%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728112405+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728112405+01'00') /Title (Crossings: Africa, the Americas and the Atlantic Slave Trade) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4092 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Crossings: Africa, the Americas and the Atlantic Slave Trade)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For every large historical topic ? and the transatlantic slave trade is certainly a large one ? there is a need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good small books to introduce the academic understanding of the topic to students and the general public. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The writing of a good small book on a large topic, however, can be no small challenge. Complex debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be distilled into a few paragraphs and tough decisions must be made about what aspects of the larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic to emphasize, what aspects to cover more briefly, and what aspects to leave out altogether. Yet this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable editorial task must result in a book that provides a holistic overview of the topic at hand in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited number of pages and at low cost. The emotion-laden ethical dimension of the slave trade further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compounds the difficulty of the author?s task. With )] TJ ET BT 284.324 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crossings: Africa, the Americas, and the Atlantic Slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trade)] TJ ET BT 62.684 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, James Walvin has admirably answered the challenge of writing a small book on one of history?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largest tragedies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin, a slave-trade scholar of four decades? standing, not only wrote this book with a broad public in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, he also wrote it in the light of his experience of a major public commemoration: the bicentennial of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1807 Act of Parliament outlawing Britain?s slave trade. Walvin?s narrative fittingly offers 1807 as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pivotal date, paying hearty tribute to the mass political movement that made the abolition of Britain?s slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1553)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 27 February, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Walvin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781780231945)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.reaktionbooks.co.uk/display.asp?k=e2013041914264122)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew David Mitchell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade possible and to ?indefatigable? anti-slavery lecturer Thomas Clarkson as its main architect: ?if we need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to find heroes in this story, Clarkson surely has the pre-eminent claim? \(p. 190\). Clarkson, Granville Sharp, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ex-slaver John Newton, ex-slaves such as Ottobah Cuguano and Olaudah Equiano, and the politician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Wilberforce \(criticized by Walvin for his ?often indecisive leadership? \(p. 174\)\) accomplished a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution in British public opinion about slavery: ?Just when the slave trade seemed more attractive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lucrative than ever, the nation which had perfected the system decided that the slave trade was wrong? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(169\). In Walvin?s telling, not only did ?public opinion? triumph over the continuing profitability of slave-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading and slave-driving, but even Britain?s top diplomats found ?that public opinion at home obliged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British governments to press ahead with abolition diplomacy? \(p. 178\). The nation that in the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been Europe?s most prolific transporter of enslaved Africans not only ended its own slave trade in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th, but pressured other nations to enter into abolition treaties and used its navy to enforce these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crossings)] TJ ET BT 95.024 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, 1807 functions not as an )] TJ ET BT 268.664 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(endpoint)] TJ ET BT 310.664 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but instead as a )] TJ ET BT 393.320 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(midpoint)] TJ ET BT 435.992 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As Walvin notes in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... the Atlantic slave trade did )] TJ ET BT 208.328 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not )] TJ ET BT 226.664 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end in 1807. The last Africans stepped ashore from a slave )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ship \(in Cuba\) in 1866 ?. Moreover, slavery itself thrived long )] TJ ET BT 365.648 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(after )] TJ ET BT 391.316 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1807. The British ended )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial slavery in 1838, American slavery survived until the Civil War, and slavery in Cuba )] TJ ET BT 64.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasted until 1886, in Brazil until 1888. Why, then, the great fuss about 1807? What was so )] TJ ET BT 64.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtuous about the abolition of 1807 when it left millions of people mired in slavery across the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas? \(p. 11\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He accordingly devotes one of the book?s most interesting chapters to what he calls ?The durable institution: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery after abolition?, examining how slavery during the 1800s not only survived, but expanded in vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions of the Americas. Spanish Cuba became the Caribbean?s new sugar frontier, while in Brazil the older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northeastern sugar economy gave way to the rapid expansion of coffee cultivation and various other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extractive activities from the immediate area of Rio de Janeiro to parts inland. Both Cuba and Brazil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required the importation of enslaved Africans in numbers rivalling those of the slave trade?s 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peak: ?of the 779,000 Africans landed in Cuba, the very great majority ? some 711,000 ? had arrived after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British and Americans had abolished their slave trade? \(p. 207\). As for Brazil, nearly 5 million enslaved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans arrived there, far more than any other American region, and 2.3 million of those arrived in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from 1791 to 1856 \(p. 129\). In the United States, by contrast, the demographic peculiarity of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally-reproducing enslaved population compensated for the end of the legal slave trade in 1808 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported the forced internal movement of American-born slaves towards the new cotton growing states to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the southwest. Walvin?s juxtaposition of 19th-century slavery in Cuba, Brazil, and the United States will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge and expand the perspective of English-speaking readers who may be more familiar with the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?peculiar institution? as it existed in the United States until 1865. He also demonstrates the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of slavery to the British Empire even after the final emancipation of its slaves in 1838; slave-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grown cotton continued to feed the mills of Lancashire even as the British commitment to ending slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served as moral justification for the imperial expansion of the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With his eye for telling statistics such as those just cited, Walvin acknowledges the debt that he and his field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owe to the editors of the )] TJ ET BT 153.332 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database)] TJ ET BT 332.996 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. First introduced in 1999 and updated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodically as new documentation emerges, the )] TJ ET BT 268.304 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Database)] TJ ET BT 314.300 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a searchable online compendium of statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on roughly 35,000 slave-trading voyages. Thanks to this great effort of compilation, Walvin can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronounce on the overall volume of the forced transatlantic migration over the centuries with a degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence impossible only two decades ago: ?The numbers involved are astonishing: 12 million plus loaded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto the slave ships; 11 million plus surviving to landfall? \(p. 9\). At slightly finer levels of detail Walvin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that ?a staggering 4.7 million departed from a mere four slave ports? in Angola \(p. 54\); that ships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based in a core group of twenty ports were responsible for embarking 8.5 million human beings; that ships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Rio and Liverpool alone accounted for 2.8 million of the total; and even that the single Liverpool )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6756 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vessel )] TJ ET BT 66.344 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brookes)] TJ ET BT 105.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(made infamous in abolitionist propaganda\) embarked 5,163 Africans and disembarked 4,559 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over ten voyages and 25 years \(pp. 63?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Walvin, wanting to avoid the impression that the slave trade?s ?victims, the living and the dead, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow vanished under a pile of statistics?, seeks to put these ?oddly sterile? data at the service of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative that presents the trade?s consequences for individual human beings \(p. 93\). The )] TJ ET BT 464.924 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brookes, )] TJ ET BT 510.248 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, ?carried five times as many Africans per ton as slave ships of three centuries before?, meaning that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?conditions of overcrowding for the African captives had got worse ? not better ? in the course of the trade? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 65\). Notwithstanding the extreme discomfort it caused, ?this crowding ? ?packing? ? of Africans on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(board a slave ship was )] TJ ET BT 144.992 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 160.328 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the key determinant of the levels of slave mortality on board the ships; the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor was the length of time spent on board? \(pp. 68?9\), especially as ships trawled from port to port on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African coast for weeks on end seeking enough slaves to make a full cargo. On this subject we learn that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-1600s British and Dutch slavers alike remained on the African coast for an average of 100 days, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while a century later British ships stayed about 173 days and Dutch ships about 200. Slaves plying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively short route from Angola to Brazil had the quickest crossings and the least ruinous mortality ? until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-1800s, when British attempts to enforce slave trade abolition paradoxically led to ?a revival of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(startling levels of mortality? on the many Brazilian slavers still active as they ?sought hurriedly to pack up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and outrun the abolitionist navies? \(92?3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin discusses what all this meant for the experience of enslaved African individuals in raw, physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language that elicits sympathy for those enslaved. About the experience of Africans enslaved by various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means in the African interior and marched to further imprisonment on the coast he writes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who is to say which was the most traumatic form of incarceration and departure from the coast: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being shuffled into the dark, dank misery of a dungeon in Elmina or sharing the filth with the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pigs and the corpses in the barracoons of Luanda? \(p. 56\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Likewise ?the stinking claustrophobia of the slaves? conditions? once brought aboard European slaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vessels included ?rough wooden shelves only inches above other captives lying on the deck?; the ?filth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave decks? and the ?epidemics of the bloody flux \(amoebic dysentery\) which both fouled and haunted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave ships? \(p. 91\); the ?rats scurrying around the decks ... boldly nibbling at the flesh of sleeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans? \(p. 96\). Though sea travel had its hazards and discomforts for convicts, troops, and poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrants, to use Walvin?s examples, these others ?did not have to endure anything like the seaborne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miseries of millions of African slaves? \(p. 68\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This appalling misery of the Middle Passage is, in Walvin?s view, the peculiar ?feature of slavery in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas that distinguishes it from other forms of slavery? \(p. 13\). Indeed, he applies similarly evocative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language to the slaves? continuing predicament after landfall in describing the experience of the ?scramble?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which saw ?planters and their agents rushing to grab their targeted Africans laying claim to them by roping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or tagging the terrified victims?, and declaring it ?hard to decide with system of sale was most distressing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Africans: the scramble or, for example, the auction system of South Carolina? \(p. 126\). Nor was this the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of miseries, since many slaves arriving in Buenos Aires were then marched hundreds of miles into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountains of Peru while purchasers of slaves in the British Caribbean often re-embarked them immediately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the British or Spanish American mainland in ?a system designed to bewilder its victims? \(pp. 133?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin?s lament that all this ?fails to capture what the seaborne crossing meant to each )] TJ ET BT 456.272 144.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(individual )] TJ ET BT 507.944 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to mention those who died? speaks to a desire, although ultimately a frustrated one, to go even deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath the surface of the statistics:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We can only speculate about what went through the captives? minds as their ships made their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way across the Atlantic .... But it is surely not idle speculation to feel that thoughts about the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6704 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic crossing embedded themselves deep in the personal and communal folk memories of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the African survivors, to emerge as the stuff of nightmarish accounts across the slave )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities of the Americas \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this is more than ?idle speculation?, but the fact that it is given without any footnote, reference, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further commentary leaves the reader to wonder: in what forms )] TJ ET BT 340.604 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(has)] TJ ET BT 357.272 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Middle Passage survived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?personal and communal folk memories? \(as it surely must have done\), and what scholarship exists on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very interesting question? Be that as it may, what Walvin )] TJ ET BT 312.320 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can )] TJ ET BT 332.648 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show us is that ?wherever we look, slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was contested and resisted by the slaves? \(p. 141\), whether in the course of the Middle Passage or within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plantation system of the Americas. Enslaved Africans at sea revolted in 500 documented instances \(p. 104\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually when the African coast was still in sight, and ?there were at least 120 slave upheavals which resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in freedom for some of the Africans on board?. Walvin pays tribute to these uprisings as ?the persistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion by all involved of their rights: they denied the authority of their oppressors to treat them as slaves? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and declared their ?unquenchable desire for freedom? \(p. 121\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin also turns his attention to the experience of the sailors/jailors entrusted with quelling such uprisings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they conducted enslaved Africans across the Atlantic. The 210,000 ordinary sailors and 140,000 officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and craftsmen that served on slavers from Britain alone faced not only the normal hazards of maritime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour, but also the disease-ridden environment of the slave hold and the constant possibility of revolt \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75\). Thomas Clarkson found as a result that 2,329 of the 5,000 men who shipped on British slavers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single year 1785 did not return alive ? a finding he used to demolish ?the traditional arguments that the slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade was a nursery for the Royal Navy? \(pp. 71-72\). The ruinous mortality among slave ship crews in turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggravated the difficulties of the enslaved; as the sailors found themselves increasingly outnumbered over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the course of the voyage, they became ever more prone to use the most vicious methods of intimidation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against their charges \(pp. 111?13\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Walvin?s overarching focus throughout the book is on the predicament of enslaved Africans, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of ?the fate of the men who herded them like cattle in their transit to the Americas? \(pp. 71?2\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeds naturally from his recognition that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficult task for the historian is to strike a balance: to shape from this flinty data a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningful historical narrative which does justice to the African victims and, equally, makes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of the actions of the perpetrators of the trade \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Making sense of the actions of the perpetrators? has long been touchy scholarly territory. Scholars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of slavery have traditionally introduced their studies by declaring a personal belief that the slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade was morally abhorrent, perhaps to ward off the possibility that ?to understand all is to forgive all?. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very existence of the slave trade surely cannot be understood without understanding the motivations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies of its perpetrators. Walvin?s treatment of this side of the slave trade is exemplary. He notes how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fierce rivalry among the chartered companies that dominated the trade in the 1600s ? the Royal African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company of England and the Dutch West India Company foremost among them ? led to open commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and the establishment of the Gold Coast forts including Elmina and Cape Coast Castle. He also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how, despite their current status as UNESCO Heritage Sites and popular symbols of the slave trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the forts? role was bypassed by the rising importance of the slave trade? as the chartered companies gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way after 1700 to independent traders who continually developed ?better, more efficient and profitable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways of acquiring prisoners for the slave ships than via the forts? \(53?4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both before and after this momentous organizational transition in the European side of the business, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained ?clients on the African coast?, present at the sufferance of local rulers \(p. 40\). Furthermore, since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great majority of ?Africans who passed into European hands were not enslaved initially by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans but by Africans? \(p. 37\), it was this socioeconomically privileged subgroup of Africans who in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4082 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large part controlled European access to enslaved labourers. The slave trade was, after all, a trade, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would-be European purchasers of enslaved Africans competed with each other to offer trade goods ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily textiles from Europe or South Asia, but also metal goods, alcohol, firearms, cowrie shells ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchangeable for a cargo of slaves on the best possible terms. Walvin expertly describes the contours of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power relationship:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rulers and merchants on the African coast were quick to spot goods they liked, items they could )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoy or use to advance their own strength or wealth. In return, they were happy to provide )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever supplies of slaves reached them on the coast via interior wars, raids or trading systems )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?. The goods arriving in Africa on the slave ships may have come from all corners of the globe, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the demand they sought to satisfy was )] TJ ET BT 268.004 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(African. )] TJ ET BT 310.004 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In return, Europeans acquired slaves who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were destined to transform the face of the Americas and to toil at activities which enriched their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial masters and their metropolitan backers. But before that could happen, millions of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans had to endure the unspeakable terrors of the Atlantic crossing \(pp. 80?1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While students often express disbelief that African merchants could ?sell their own? in this way, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even wonder whether this fact exculpates the European purchasers of slaves, Walvin counteracts these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangers by presenting the issue alongside the brutality of the Middle Passage and the plantation regime, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured by Europeans for their own economic benefit. His portrayal of this all-encompassing system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human misery for profit spares no party its share of the shame.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walvin?s unflinching commitment to tracing out the transatlantic slave trade?s most paradoxical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications exemplifies the excellence of )] TJ ET BT 239.648 465.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crossings)] TJ ET BT 287.660 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a brief introduction for students and general readers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He has capably distilled a voluminous body of recent research into a highly coherent account that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless manages to convey a satisfyingly complex view of its subject. Indeed, I see a place for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crossings)] TJ ET BT 82.028 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the reading lists for my own classes on the subject ? an accolade that many other college and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university historians will surely also bestow upon this book.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 391.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 374.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 374.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1553)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 372.681 m 328.316 372.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 347.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 333.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/74410)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 372.9955 328.3157 384.8755 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1553) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000570 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000004796 00000 n 0000004905 00000 n 0000005015 00000 n 0000005124 00000 n 0000008685 00000 n 0000008813 00000 n 0000008897 00000 n 0000008962 00000 n 0000016623 00000 n 0000016688 00000 n 0000023497 00000 n 0000023562 00000 n 0000030319 00000 n 0000030403 00000 n 0000034538 00000 n 0000034666 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34762 %%EOF