%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721075327+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721075327+01'00') /Title (A New Race of Men: Scotland 1815-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4143 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A New Race of Men: Scotland 1815-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Fry is that unusual individual these days, an independent scholar and a regular \(often controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and amusing\) newspaper columnist, who has also devoted himself to becoming a highly productive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful historian of his adopted country. Indeed so prolific has he been he would be worthy of hire by any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university department anxious for immediate enhancement of its research profile. Fry?s publications have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen him described as Scotland?s most controversial historian and certainly each of his books has overturned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cherished myth or promoted a revision dramatic enough to enhance sales well beyond Scotland. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most recent works include studies of the Scottish empire, the Scottish Highlands, the union of Scotland and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, and a history of the city of Edinburgh. What is left, one wonders, but these and others, in whole or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part, have informed the present work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.640 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.640 143.625 m 240.632 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may come as a surprise to some that even before the Scottish independence referendum has been fought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a conclusion \(as it will be in 2014, whatever the outcome\) a Scottish Government already exists. It has done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the Scottish National Party gained minority then outright control in the Scottish Parliament, re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branding the previous ?Executive? a ?Government?. The Glasgow poet, Tom Leonard, described this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise as nothing more than a ?sleekit mantra of jaunty national pride?, further reflected in the re-branding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1552)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 February, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Fry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781780271422)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birlinn Ltd)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.birlinn.co.uk/New-Race-of-Men-A.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Donnachie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6397 143.9395 240.6317 155.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of almost every other quasi non-governmental organisation and many other institutions beyond the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector, the most recent being ?Police Scotland?, a new national force.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this raised his and other hackles, historically it was no more than a recognition of what had existed not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just since 1999 when the parliament ?reconvened?, but had been a reality in all but name since the union of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Scottish and English parliaments nearly three hundred years earlier in 1707. The Scottish ?administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state?, lacking its pre-1707 representation, but no more corrupt than any other in Europe, continued largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unaffected by English ways till the first Reform Act. It grew rapidly thereafter, sometimes adapting English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance, more often than not finding its own way. What in the long view this apparently self-styled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and Scottish society as whole have inherited from the 19th century is the subject of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps inevitably the title will also raise a potential )] TJ ET BT 288.332 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stushie)] TJ ET BT 321.668 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(if it needs to be explained to )] TJ ET BT 467.648 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(southerns)] TJ ET BT 514.316 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, a disturbance or riot\) among female readers, but as I duly note, they will find women and gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues occupy considerable space in Fry?s narrative. It will also be of some comfort that the male scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who hitherto dominated Scottish historical studies of this period come in for considerably more criticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Fry than do their female counterparts. Those who come in for greatest disapprobation are the socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic historians \(myself included, I suspect\), whom Fry believes have over-done the statistical analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the neglect not only of the human dimension but also of politics and culture \(neither true in my opinion\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fry seems to think that the social and economic studies by historians of Victorian Scotland have actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done the nation a disservice in neglecting the bigger picture. If a visitor from Mars had landed around 1880 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and looked just at the statistics, says Fry, he or she would have concluded that ?the union of 1707 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching a triumphant conclusion in at last making one country out of two?. The reality, Fry maintains, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach here is pretty much that followed in the majority of his previous books. Structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematically in five parts it examines in turn the economy, society, what he calls ?margins?, politics, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally, culture, each consisting of a series of cameo chapters, essentially self-contained essays on key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes in the history of the period. This works quite well, though there?s some overlap in places and it?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes hard to see the links between the same issues raised in different contexts or personalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurring in different sections of the book. But as usual with Fry the writing is elegant, the presentation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style are accessible \(often with a touch of cynicism and under-stated humour that are par for the course\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship is formidable, and the insights invariably refreshing. I suppose we could really do without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side-swipes at fellow historians, but you need to be thick skinned in this business, and speaking personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you meet far more animosity on the conference circuit internationally than you do in the footnotes of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Fry?s numerous other publications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all his rejection of socio-scientific approaches, Fry devotes considerable attention to the economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing the country?s rapid industrial revolution \(much faster than in England\) and transformation from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural, agrarian country to an urban manufacturing one. I welcome his recognition that agriculture, a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employer of labour well into the 19th century, played a key role in the whole story. Certainly it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processing the products of the land generated significant proto-industrial enterprises, for example in linen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and woollen textiles, or the drink industries, particularly distilling \(licit or not\). Factory industry followed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textiles, increasingly urbanised in places like Glasgow, Paisley and Dundee, while many other sectors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including coal mining, iron production, engineering, shipbuilding and chemicals expanded rapidly and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a tendency towards large-scale enterprises. Much depended on readily available resources and cheap labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or at least lower wages than in England\), though Scots inventive genius and entrepreneurship were both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much in evidence throughout most of the period. The Scots were also good at developing an effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructure of roads, canals, steamships and railways, ultimately penetrating even the most remote corners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Highlands. Through their shipping services manufacturers exported to every corner of the globe, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the banks and finance houses behind all this also made canny investments in land, mining and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises in the major area of Scots settlement, like Canada, Australia, New Zealand and others besides. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the 1870 to1914 Scotland apparently triumphed as the ?Workshop of the Empire? with its enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on heavy industry. Although, as Fry indicates, problems were already evident, such as failing )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurship and foreign competition, Scotland still had a distinct and relatively successful economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Britain and its Empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as industrialisation proceeded at a faster rate than in England, so urbanisation powered ahead at amazing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speed, affecting the four major cities and numerous smaller centres of manufacturing or those circled by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collieries and iron works. Into these poured migrants from the countryside, the Highlands and from Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of whom prospered, though the majority remained on the margins, often victims of discrimination, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor housing, low wages, periodic unemployment, and poverty that was the lot of the labouring classes. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fry indicates, the extremes were everywhere to be seen in Victorian Scotland, from the degraded state of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaels in the north or the Irish immigrants packed into urban tenements and cellars, contrasted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth of the new men in their baronial shooting lodges and splendid country or coastal villas. But standards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of living for many, contrary to the views of some scholars, did improve, though as elsewhere it was a long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term business.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fry devotes considerable space to the great Scottish institutions that survived the union and helped define the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation, notably the law, the kirk and education. All were dominated by an intellectual elite, the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the four ancient universities and the later stages of the Scottish Enlightenment. Senior law officers headed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lord Advocate and working in tandem with the Home Department essentially ran the state, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangement that continued until in 1885 the office of Secretary for Scotland was revived to head an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amalgam of state bodies that formed the predecessor of the Scottish Office. Revisions of Scots law on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English lines were generally resisted, though as Fry points out, Anglicisation was inescapable in some areas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably education. This led in the Highlands to further degradation of Gaelic language and culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These days, as Fry says, it is hard to comprehend the enormous influence the kirk exercised nationally and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locally on civic affairs, welfare and moral order, nor the often obscure debates about theological issues and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious rights. This was particularly so in the years leading up to the Disruption and the breaking of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Free Church from the Established in 1843. The former proved more progressive in outlook than the latter, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large proportion of voters among congregations being traditional Liberal supporters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education was certainly another long cherished feature of Scottish life ? society apparently being better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated and with higher levels of literacy than in England and most European countries. Such claims have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the subjects of considerable historical debate notably by Professors Smout and Houston, and I would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concur with Fry that the jury is still out on comparative levels of literacy and, indeed, on the whole idea of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic tradition in Scottish education generally. Parochial education was nearly universal in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lowlands \(and much extended in the Highlands at this period\), while opportunities for university study seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite genuinely to have reached down to the ?lad of parts? \(the clever peasant boy\). Curricula were long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as progressive but general, while later in the century English-style specialisation was beginning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creep in ? in universities at least, where the debate about its validity continues. But anyway Scottish school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education retained a quite distinctive ethos and by the 1880s with a centralised administration and a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curriculum.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the Scottish Enlightenment is celebrated as an era of dramatic advance in the arts \(including science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and medicine\), the 19th century, says Fry, also produced a significant cultural shift that had a global impact. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The literary canon generated by Walter Scott, James Hogg, John Galt, and later Robert Louis Stevenson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Douglas Brown \(he of )] TJ ET BT 182.312 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The House with the Green Shutters)] TJ ET BT 350.636 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, one of the few realist novels of its time\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the often despised ?Kailyard? novelists \(who produced mainly romantic nostalgia\) helped sustain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national culture previously enriched by the poets, Robert Fergusson and Robert Burns. Art and architecture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both did the same, the artists David Wilkie capturing everyday life and character, and the brothers Faed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such subjects as the resilience of the Gaels in the face of clearance and enforced migration from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homeland. The architectural heritage was enhanced by a vast construction programme ranging from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional tenements embellished in Scots baronial style to the later modernist equivalent in Charles Rennie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mackintosh?s magnificent public buildings, mainly in Glasgow, by then the ?Second City of the Empire?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And there were the great thinkers and do-ers in the others arts ? medicine, science and invention, all )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7312 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflecting the practical application of knowledge so typically Scottish. Strangely given Fry?s concern that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women be included in his title, their formidable contribution to 19th-century Scottish culture \(indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine and science ultimately\) receives less attention than it deserves: on the literary front Anne Grant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Baillie and Margaret Oliphant being prominent omissions. Incidentally these women, and many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more, proudly promoted their Scottish-ness in much of their work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politics also marked Scotland out as different. A solid and indispensible bloc of Scots Liberals helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain that party in government for much of the century. Scottish liberalism, as Fry observes, was generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformist, embracing three factions, the paternalist land-owning Whigs, the new middle-class Liberals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities and towns, and \(eventually\) the working-class radicals. Inevitably, however, divisions arose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exacerbated by national issues such as further political reform, free trade, the Irish Question, the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission and more local ones like religious dissention, Highland distress and land reform, and, in the longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, Home Rule. Like that of British politics generally it is a complex story that Fry unravels in an attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain the dichotomy of commitment to union while sustaining Scottish difference. Indeed, much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse here concerns nationality and how it impacted on the politics of the period. Historical analogies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always dangerous but given the book?s gestation at a time of fervent debate about Scotland?s future and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication a year in advance of the independence referendum, Fry can hardly avoid alluding to it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In some ways it is hard to position )] TJ ET BT 202.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New Race of Men)] TJ ET BT 297.332 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the current output of historical writing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland. Highly original in concept, particularly in its inter-disciplinary approach, packed full of insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on much new research, and presented in a highly readable style, it is frankly a long way from much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(else that?s been written on 19th-century Scottish history. It will annoy some other historians and critics, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the tradition of scholarly, thoughtful, popular history established by T. C. Smout in his )] TJ ET BT 465.020 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scottish People)] TJ ET BT 108.344 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 131.672 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Century of the Scottish People)] TJ ET BT 287.996 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, seems likely to command a wide audience. )] TJ ET BT 502.628 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race of Men)] TJ ET BT 94.664 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is certainly timely in helping explain how the country has arrived at its present situation ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facing perhaps its most momentous decision since 1707.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 409.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Scottish Empire \(Edinburgh, 2001\); )] TJ ET BT 260.672 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wild Scots:)] TJ ET BT 318.668 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Four Hundred Years of Highland History)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2005\); )] TJ ET BT 145.676 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edinburgh: a History of)] TJ ET BT 264.344 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the City)] TJ ET BT 302.012 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2009\) and )] TJ ET BT 403.664 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Union: England, Scotland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Treaty of 1707 )] TJ ET BT 176.348 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edinburgh, 2006, new ed. 2013\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.324 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.324 349.155 m 392.312 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotsman)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/books/book-review-a-new-race-of-men-scotland-1815-1914-1-3191655)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 294.387 m 549.920 294.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herald)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.heraldscotland.com/books-poetry/reviews/michael-fry-a-new-race-of-men-scotland-1815-1914-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 251.619 m 551.888 251.619 l S BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birlinn.22498927)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 237.363 m 117.020 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 120.020 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Think Scotland)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thinkscotland.org/thinkculture/articles.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 208.851 m 299.684 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 302.684 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Financial Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/bb629c1c-610b-11e3-b7f1-00144feabdc0.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 180.339 m 390.980 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 393.980 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 177.007 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 159.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 159.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1552)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 157.833 m 328.316 157.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 132.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/79300)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.scotsman.com/lifestyle/books/book-review-a-new-race-of-men-scotland-1815-1914-1-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.800 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3191655)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.heraldscotland.com/books-poetry/reviews/michael-fry-a-new-race-of-men-scotland-1815-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914-birlinn.22498927)] TJ ET 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