions to which I particularly invite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author's response. But the bulk of what follows will be devoted to assessing each chapter individually. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes fewer words to praise than to bury: general enthusiasm can be signalled more rapidly than minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of detail. So I should preface this exercise with an assurance of the meticulous scholarship of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, and of the deftness and clarity with which precise examples from right across the Middle Ages are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed to build up the most comprehensive short account we have of practitioners and the texts which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of them used. This is a feat possible only for one who holds the revised Talbot and Hammond more or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less in her head as well as a large corpus of medical writings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter I is crucial to the whole exposition so I shall devote more space to it than to the others. It slowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unveils an enthralling group portrait - of doctors, apothecaries, phlebotomists and so on - stressing the sheer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of healers evident in 'the English Middle Ages'. At one extreme of that variety Getz draws our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the medicus William, a Lincolnshire tenant in the mid twelfth century who seems to have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serf \(pp. 7-8\). Some way up the social spectrum stands Richard Knyght, a fifteenth-century Londoner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('known variously as ffecissian \(physician\), ironmonger, surgeon, and dogleche \(dog doctor\)'. He represents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what was presumably a large population of practitioners active under a variety of labels, often non-medical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whose healing skills were picked up from relatives and in the course of practice \(p. 7\). At the higher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme of the variety, we find Gilbertus del Egle \(Gilbertus Anglicus\), physician to kings and archbishops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and author of the)] TJ ET BT 115.664 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Compendium Medicine)] TJ ET BT 230.312 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one of the first works written in England to take advantage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new Arabic-derived learning. These and numerous other comparable examples crowd a wonderfully vivid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvas, worthy of Frans Hals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once we have enjoyed its vividness, we should try to understand the arrangement of its figures, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between foreground and background. How is that to be done? Just as importantly, how should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we imagine the arrangement as having to differ according to when the picture was painted? Getz is initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthright, about both arrangement and change over time. No single group of practitioners [she writes] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished itself by force of numbers, by healing skill, or by civic sanction as a dominant medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profession. Although the structure of trade guilds and university education helped set a certain standard of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct in a commercial and legal sphere for a few practicers [sic], the vast majority of medics operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently, and, from the educated elite to the tradesperson, often part-time. This allowed for diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every sort, which changed little throughout the medieval period and beyond, \(p. 5, italics added\). Getz thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers an overall conception of a static and open body of healers \(surely a less anachronistically loaded term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 'medics'\). She arrives at this in part by comparison with other, more obviously stratified, medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('professions' \(the law, the priesthood\); and in part from comparison with the early modern period, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she both draws on and, with admirable impartiality, criticizes the work of her husband, Harold Cook. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonder, however, if those are the most useful approaches - whether the picture, in consequence, lacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, Getz's presentation as summarized in the above extract is very familiar to students of the medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of classical antiquity, from which systems of control and licensing were almost wholly absent. Set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beside that world, however, medieval medicine in England does appear somewhat more hierarchical, to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent that Getz perhaps underestimates. Second, some more sustained comparison with contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe might be more helpful than adverting to later centuries in England. There are several new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent synopses to which non-specialist readers can be directed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.272 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.272 62.787 m 368.264 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.264 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By comparison with what we now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know of medieval France, Spain and Italy, the lack of change in England \(asserted by Getz\) is striking and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.2717 63.1015 368.2637 74.9815 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8758 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to require further comment. I wish that Getz had made the contrast she discerns between England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('the continent' more explicit and detailed \(important European historiography is indeed discussed, but only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly, and in footnotes\). Was university \(or at least university-type\) medical learning so much less of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal among English patients and healers than among those brought to light from the Aragonese archives by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael McVaugh?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.656 738.051 m 143.648 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.648 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Only later in the book do we learn about the institutions and systems of attempted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control which, in other countries, tended to stratify healers, and which thus have some bearing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer. At this stage of the exposition the effects of the two Oxbridge medical faculties, from the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth century onwards, are simply taken to embrace a few top-notch practitioners \(pp. 5, 17\). Is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histoire immobile of the rest here urged a little over-strenuously?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having asserted such homogeneity, Getz nevertheless divides her canvas into two: the clerical elite, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary healer who was usually part time. These divisions should be thought of not as rigid categories but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather as polarities: clerical practitioners often had the characteristics of tradespeople, and tradespeople at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times adopted some trappings of clerical practitioners, especially with regard to the ownership or production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of surgical texts. \(p. 6\). At first blush, such a pragmatic, rough-and-ready, separation seems entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable. Yet who exactly - among the literate - is to count as a cleric?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.928 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.928 583.491 m 396.920 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.920 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The term will not stretch to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover the married, university-educated, royal physicians of the fifteenth century such as John Faceby \(p. 19\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And surely surgery is rather too special a case to count as an exemplary exception on the other side of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dichotomy. It seems to me that the distinction collapses at a more fundamental level than that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional owning of surgical treatises. Many of the bishop-doctors from Faritius, abbot of Abingdon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards were far from being the full-time quasi-professionals that Getz now seems to be conjuring up for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us. Authors such as Bartholomaeus Anglicus wrote of medicine more as a branch of natural philosophy than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an aid to practice. Finally, as hinted in the previous paragraph, the distinction between the clerical-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical and the artisan practitioner may do insufficient justice to the aspirations towards some degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning that many quite ordinary people displayed, in England perhaps as much as in Aragon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For illustration of that possibility, we can look to some evidence that might valuably have found its way into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text but is missing. Medieval 'empirics', ordinary practitioners, are by their very nature scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.672 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.672 400.419 m 109.664 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.664 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Getz mentions one of them, John Crophill \(p. 8\). She omits, however, a much better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidenced case. The medical commonplace book of Thomas Fayreford is available both in its original in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library MS. Harley 2558 and through a preliminary report by Peter Murray Jones.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.620 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.620 371.907 m 479.612 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.612 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fayreford's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenuous Oxford connections, the range of texts he seems to have read in Latin as well as Anglo-Norman and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle English, the way he portrays himself in his autograph manuscript, and the range of his West-Country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clientele all suggest a full-time and educated practitioner. On the other hand, the types of remedy he offered, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with the number of experimenta he mentions \(recipes not derived from learned medicine\), also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that there was a great deal of the empiric about him. An educated artisan, he subverts whatever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories we try to impose. But that is no reason for omitting him from Chapter I's picture. He would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought it yet more vividly to life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the very fact of his autograph's survival, Fayreford's case is of course an unusual one. Any conspectus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medieval healers must find a way of leaving conceptual room for the mass of healers who, by contrast, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not individually documented, but whom we know to have been there, leaving only very indistinct traces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One way to open up that conceptual space is to go beyond prosopography, or rather beyond its standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technique of searching records for terms such as medicus or 'leech' or for immediate contexts from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such precise occupational labels can be inferred. The way forward has been shown us by Monica Green. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of her work is mentioned by Getz, including her up-dating of the meagre dossier of identifiable female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors from the Middle Ages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.664 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.664 146.067 m 195.656 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 195.656 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her more recent \(1994\) contribution, )] TJ ET BT 379.280 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documenting Medieval Women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medical Practice)] TJ ET BT 116.996 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(', does not appear in the bibliography, however.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.116 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.116 131.811 m 359.108 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 359.108 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It contends that the possible extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's practice has been seriously underestimated because women do not appear in the evidence in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that enable us readily to identify them as healers. They emerge suddenly as widows having in all likelihood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practised \(invisibly to us\) beside their spouses. As part-timers, they do not earn occupational labels. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities are ill-represented by stigmatizing labels such as vetula \(old woman\). To get at them, we have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn to read the evidence against its grain, always recalling how much - or how many - that evidence is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.6557 738.3655 143.6477 750.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.9277 583.8055 396.9197 595.6855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6717 400.7335 109.6637 412.6135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.6197 372.2215 479.6117 384.1015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6637 146.3815 195.6557 158.2615 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.1157 132.1255 359.1077 144.0055 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8351 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound to suppress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is an argument of major significance for our whole understanding of medical practice in the Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages - practice by both sexes. The argument is not reflected here. Getz does comment that women, excluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from clergy, university and guild, were confined to the realm of the ordinary practitioner; yet that is a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superficial, and implies that nothing much changed across the later Middle Ages, an assumption which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Green shows to be rash. Getz also includes in her discussion several examples of the phenomena considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Green. She refers generically to the tradeswoman-practitioner able to pursue her craft in the countryside; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to an interesting case of two sisters \(one of them married\) and a brother who practised medicine in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth-century Hertfordshire \(pp. 9, 11\). She then adds: 'much less commonly recorded than brother-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sister medical teams were husband-wife associations' \(p. 11\). Adducing Green's paper and giving some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indication of its argument would explain why that was so: why husband-wife associations tend to escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notice in our evidence until the death of the husband. On the boarder front, the paragraphs devoted to women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this chapter would be greatly enriched by Green's presence, 'problematizing' female healers in a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, even in a short survey, seems entirely salutary. Still more, Green would lend depth to the whole group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait that the chapter essays, because her arguments can also be applied to the hidden ranks of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialist, weakly-labelled, male practitioners. The named examples would become merely the front row of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowd whose size and variety we are now, thanks to the oblique approach urged by Green, beginning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter II is entitled )] TJ ET BT 136.004 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medical Travelers to England and the English Medical Practitioner Abroad)] TJ ET BT 501.656 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Here, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Chapter I, a convenient way is found of sorting practitioners into groups, this time by country of origin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, some anomalies are generated. The Tuscan Faritius, physician to Henry I, appears in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, by implication as a native, while Gilbert Maminot, physician to William I, counts as foreign and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains a 'walk-on' part only in Chapter II. Yet the latter is, overall, a striking and originally conceived chapter. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It furnishes a powerful reminder of the \(on modern criteria of nationality\) sheer foreignness of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made what we take to be English medical history - a tactic reminiscent of the salutary 'alienation' performed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Michael Clanchy's textbook of political history,)] TJ ET BT 277.832 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( England and its Rulers)] TJ ET BT 391.172 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1066-1272.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.168 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.168 414.675 m 466.160 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.160 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There are brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but detailed presentations of the surprising range of ethnic groups represented among practitioners in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England - Italians, Dutch, French, Spanish, even Greek.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.964 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.964 386.163 m 315.956 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 315.956 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And a selection of their converse is also included: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen abroad, for the most part studying in Paris, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.336 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.336 371.907 m 322.328 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.328 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but also accompanying royal masters on bloody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military campaigns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The largest group of 'foreigners' \(on this chapter's definition\) is that of Jewish healers. They are the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to represent satisfactorily. Getz offers faithful likenesses of some exemplary doctors, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth-century Londoner Elijah Menahem ben Rabbi Moses \(pp. 22-3\), or Sansone, who in 1409 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted a special license to practise his faith in England so that he could attend Mrs Dick Whittington \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23\). The sheer longevity of the Jewish medical presence in England - despite the expulsion of 1290 - is thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tellingly brought out. The picture is, however, still slightly lacking in depth, because some fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions about Jewish practitioners are not fully addressed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.640 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.640 245.859 m 342.632 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.632 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Prior to their expulsion, were they as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionately numerous in England \(in relation to estimates of the total Jewish population\) as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently were in continental Europe? Was there, in England as abroad, a demand for medical learning that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian physicians alone could not satisfy and which thus created an opportunity for Jewish ones, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their exceptional literacy and their access to Graeco-Arabic medicine in Hebrew? Why were so few Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgeons apparently active in England? Could the reason have been anti-Semitic fear, of the kind that seems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in continental Europe, to have prevented Jews from acting as apothecaries?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter III turns to texts. These are numerous, and range in size and character from Gilbertus Anglicus's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Compendium)] TJ ET BT 98.012 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to free-floating vernacular recipes. Getz is best qualified among those currently working on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine of this period in England to give full weight to the vernacular. She makes an essential point about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it at the outset. Medieval medical texts, she warns, do not lend themselves to classification by language: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin is not the only medium of a theoretically grounded medicine; all written medicine belongs to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned tradition in some way or another. Vernacular is not therefore the preservative of untutored folk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice. 'Although learned, university-style medicine was always written in Latin, medical texts in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.1677 414.9895 466.1597 426.8695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 301.9637 386.4775 315.9557 398.3575 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.3357 372.2215 322.3277 384.1015 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.6397 246.1735 342.6317 258.0535 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 59 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 54 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 7171 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular were almost always translations of Latin originals. So called folk practice - the use of remedies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derived from experience alone - can be found in both Latin and vernacular, as can charms and prayers' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having thus admirably undermined any attempt to categorize texts by language, Getz has of course to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another way of organizing the material. As in earlier chapters, a pragmatic dichotomy suggests itself:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One distinction, albeit sometimes a fuzzy one, does emerge from a survey of the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written records of medieval English medicine. In general, texts can be divided into )] TJ ET BT 94.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those that derive ultimately from ancient Greek sources, translated and adopted by )] TJ ET BT 94.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic scholars into Arabic and then into scholastic Latin for use in universities; )] TJ ET BT 94.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Roman or humanistic, those derived from the writings of educated patriarchs )] TJ ET BT 94.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Pliny or the elder Cato, which relied on simple remedies, charms, and )] TJ ET BT 94.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional wisdom. \(p. 36\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter type \(aristocratic, familial, empirical\), Getz continues, is often found in encyclopaedias mixed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other types of useful knowledge. This is medicine as a way of understanding the world, not just a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 512.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical skill. The type 'enjoyed an unbroken tradition' in England from Anglo-Saxon times to the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period. So, alongside the learned tradition derived from Graeco-Arabic writings and translated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin from the late eleventh century onwards, we have another, parallel, 'style of medical writing' \(Getz's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase\). In her view, the two styles were never entirely separate. But they form 'distinctive trends' in medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, 'useful classifications for the understanding of elite medical discourse' \(p. 36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might query minor aspects of that: the odd, though not inaccurate, transfer of 'the elder' from Pliny to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cato Maior; the odder application of the epithet 'humanistic' to ancient Roman medicine when it seems more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate to reserve it \(as most medical historians do\) for Renaissance scholarship. \(On p. 64 'humanistic' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to imply 'medicine without doctors'; on p. 86 it becomes openness, or simplicity - as represented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing in the vernacular and by reverence for the writings of the ancient Romans.\) But the overall point is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well made. The question is whether the division reveals genuine literary currents or simply ideal types.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was there a distinctive medieval genre \(or trend\) of empirical-encyclopaedic writing which did 'ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 317.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(derive' from Roman sources? As others have shown in discussing medieval receptaries, and as we have seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getz conceding, the impact on such material of Graeco-Arabic theory was far from negligible.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.896 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.896 302.163 m 506.888 302.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.888 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been suggested by Faith Wallis \(in another important article engagement with which would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced the discussion\) that the absence of theory in earlier medieval \(primarily monastic\) medical texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not merely represent the simple continuation of Roman paterfamilial medicine: it was also a rejection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a body of ideas that, for Christian taste, had too many associations with pagan intellectual culture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 516.956 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 516.956 245.139 m 536.948 245.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getz herself acknowledges that the distinction between the learned and the encyclopaedic is a fuzzy one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as this chapter proceeds, the exceptions seem to outnumber the rule. The contrast between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends becomes virtually erased and fuzziness is all. Getz starts with the learned, philosophical type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, and so can provide the sort of background of Hippocratic-Galenic medicine that most textbooks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have disposed of thirty pages earlier. She next introduces Arabic learning and Aristotelian philosophy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their translation via Italy and Spain to Latin Europe. This is all very deftly done.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.640 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.640 147.603 m 459.632 147.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.632 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Once the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of English texts gets under way, however, the polarization of medical writings into two traditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(induces both awkwardness and ambiguity - suggesting that a simple chronological approach might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been more effective. First, after brief reference to the earliest English Aristotelians, we return to Gilbertus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicus, now as an author more than as a practitioner, and as emblematic of the learned tradition. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of his )] TJ ET BT 105.680 77.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Compendium)] TJ ET BT 169.676 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is itself compendious and valuable. Yet the emphasis given to the breadth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert's interests \(including for example ways of making beards grow thick\), and the reference made to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charms that he included - and not only as last resort - bring out characteristics in his work that, we have been )] TJ ET endstream endobj 55 0 obj [53 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.8957 302.4775 506.8877 314.3575 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [53 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 516.9557 245.4535 536.9477 257.3335 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [53 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 439.6397 147.9175 459.6317 159.7975 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 67 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 65 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Length 7010 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told, belong more to the encyclopaedists than to the learned \(pp. 40-1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similarly valuable, but less ambiguous, discussion of the more thoroughly Galenic John of Gaddesden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows. John of Arderne then represents late medieval surgery. Lastly, Simon Bredon's )] TJ ET BT 457.112 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trifolium)] TJ ET BT 502.460 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Talbot too hastily dismissed as 'ambitious and futile',)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.344 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.344 740.307 m 308.336 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.336 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is invoked to demonstrate the connections between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine and other disciplines, above all mathematics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The change in mid chapter back to the encyclopaedic tradition then falls rather abruptly. Having reached the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late fourteenth century with Bredon we are now returned to Cato and Pliny. The English origins of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedic 'trend' are traced to Bald's Leechbook and related Old English material. Yet, 'a full-blown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopedic tradition. was not transplanted to England until after the Norman Conquest' \(p. 48\); and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduce that we have to back-track once again to Isidore of Seville. Then come the major English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedists of the Middle Ages: Alexander Neckham and Bartholomaeus Anglicus. And with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Bartholomaeus's Salernitan characteristics - and his debt to the translations from the Arabic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantine the African - the concept of a discrete encyclopaedic tradition again becomes suspect. Much the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same applies to the subsequent \(and, in itself, excellent\) three-page account of the writings of John Mirfield. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For, although one of Mirfield's purposes was to facilitate his readers' self-medication, his similarity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbertus Anglicus suggests that, in other respects, he may sit as happily among the learned Greeks as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the blunt Romans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No account of pre-modern medicine would be complete without some discussion of preventive regimen - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although one could be forgiven for supposing the contrary from the tables of contents of many recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspectuses.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.668 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.668 488.211 m 119.660 488.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.660 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Getz does not underestimate its importance. Thus, after the consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedias, we are taken back to the learned tradition, to the regimen set forth in the medical sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pseudo-Aristotelian Secreta secretorum, and to its most celebrated exponent, Roger Bacon. This opens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up into a more general consideration of Bacon's medical opinions and their influence. His criticisms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university medical learning, and his medical gloss on original sin, along with his alchemical interests make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him a fascinating figure. Accordingly, he becomes the subject of one of the most novel and arresting sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book, unparalleled in earlier synopses. Does he not, however, finally demonstrate that the 'dualist' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layout of Chapter III is as inadequate, in practice, as that of Chapter I? The texts prove as recalcitrant as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioners. As Getz herself puts it:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is remarkable about Bacon's work is the synthetic meaning he drew as much )] TJ ET BT 94.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Scripture as from encyclopedias and scholastic medical texts. His weaving )] TJ ET BT 94.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together of the fruit of the Tree of Life from the Old Testament, simple regimen )] TJ ET BT 94.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Pliny, the Philosopher's Stone from pseudo-Aristotle, and precious drugs from )] TJ ET BT 94.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic philosophers into a reasonably coherent set of medical theories is an )] TJ ET BT 94.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement of almost poetic ingenuity, filled with intriguing paradoxes. Indeed; )] TJ ET BT 94.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but paradoxes of whose making? Of the Middle Ages - or ours?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter IV, )] TJ ET BT 106.664 189.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Institutional and Legal Faces of English Medicine)] TJ ET BT 368.996 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, idiosyncrasies of organization create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more frustration than challenge. As if mopping up unfinished business after the deliberately tight focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first two-thirds of the book on the variety of practitioners and texts, Chapter IV touches lightly on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of topics that all involve institutional or legal evidence but have little else in common. Getz's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of this procedure - that the legal evidence is peculiarly vivid, if fragmentary and hard to interpret \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(71\) - does not quite carry conviction as a rationale for the whole chapter. We are given a brief description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in Salerno, Bologna and other centres of medical education, a paragraph on astrology, and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outline of the university syllabus. Some topics are considered at greater length. Licensing \(pp. 69-70\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gilds \(pp. 83-4\) are here given three pages to themselves, although they have been glimpsed several times in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the background to earlier discussions. Yet the major point, with all its implication for what was said in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 66 0 obj [64 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.3437 740.6215 308.3357 752.5015 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [64 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.6677 488.5255 119.6597 500.4055 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 75 0 R 78 0 R 81 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 7268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters I and II about the absence of a medical profession in medieval England, is now made with too little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis:)] TJ ET BT 94.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps more than any other social factor, the development of university education )] TJ ET BT 94.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to standardization of medical skills. This sort of exclusivity certainly gave the )] TJ ET BT 94.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned physician more power in elite society. \(pp. 70-71\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getz turns next from the universities to law. A useful page follows on what have elsewhere - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 638.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronistically - been referred to as malpractice suits, but which \(Getz shows\) were understood at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 624.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of negligence in the handling of commercial goods. Disconcertingly, however, this section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads into an account of what coroners' rolls can tell us about anything vaguely pathological or medical. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From there we move \(pp. 75-6\) to the question of how far doctors were used as expert witnesses in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination of such matters as the nature of a wound. After that comes a catalogue of references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific diseases in the legal evidence. Then there are paragraphs on suicide, mental illness, magic, plague, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors' house calls, public health, and rape. It is a pointillist tour de force, and succeeds admirably as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction for the non-specialist to a large number of topics in a very short space. Inevitably, though, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression left on the reader is that of a dazzling miscellany in which no one topic is treated at all fully, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which the reliance almost exclusively on legal evidence has become something of a handicap.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take the example of causes of death as recorded in legal documents. If the discussion of these is to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 'pathocoenosis', )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.656 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.656 468.723 m 140.648 468.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.648 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a tableau of the diseases likely to have been most prevalent in medieval English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations, then other kinds of pertinent evidence - medical, hagiographical, narrative, archaeological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so on - will also need to be adduced. Legal records by themselves offer no more than a set of curiosities. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this chapter, some selection from the miscellany of possible topics was surely in order so that at least a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them could have been examined in a more rounded fashion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.620 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.620 411.699 m 353.612 411.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, 'Well-being without Doctors: Medicine, Faith, and Economy among the Rich and Poor', is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally miscellaneous, but has a far stronger thread to its diversity. It returns to the expanded conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine implicit in much of what has gone before: first, medicine as prognosis, rather than invasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment. The tone was set on the very first pages of Chapter I. These offered an account taken from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicler Ralph of Coggeshall of the final illness \(in 1205\) of Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.596 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.596 328.419 m 557.588 328.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The primate's physician was none other than Gilbertus Anglicus, who was accompanying him when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illness struck. Gilbert clearly saw it as his main task to prognosticate, not to treat. He advised the archbishop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the imminence of his demise, led him to the relief offered by the medicina sacramentalis of confession,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 271.395 m 54.008 271.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and thus prepared him for the ultimate healing of a good death. The doctor was present but there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctoring; the advice tendered was ethical, not medical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The related theme of managing without doctors altogether - of medicine as self-medication and as regimen - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was first taken up in Getz's discussion of what she has identified as the Roman 'humanist' tradition. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resumed in Chapter V largely through the surprising and interesting medium of a consideration of Chaucer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 'humanist' tradition the doctor, if present at all, becomes more a teacher than a physician \(a personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trainer, to use a modern analogy\). This is a conception of medicine tied to the rise of the written vernacular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Middle Ages, a topic to which also Getz returns briefly in this last chapter \(p. 86\). Self-help brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together \(conceptually speaking\) the elite patron, who commanded the service of a physician to tell him how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to regulate his own life, and the pauper who could not afford treatment. It thus allows Getz also to include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public hospital \(as distinct from the monastic infirmary\) in this chapter. For in England, unlike parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy, the hospital remained a doctor-less institution until the very end of the Middle Ages. Nurses were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures who counted: to them fell the important work of overseeing patients' regimen and meeting their basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical needs. Nurses receive brief mention in Getz's page on hospitals. But that is understandable: most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical historians of the Middle Ages neglected them until Carole Rawcliffe showed us, in a paper )] TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.6557 469.0375 140.6477 480.9175 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.6197 412.0135 353.6117 423.8935 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.5957 328.7335 557.5877 340.6135 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 83 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 271.7095 54.0077 283.5895 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 89 0 R 92 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 87 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Length 7534 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in the same year as Getz's book, quite how much could be said.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.128 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.128 795.075 m 407.120 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No such neglect has hampered study of the apparently free medicine of the saints, another resort of the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as of those whose expenditure on physicians proved fruitless. So it is surprising to find that, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getz turns it in the final paragraphs of the chapter \(and the book\), she does so by quoting an assertion by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald C. Finucane that historians have shied away from the subject. That was accurate perhaps in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s, when Finucane was writing, but is now refuted by numerous studies that draw on healing miracles.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 54.008 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having examined more or less each section of each chapter of the book, praising the mastery of illuminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail but registering specific queries about the conceptualization and distribution of the material, I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like to add a final section inviting the author's response to four general questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the title, )] TJ ET BT 104.360 617.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine in the English Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 282.008 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. What are 'the English Middle Ages'? To draw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast: the 'French Middle Ages' would suggest both a period and a geographical area in which French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtly culture predominated. What is denoted by the English ones? Author and publisher presumably faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a problem: all the obvious titles, )] TJ ET BT 191.684 575.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine in Medieval England, Medicine and Society)] TJ ET BT 449.300 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( etc., have been used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up. By having taken )] TJ ET BT 133.676 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Healing and Society in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 334.652 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the title of her edition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pharmaceutical writings of Gilbertus Anglicus, Getz herself has already ruled out the one that might best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have embraced her theme of medicine without doctors. The title actually used for this new monograph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceivably suggests its author's emphasis on the vernacular, and perhaps \(at a stretch\) her inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon England. But it also seems to downplay the 'foreigners' whom Chapter II memorably portrays; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it hides the welcome fact that, on the whole, the book says less about medicine than about healers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, the audience. Who are the book's expected readers? And how much background knowledge is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected of them? They seem to need reminding that Crusades 'are best understood as campaigns of warfare' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 39\), but they can define 'phthisis' and 'propaedeutic' and know what a university regent master is. This is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have suggested, no mere textbook. With whom is it intended primarily to engage?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, the argument. In the preface it was announced that 'a central argument concerns how this [medical] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning, understood as the medicine that was written down in texts, gained an audience among English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people' \(p. xii\). Leaving aside the ambiguity about who is to count as English people \(not the Normans?\), my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question is simply: what has happened to this argument in the chapters' unfolding? The demand for learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine is of course discussed at several points, and at the end of Chapter III its success is ascribed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned patrons such as Duke Humphrey. Will such backing account for its wider popularity? If not, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how and why exactly did it gain an audience? Michael McVaugh raised a similar question in his study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown of Aragon and reached no substantial answer. After reading Getz's book, which lacks any overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion or summary, I remain uncertain of her own answer, and also of how it would relate to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of self-medication that she set out to delineate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourth and last, the vernaculars. Anglo-Saxon medicine appears chiefly in two pages on the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encyclopaedic tradition in England and in the shape of Bald's Leechbook \(pp. 46-8\). From the scope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getz's undertaking as it was announced in the preface \(the period 750-1450\), the Anglo-Saxons might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected a fuller showing. The book would have been still more useful had it integrated the work of A. L. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meaney, M. L. Cameron, K. L. Jolly et al. more fully into other chapters on practitioners and institutions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is easy to propose, of course; hard to bring off. May I, however, invite the author's retrospective view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how it might have been achieved?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Related to that task: could I also elicit her thoughts on the Anglo-Norman material, mentioned on p. 35 but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not discussed. Thanks to the Stakhanovite editorial labours of Tony Hunt we now have a growing corpus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman texts presented with wonderful annotations and copious historical introductions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.636 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.636 98.067 m 514.628 98.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.628 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not sure how that corpus fits into the overall picture. Getz is uniquely qualified to help us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1986 Princeton University Press ruled out another good title by publishing Robert S. Gottfried's )] TJ ET BT 509.492 58.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Doctors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 44.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Medicine in Medieval England, 1340-1530)] TJ ET endstream endobj 88 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.1277 795.3895 407.1197 807.2695 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 54.0077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj [86 0 R /Fit] endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.6357 98.3815 514.6277 110.2615 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R ] /Contents 98 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Length 11529 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This was a book which might have been intended to )] TJ ET BT 292.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhance the great tradition to which I adverted at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset, but which actually did small credit to either its author or its publisher. Getz was one of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewers who exposed its pretensions to new and accurate scholarship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.936 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.936 766.563 m 397.928 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.928 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is fitting that Princeton should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now have atoned for that lapse by publishing her wholly worthwhile monograph. My criticisms \(to repeat\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been more to do with its arrangement than with its unrivalled command of textual, legal, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosopographical detail. They have been intended to generate discussion: to assure the book the continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life it deserves - not just as a survey, but as a feat of interpretation which no student of the subject can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creditably ignore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 578.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. D. Jacquart, )] TJ ET BT 146.996 578.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le milieu medical en France du XIIe au XVe siecle )] TJ ET BT 394.940 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Geneva, 1981\); K. Park, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 564.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Doctors and Medicine in Early Renaissance Florence)] TJ ET BT 322.640 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, 1985\); M. McVaugh, )] TJ ET BT 486.620 564.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 550.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(before the Plague: Practitioners and their Patients in the Crown of Aragon)] TJ ET BT 425.684 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 431.684 550.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1285-1345)] TJ ET BT 483.680 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 534.483 m 149.000 534.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McVaugh, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine before the Plague. 2 vols. \(Cambridge, 1994, 1997\), not in Getz's bibliography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 506.145 m 117.332 506.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 493.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also Getz, p. 34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.332 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.332 491.715 m 216.320 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though see now K. Park, )] TJ ET BT 188.996 478.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stones, Bones and Hernias: Surgical Specialists in Fourteenth- and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fifteenth-Century Italy)] TJ ET BT 175.004 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in R. French et al. \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 302.984 464.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine from the Black Death to the French )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disease)] TJ ET BT 102.008 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 1998\), pp. 110-30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.324 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.324 448.947 m 305.312 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. M. Jones, Harley MS 2558: A Fifteenth-Century Medical Commonplace Book, in M. R. Schleissner )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 92.336 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Manuscript Sources of Medieval Medicine)] TJ ET BT 296.300 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1995\), pp. 35-54. Another contribution )] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this volume is, however, cited by Getz at p. 109 n. 1. See now also Jones, )] TJ ET BT 431.648 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Fayreford: An )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Fifteenth-Century Medical Practitioner)] TJ ET BT 293.672 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in French, )] TJ ET BT 351.332 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine from the Black Death)] TJ ET BT 501.968 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 156-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(83.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 377.667 m 133.004 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Green, )] TJ ET BT 116.000 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women's Medical Practice and Health Care in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 427.184 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 433.184 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Signs)] TJ ET BT 459.188 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14 \(1989\), pp. 434-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(73.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 349.155 m 133.004 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Green, )] TJ ET BT 116.000 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documenting Medieval Women's Medical Practice)] TJ ET BT 360.512 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in L. Garcia-Ballester et al. \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practical Medicine from Salerno to the Black Death )] TJ ET BT 317.984 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1994\), pp. 322-52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.300 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.300 320.643 m 524.288 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second edn, Oxford, 1998.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.328 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.328 306.387 m 247.316 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For context see Jonathan Harris, )] TJ ET BT 221.984 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Greek Emigres in the West, 1400-1520)] TJ ET BT 408.620 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Camberley, 1995\), pp. 164-5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 277.875 m 118.004 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compare now C. O'Boyle, )] TJ ET BT 194.168 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Art of Medicine: Medical Teaching at the )] TJ ET BT 417.476 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(University of Paris, 1250-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1400 )] TJ ET BT 91.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leiden, 1998\), ch. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 194.660 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 194.660 249.363 m 254.648 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For what follows see J. Shatzmiller, )] TJ ET BT 239.336 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jews, Medicine and Medieval Society)] TJ ET BT 419.624 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, 1994\), cited by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Getz at p. 102 n. 22, but perhaps not thoroughly utilized.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.996 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.996 220.851 m 395.984 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 107.348 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Medicine in Thirteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 346.004 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1990\), pp. 12-16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.320 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.320 206.595 m 555.308 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Wallis, )] TJ ET BT 114.020 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Experience of the Book: Manuscripts, Texts, and the Role of Epistemology in Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Medicine)] TJ ET BT 156.320 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in D. Bates \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 247.304 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knowledge and the Scholarly Medical Traditions)] TJ ET BT 484.304 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\), pp. 101-26. Compare Getz, p. 46 and nn. 78-9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.980 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.980 163.827 m 381.968 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had it been available in time, use of Patricia Skinner's monograph, )] TJ ET BT 387.800 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health and Medicine in Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Southern Italy)] TJ ET BT 179.996 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leiden, 1997\), might have sophisticated several brief references to the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools of Salerno and their relations with the abbey of Monte Cassino.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.312 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.312 121.059 m 467.300 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Talbot, )] TJ ET BT 101.348 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 249.656 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 199.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.656 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.656 106.803 m 348.644 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. D. Grmek \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 159.992 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Medical Thought from Antiquity to the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 450.644 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\), is unusual among recent synopses in devoting a whole chapter to regimen.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.628 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.628 78.291 m 514.616 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.N. Biraben, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diseases in Europe: Equilibrium and Breakdown of the Pathocenosis)] TJ ET BT 464.324 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in Grmek, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Medical Thought)] TJ ET BT 188.672 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 319-53. See also Grmek, )] TJ ET BT 334.652 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Preliminaires d'une etude historique des )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maladies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 99 0 obj [97 0 R /Fit] endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.9357 766.8775 397.9277 778.7575 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 534.7975 148.9997 546.6775 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 506.2855 117.3317 518.1655 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3317 492.0295 216.3197 503.9095 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.3237 449.2615 305.3117 461.1415 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 111 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.0157 377.9815 133.0037 389.8615 ] >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.0157 349.4695 133.0037 361.3495 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 115 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.2997 320.9575 524.2877 332.8375 ] >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 117 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.3277 306.7015 247.3157 318.5815 ] >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 119 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 278.1895 118.0037 290.0695 ] >> endobj 119 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.6597 249.6775 254.6477 261.5575 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 123 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.9957 221.1655 395.9837 233.0455 ] >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 50 0 R >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 125 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.3197 206.9095 555.3077 218.7895 ] >> endobj 125 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 55 0 R >> endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 127 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9797 164.1415 381.9677 176.0215 ] >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 58 0 R >> endobj 128 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 129 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.3117 121.3735 467.2997 133.2535 ] >> endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 61 0 R >> endobj 130 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 131 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.6557 107.1175 348.6437 118.9975 ] >> endobj 131 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 66 0 R >> endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 133 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6277 78.6055 514.6157 90.4855 ] >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 69 0 R >> endobj 134 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R ] /Contents 135 0 R >> endobj 135 0 obj << /Length 4565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 70.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 108.680 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 24 \(1969\), pp. 1473-83, at p. 1476; R. 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Finucane, )] TJ ET BT 142.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rescue of the Innocents: Endangered )] TJ ET BT 345.308 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children in Medieval Miracles)] TJ ET BT 493.628 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 738.051 m 155.000 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph of Coggeshall, )] TJ ET BT 168.680 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radulphi de Coggeshall Chronicon Anglicanum)] TJ ET BT 400.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. 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