%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001082820+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001082820+01'00') /Title (Banishment in the Early Atlantic World: Convicts, Rebels and Slaves) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4275 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Banishment in the Early Atlantic World: Convicts, Rebels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Slaves)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a study of the exercise of imperial power in the early modern era and the way authorities at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels moved, expelled, and transported people within the British Empire. Morgan and Rushton investigate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the processes by which a wide variety of peoples under many different circumstances were forcibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved. With the appropriate documents, they focus primarily on the perspective of the authorities, the legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments of the 17th and 18th centuries connected to those processes, and the degree to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities did or did not follow the law in these matters. In some cases they use materials published in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period to address the response to these sometimes controversial policies. This study follows Morgan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rushton?s work on criminal transportation in the 18th century, which focused more on the criminals who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were transported within the empire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.980 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.980 107.985 m 218.972 107.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.972 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Above all, the authors demonstrate the various forms of banishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and there were many\) and criminal transportation that authorities practiced and the development of law that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made such actions legitimate. From their sweep through the transatlantic British Empire to find case studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of banishment and criminal transportation, two important themes emerge. First, the views of authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding the banishment of rogues, vagabonds, religious and political dissenters, and others underwent an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1550)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 February, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gwenda Morgan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Rushton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781441130112)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury Academic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/banishment-in-the-early-atlantic-world-9781441130112/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aaron Fogleman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.9797 108.2995 218.9717 120.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7522 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important shift in the early modern era. Previously authorities had been concerned merely with getting rid of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwanted elements, whereas in the 17th and 18th centuries they became interested in transporting banished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples to other places in their empire, so that those peoples might supply labor or other needs and thus be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful to the imperial cause. This shift reflected a growing transatlantic, imperial way of thinking about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and political problems and solutions. Second, while important legal developments occurred that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported this trend, authorities sometimes went beyond the law to accomplish these imperial ends, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of protests, they got away with it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is structured into two parts. Part one, entitled ?Diverse patterns of banishment in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland?, investigates the foundations of English, Scottish and Irish banishment policies in the 17th and 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries. Here Morgan and Rushton show how gypsies, vagrants, rebels, criminals, Quakers, Catholics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Covenanters and others were transported from England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland across the Atlantic to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen the empire. In the mid 17th century, authorities sent most of them to the Caribbean, but from late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that century until the War of American Independence they sent most banished peoples to the Chesapeake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. The first two chapters address English judicial origins of banishment and Scottish similarities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences. Thereafter follows a chapter on religious persecutions that focuses primarily on Quakers. Then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come case studies of Irish, Scots, and Presbyterian Covenanter rebels during the Interregnum, and Jacobites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1715 and 1745. Among other things, the authors make it clear that a well-developed system evolved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th century that led to the transportation to the Americas of thousands of people banished for a variety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reasons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many highlights in part one of this book. Chapter three includes material on the transportation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quakers, and while only a handful were actually sent to the colonies in this manner, it is worth noting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many others became quite productive in East Jersey and Pennsylvania in the late 17th century. This reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theme running throughout the book of people unwanted by English authorities at home serving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of empire \(and sometimes themselves\) across the ocean. Another highlight, albeit a brief one, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges from chapter four, in which Morgan and Rushton indicate that the thousands of Irish rebels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transported to Barbados and elsewhere in the Caribbean in the mid 17th century were initially so unruly that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial authorities feared an alliance between them and African slaves. In other words, transportation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened to undermine rather than support imperial interests. It did not take long, however, before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascendance of white racial solidarity diminished this threat. Chapter five on the Jacobites contains a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of noteworthy highlights. First, the legality of transporting Highlanders was shaky, and many prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged this form of banishment, yet the authorities did it anyway because of the perceived threat. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how authorities in a rising state and imperial power in the 18th century could and did stretch the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to secure their homeland and extend their empire. Second, the reprisals against Jacobites were connected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing policy on transportation in general. And third, Morgan and Rushton refer to an advertisement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 1751 issue of the )] TJ ET BT 127.004 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Gazette)] TJ ET BT 206.672 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which someone sought the return of an Irish man, an African slave, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a Scottish rebel, who apparently absconded together. Documentation of interethnic resistance in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies is rare and reflects a fascinating undercurrent in American colonial history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two, entitled ?Continuity and change: British North America and the Caribbean?, for the most part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigates how authorities in the colonies approached banishment and the degree to which they followed or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviated from developing policy in Britain. Chapter six provides an overview of the various forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banishment in the colonies, including religious dissenters banished from New England, Virginia colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured in Bacon?s Rebellion, Native Americans captured and transported to the Caribbean, rebellious or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise criminal blacks before and after the American Revolution, and Jamaican Maroons banished to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nova Scotia and elsewhere after the 1795?6 war. The next four chapters provide case studies respectively of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Acadians transported from Nova Scotia during the French and Indian War, Philadelphia Quakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspected of aiding the British sent to the Virginia frontier in 1777, British military commanders in occupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charleston sending local elites suspected of possible parole violations to St. Augustine in 1780?1, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutal treatment of Jews transported from Dutch St. Eustatius during the British occupation of 1781.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two also includes a number of highlights. For one, the authors make the point that while colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities sometimes enthusiastically pursued banishment as a means to deal with unwanted peoples, with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7669 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few exceptions they did not transport them in the same way the British did because there was no place to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(send them. It is worth noting, however, that the few cases they do cite where Virginia and South Carolina )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities banished freed or criminal slaves in some ways foreshadowed later developments regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonization. That is, as authorities like Jefferson began contemplating emancipation during the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic, they believed that it could only work if the newly freed slaves were transported elsewhere to begin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own colonies. Morgan and Rushton do not investigate colonization, but I wonder if this kind of thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not have its roots in the episodes they do explore. Chapters eight and nine are the only two that address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in detail the victims themselves and what happened to them. In the first case, American authorities played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loose and free with the law when they sent Quakers suspected of Loyalism to the Virginia frontier, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second case British military commanders in Charleston did the same when they sent rebel leaders to St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine. In both cases, the victims and others produced abundant documentation protesting against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legality of these moves, but it happened anyway. Chapter ten builds on this theme, in what the authors call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?sordid finale? on St. Eustatius. Here too, British authorities stretched the law against significant protests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including Edmund Burke?s speech in Parliament condemning their actions\), but these protests were to no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avail. Apart from the Quaker group already mentioned, one large group conspicuous by their absence from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this study are the Loyalists during the War of American Independence. The forced removal of tens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of people that American authorities viewed as treasonous, including the massive confiscation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their property, seems to fit in with many of the trends discussed in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s brief conclusion is very good \(so brief and good that it should be read first\), as it ties these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various cases and developments together and addresses their larger significance. In the early modern era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced labor, exile, judicial banishment, and ethnic cleansing mingled uneasily together. The need to provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?better peopling? of new territories and homeland security issues led both to the development of new law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the evasion of that law when necessary. Their final statement, ?Migration and exile were fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the traditions of Empire? \(p. 235\), expresses the importance of these developments well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this point I would like to address or even speculate on some of the larger issues which this book raises. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, indentured servitude included a loss of freedom to make a beginning in America, and since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial period historians and others have argued for and against the benefits of this practice to the servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. Here, at least in the cases of rebels and religious exiles, it should be considered that the practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was connected to their capture or persecution, which means that the victims hardly considered indentured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servitude to be a stepping stone toward success in a new world. Second, this work shows the wider context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and deeper roots of the phenomenon of mass convict transportations in the British Empire with which we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar. Third, for English authorities transportation was an alternative punishment to whipping or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution. Like the introduction of the guillotine, it may seem brutal now \(and in many ways it certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was\), but in the 18th century many people viewed this practice as)] TJ ET BT 347.960 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( humane)] TJ ET BT 388.952 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I wonder if or how transportation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be connected to humanitarian impulses of the 18th century. Fourth, the recurrent theme in the book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities going beyond the law when treating captives in order to provide for better security during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime has a current relevance. I wonder how recent, well-known, and recurring examples of this behavior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by United States and other governments dealing with captured terrorists may have influenced the writing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book. Regardless, the book shows how these recent trends have deep roots in Anglo-American history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morgan and Rushton argue that their book is an ?Atlantic? study, and I would like to address this idea and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlanticize their subject even more. They point out that an Atlantic perspective shows that policy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banishment did not reflect political unity on the subject, nor was practice regarding banishment subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same law code everywhere. Further, an Atlantic perspective reveals how the major actors at the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed a view that they were moving people around in their entire empire, and this helps us to better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand their actions. And, the authors note that while banishment and transportation happened in other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empires, the British were the largest practitioners, and before the late 18th century their activities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to the Atlantic. I agree with all of these points, but wish to point out a number of broader Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions that their work raises ? questions for which I only have a few partial answers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, what was the nature of banishment and criminal transportation elsewhere in the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World, and how does the Anglo-American experience fit in? Did the increasing integration of the Atlantic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5110 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World from the 16th century onwards lead toward other Europeans or Africans shifting away from merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting rid of unwanted peoples to sending them to someplace where they might be productive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthen their respective realms, or the entire Atlantic system? The development of the French penal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony in Cayenne in the 19th century is a well-known example, and Morgan and Rushton make brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the French sending convicts to Louisiana in the early 18th century, as well as to the Portuguese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sending convicts to Brazil in the 16th century. There is scattered evidence of German rulers sending convicts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to America in the 18th century, and I wonder to what degree their actions were connected to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a rational ?Bevlkerungspolitik? in that period. If they believed overpopulation was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, territorial rulers would want to get rid of people, because they were a burden to the realm. In such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, Prussian, Habsburg, and Russian authorities were happy to accept them, because they wanted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trustworthy and industrious people in their expanding realms. This is a case in which we must examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests and motives across empires in order to understand the movement of peoples and the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire itself ? something we should also do when studying the Atlantic World. For example, African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities found it more profitable to send some slaves captured in war into the Middle Passage, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange for European trade goods. Although they certainly did not control what happened to the slaves on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other side of the Atlantic, by the 18th century the transatlantic slave trade and their interests and actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within it were so well integrated into the Atlantic system that one wonders if African authorities did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share at least a part of the mentality of British authorities described by Morgan and Rushton.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other Atlantic questions one might ask. Morgan and Rushton provide examples of banishment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further empire building that were beyond the law and hidden in or justified by wartime expediency, against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the people?s desires. Were there non-British examples of this kind of imperial mentality and action? I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspect so. This is not necessarily something that should be tied to early modern Anglo-American notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberty and violations thereof. Similarly, did forced labor, exile, judicial banishment, and ethnic cleansing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mingle uneasily together elsewhere in the Atlantic world? To what degree were migration and exile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental to empire elsewhere? Here too I suspect that this was the case, and examining the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American example in the context of others would also reveal important aspects of the Atlantic World. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these questions are perhaps not fully answerable, but this book is valuable among other reasons because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps to raise them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Gwenda Morgan and Peter Rushton, )] TJ ET BT 262.316 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century Criminal Transportation)] TJ ET BT 479.000 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 318.387 m 118.004 318.387 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 303.055 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 285.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 285.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1550)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 283.881 m 328.316 283.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 258.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/80906)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 318.7015 118.0037 330.5815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 284.1955 328.3157 296.0755 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1550) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004986 00000 n 0000005095 00000 n 0000005205 00000 n 0000005314 00000 n 0000008875 00000 n 0000009003 00000 n 0000009087 00000 n 0000009116 00000 n 0000009244 00000 n 0000009280 00000 n 0000009345 00000 n 0000016920 00000 n 0000016985 00000 n 0000024707 00000 n 0000024798 00000 n 0000029961 00000 n 0000030088 00000 n 0000030143 00000 n 0000030271 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30367 %%EOF