%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221144555+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221144555+00'00') /Title (Hard Sell: Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, c1951-69) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4571 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hard Sell: Advertising, Affluence and Transatlantic Relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(c1951-69)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Saturday Night and Sunday Morning)] TJ ET BT 224.348 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Alan Sillitoe?s ground breaking 1958 novel, television is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor for mass consumerism and the resulting growth of a more privatised, home-centred working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in post-war Britain. For Sillitoe, as for so many other commentators across the ideological spectrum at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, television ? especially commercial television ? acted as a soporific, debasing popular culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corroding community life. Commercial television had been introduced in 1954, following the fraught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of the Television Act, the same year that rationing of consumer goods finally ended, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the decade higher wages and more easily available credit brought the material goods made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible by capitalism?s golden age within reach of more and more workers. Commercial television changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising profoundly, brought it directly into people?s living rooms and heightened anxieties about its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purported effects. Given all the heat advertising generated, it is surprising that there is a paucity of good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical studies of the industry and its practices, particularly for the post-war period. Terry Nevett?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Advertising in Britain)] TJ ET BT 138.692 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\) is still, remarkably, the most recent general work and it is superficial and very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak on later developments; Winston Fletcher?s )] TJ ET BT 270.644 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Powers of Persuasion)] TJ ET BT 375.980 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2008\) is an unscholarly account by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an insider.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.008 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.008 50.961 m 98.000 50.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.000 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nixon?s book is therefore to be warmly welcomed as a timely contribution to a much-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1555)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean Nixon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719085376)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719085376)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gurney)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.0077 51.2755 97.9997 63.1555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 5685 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although he does not cite it, Nixon takes his cue from an essay by Frank Mort on transatlantic commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture, which criticised the Americanisation thesis, suggesting that the influence was not all one-way.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.944 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.944 754.563 m 539.936 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Focusing on the London office of the US owned advertising agency, J. Walter Thompson, Nixon argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British operation was modified to suit the national context: ?US advertising methods and approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, in many instances, adapted, hybridized and indigenized? is how he puts it \(p. 3\). More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforwardly, we might say American selling techniques were considerably toned down, and the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been better entitled "soft sell" rather than "hard sell", though this might not have proved as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive to potential readers. Many employees of JWT London were British, male, public school and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxbridge educated \(p. 27\). The company had a British senior management team from 1946 and the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office enjoyed relative autonomy from the parent company, though the latter was undoubtedly more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful \(p. 43\). Advertising agencies in Britain came to be dominated by American companies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period discussed in the book, which fuelled fears of an American invasion; by the end of the 1960s six out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the top ten advertising agencies were owned by companies in the United States \(p. 30\). The overall response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of advertising agencies to the coming of commercial television in Britain was ambivalent, which was hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising as many of the smaller agencies were heavily dependent on newspaper and poster advertising and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were consequently reluctant to embark on new ventures \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British business was also often slow to invest in advertising because it tended to be production oriented, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while car manufacturers agreed to limit their use of TV advertising. The 1950s and 1960s witnessed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenal growth of the domestic consumer goods industry and the re-invention of the modern kitchen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the fantasy frequently outran the reality, as Nixon observes since many lived in sub-standard homes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout these decades \(p. 126\). Nevertheless, the ideal home was the chief target for early television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertisers. The biggest spenders on television advertising were multinational corporations such as Unilever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Beecham Group. Working for these clients, advertising agencies made major efforts to ?assemble? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ?mobilize? the housewife as the archetypal consumer, which meant ITV was ?dominated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertisers of packaged goods aimed at the mass-market housewife? \(p. 24\) More sophisticated ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tapping into consumers? desires were developed, though Nixon usefully stresses how JWT London drew on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different sources of knowledge about the consumer in their advertising campaigns, employing the legacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home grown documentary film making, as well as sociological approaches that were grafted onto motivation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research pioneered in the United States by advertising gurus such as Ernest Dichter. As in other respects, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British operation, ?selectively appropriated and reworked elements of US market research? \(p. 70\). Nixon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on particular campaigns ? for the Pin-Up home perm, Brillo soap pads, Persil washing powder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Persil Washes Whiter?\) and Oxo cubes ? the latter featuring a ?slice of life? series of television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertisements that starred Katie and her perfect suburban family. Katie was supposed to represent the ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housewife, a domesticated yet still feminine and sexual creature who understood implicitly that ?Oxo gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meal man appeal? \(p. 80\). The close discussion of advertising practices and campaigns is a major strength of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nixon?s work, though one wonders how he is able to tell the story without occasionally balking at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speciousness of it all.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.9437 754.8775 539.9357 766.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7736 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commercial television was a disruptive force, generating a protracted debate across both culture and polity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advertising agencies played a careful game, publically distancing themselves from the brasher forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising that characterised American television and working behind the scenes to further their interests. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus professional bodies such as the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising \(IPA\) backed the commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsidy of television rather than the system of sponsored television that had been adopted on the other side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Atlantic; stations were responsible for producing programmes and creating audiences in Britain \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(99\). The importance of preventing advertisers from having direct influence over programme content was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written into the Television Act and the number and length of ?spot adverts? were regulated so that television )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising took up a maximum of 10 per cent of the broadcasting day. As Nixon underlines, the IPA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually negotiated a deal with the Independent Television Contractors Association that allowed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members to effectively monopolise television advertising; agencies conducted 94 per cent of the business by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early 1960s \(p. 101\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The popular press was also divided about television advertising; the )] TJ ET BT 362.648 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 430.304 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was against, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the more working-class )] TJ ET BT 179.324 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mirror)] TJ ET BT 242.324 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was in favour. Consumers had mixed feelings too, liking some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects and disliking others, such as the way advertisements often interrupted programmes at inappropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times. Nixon uses surveys and qualitative studies undertaken by advertising agencies, as well as letters from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual consumers, to explore the reception of advertising campaigns, particularly for Oxo cubes. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of the letters in particular he argues that although consumers sometimes had critical things to say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodities frequently got under their skin and concludes; ?for many of these correspondents, Katie and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip were real presences in their lives, knowable in the same way that real people were knowable? \(p. 156\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The increasing salience of advertising prompted attacks from intellectual and political elites and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy prompted government scrutiny by various committees of inquiry headed by Sir Harry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pilkington, J. T. Molony and Lord Reith. These made recommendations and managed to curb some of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were perceived to be the worst abuses such as ?advertising magazines?, which mixed product promotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with fictional narratives and which were banned following the Pilkington Report in 1963 \(p. 111\). After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Molony Committee reported, the Advertising Standards Authority was established to further strengthen the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policing of television advertisements. Critics emphasised the ?irrationality? of advertising and the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it ?trade\(d\) on human weakness? as the Pilkington Report put it \(p. 172\). However, puritans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimated the emotional and symbolic appeal of goods to consumers, according to Nixon, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising people who understood these aspects very well indeed and that was why their vision won out. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid 1960s, therefore, advertisers felt ?that they had the wind of history in their sails? \(p. 181\). Sounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cautionary note in his conclusion, Nixon ruefully observes how mass consumerism has generated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions that continue to trouble us today, especially the reduction of the idea of the good life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual freedom to the acquisition of material goods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nixon?s work undeniably raises many vital issues. However, his treatment of them is somewhat partial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather slight at times. The influence of the British documentary tradition is a fascinating suggestion, but is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not adequately demonstrated in the text. The focus on JWT London is understandable but more detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the response of other agencies to commercial television would have been useful. Nixon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrestles with the intractable methodological problem of consumers? reception of advertisements and this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be welcomed, though the sample of letters on which he draws \(35 in total\) is too small on which to base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any conclusions. Moreover, to properly make sense of them we need to know how they were elicited. Were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they sent to JWT London in response to a promotion, one wonders? I find it hard to believe that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondents were not writing tongue in cheek, and for a purpose ? free gifts perhaps or a year?s supply of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxo cubes?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond these particular points, I have two major criticisms of this book. The first concerns its chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framing. Many of the trends Nixon draws attention to ? such as the emergence of the modern kitchen and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern housewife, for instance ? had their roots in the inter-war period, as he acknowledges himself at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various points in the text. This deeper context would have been worth discussing at greater length, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in light of recent research in this field.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.636 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.636 62.787 m 289.628 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.628 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More importantly, however, Nixon chooses to ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influence of the Second World War on advertising and consumption, and this omission is disabling. For )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.6357 63.1015 289.6277 74.9815 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8242 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure, the war years do intrude occasionally. For example, a fascinating telegram sent in autumn 1945 by Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hinks and Douglas Saunders, chairman and chief executive of JWT London, to Stanley Resor, co-owner of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the company in New York, is quoted, emphasising the importance of the London operation keeping their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account with the British Overseas Airways Corporation: ?This account vital to us and whole company STOP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... All here have been through much since 1939 and have struggled desperately to keep business going and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we cannot build proper cooperation unless all there are made to feel that it works both ways STOP.? \(p. 48\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One would have liked to know much more about how JWT London ?struggled desperately to keep business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going? and how this coloured their later outlook. Advertising was seen by many as deeply unpatriotic during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, potentially undermining the national interest and the war against fascism. Denys Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damning indictment of the profession and its methods, )] TJ ET BT 298.340 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voice of Civilisation)] TJ ET BT 397.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1943\), might be regarded as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme view but it was not unusual; after all, only months before its publication advertisers were literally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helping to poison people with dangerous quack medicines until the Pharmacy and Medicines Act of 1941 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made their sale illegal. The immediate post-war period witnessed a regrouping by the advertising industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the environment remained extremely hostile until the Conservative Party regained power in 1951. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, in 1947 Glenvil Hall, Financial Secretary to the Treasury, had been booed when he declared to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advertising Association at Margate that the week after ?a real conference is being held there? ? meaning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party conference. Later that year Sir Stafford Cripps, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, threatened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefly to impose a heavy tax on advertising expenditure. The )] TJ ET BT 332.300 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 399.956 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( compared Cripps?s proposals to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the taxes on knowledge in the early nineteenth century and roundly condemned the plan: ?Goods that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returning to the shops after years of absence must be brought back to the public notice ... Advertising has an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immense part to play in maintaining a healthy and hopeful home market?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.640 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.640 509.955 m 402.632 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My second major criticism concerns Nixon?s handling of the politics of ?affluence?. In short, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding important recent research on this theme by Lawrence Black, Mark Jarvis and others \(duly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cited but not engaged with in the text\), Nixon presents a generally depoliticised account of the triumph of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war advertising. There is no discussion of Conservative thinking about consumption or the party?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espousal of the discourse and ideology of ?choice?, despite its resonance for us today. Bevan?s famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack on the industry at the Advertising Association?s conference at Eastbourne in 1953 is quoted ? ?one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most evil consequences of a society which is, itself, intrinsically evil? ? along with its rebuttal by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertising practitioners \(p. 164\). But Nixon overlooks Reginald Maudling?s speech at this event \(he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic Secretary to the Treasury at the time\), which emphasised the centrality of choice to Conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic thinking. Maudling, a leading mover of the ?bonfire of controls? after 1951, backed the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer over the ?gentleman in Whitehall? and pledged support for the industry as an intrinsic part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revitalised capitalism: ?Advertising is an essential part of the machinery of competition which, I and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government believe, is the best protection of the consumer and the best assurance of industrial efficiency?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 298.371 m 48.008 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commercial television had strong support in Conservative circles for a variety of reasons, including the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it dovetailed with a general belief in the benefits of empowering individual consumer choice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, the organised working-class consumer, in the form of the co-operative movement, was shut out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of commercial television. Nixon notes that the IPA was ?troubled? by rumours that the Co-operative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wholesale Society had been offered recognition by Independent Television companies, but this lead is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed \(p. 101\). However, the period witnessed protracted struggles over markets for particular goods; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?soap war? raged, for instance, between Unilever?s ?Persil? and the CWS?s brand ?Spel?. Nixon also fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relate his findings to recent work on advertising and the reconstitution of the political domain and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinery of political parties in post-war Britain. He notes ?the growing role of marketing people over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation of politics? \(p. 165\), most apparent after the 1959 general election, the first television election )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, once again, there is no proper consideration of this issue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.304 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.304 129.555 m 342.296 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.296 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, advertising was bound up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly with a ?Natopolitan? world view and this shaped the language and ideology of advertisers. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Advertising Association contested the Reith Report?s recommendation to establish a National Consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Board to protect consumers paid for by a levy on advertising. This they claimed would reduce product range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also ?deny the public the right to exercise adult judgement in spending their money. Even in communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, the Advertising Association?s statement continued, ?it is now being found necessary to offer )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.6397 510.2695 402.6317 522.1495 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 298.6855 48.0077 310.5655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.3037 129.8695 342.2957 141.7495 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 7186 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer choice? \(p. 180\). As well as the domestic political context, the shaping influence of Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics is also missing from Nixon?s account, despite important recent work on this theme.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.988 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.988 780.819 m 486.980 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nixon does discuss contemporary debate but foregrounds liberal moralists such as Richard Hoggart, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had condemned the presumed enervating effects of commercialised forms of popular culture in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential work, )] TJ ET BT 117.008 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Uses of Literacy)] TJ ET BT 216.668 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1957\), and who played a prominent role on the Pilkington )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Committee. However, there is no discussion of the trenchant critiques of advertising made by New Left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals at the time, especially Raymond Williams. Unlike Williams, Hoggart had no systemic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of advertising, no general grasp of capitalism or how advertising might help shore up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist social relations and ways of thinking, and his moralistic, high-blown rhetoric was often little more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a thinly-disguised form of snobbishness. Williams in contrast tried to analyse what he called ?the magic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system? so that it might be dismantled as a necessary part of making a more egalitarian society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.284 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.284 640.515 m 506.276 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 506.276 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall failure to grapple with the most difficult issues means, for this reviewer at any rate, that despite its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable insights, Nixon?s work, like many of the commodities it considers, in the end promises more than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delivers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terry Nevett, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Advertising in Britain: A History)] TJ ET BT 289.664 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1982\); Winston Fletcher, )] TJ ET BT 463.316 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Powers of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persuasion: The Inside Story of British Advertising 1951?2000 )] TJ ET BT 370.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.664 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.664 517.971 m 499.652 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Mort, ?The commercial domain: advertising and the cultural management of demand? in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moments of Modernity: Reconstructing Britain, 1945-1964)] TJ ET BT 347.996 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Becky Conekin, Frank Mort and Chris )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waters \(Ann Arbor, MI, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.976 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.976 475.203 m 268.964 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Scott, )] TJ ET BT 122.348 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Modern British Home. The Suburban Semi and Family Life between the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wars)] TJ ET BT 89.348 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2013\); Judy Giles, )] TJ ET BT 228.332 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Parlour and the Suburb: Domestic Identities, Class, Femininity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Modernity)] TJ ET BT 135.008 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.656 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.656 432.435 m 267.644 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET BT 131.672 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 20 May 1947, p. 2; 27 November 1947, p. 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.656 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.656 418.179 m 405.644 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 113.684 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 May 1953, p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.680 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.680 403.923 m 258.668 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joe Moran, ?Mass-Observation, market research, and the birth of the focus group, 1937?1997?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of British Studies)] TJ ET BT 187.028 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 47, 4 \(2008\), 827?51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.348 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.348 375.411 m 350.336 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stefan Schwarzkopf, ?They do it with mirrors: advertising and British Cold War consumer politics?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary British History)] TJ ET BT 208.688 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19, 2 \(2005\), 133?50.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.008 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.008 346.899 m 371.996 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raymond Williams, ?The magic system?, )] TJ ET BT 267.668 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Left Review)] TJ ET BT 348.332 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1, 4 \(1960\), 27?32.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.652 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.652 332.643 m 499.640 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy not to respond.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 291.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 273.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 273.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1555)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 271.881 m 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