%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221073640+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221073640+00'00') /Title (Sovereignty Transformed: U.S.-Habsburg Relations from 1815 to the Paris Peace Conference) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4120 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sovereignty Transformed: U.S.-Habsburg Relations from 1815 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Paris Peace Conference)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sprawling geographic, linguistic, and ethnic polyglot of Habsburg Europe makes an unexpected point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison with the United States. Bordering, at its western extremity, the Untersee and Lithuanian-Swiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border; and, at its eastern limits, reaching Kronstadt on the Transylvanian-Romanian border, the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire was the economic and cultural dynamo at the heart of Central Europe. Its twin capitals of Vienna and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Budapest bridged the Danube, connecting lands that ranged from Galicia and Bukovnia along the borders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Russian Empire to Dalmatia and Croatia-Slavonia on the Adriatic Coast. Habsburg dominion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassed 261,243 square miles at the heart of the European continent. Its )] TJ ET BT 407.948 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reichsrat)] TJ ET BT 453.944 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( admitted multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of dynastic rulers and dependent kingdoms, native nobilities and imperial Archdukes, free peasants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indentured serfs, and mixed religious faiths, languages, and ethnicities. The Habsburg Crown managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contain the various forms of national agitation that emanated from its multinational territories through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of indirect rule and colonial domination over its Slavic and Balkan hinterlands, and through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimal demand of )] TJ ET BT 131.012 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kaisertreu )] TJ ET BT 185.348 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its subjects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1556)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicole M. Phelps)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107005662)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subjects/history/american-history-general-interest/us-habsburg-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations-1815-paris-peace-conference-sovereignty-transformed)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Tuffnell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7424 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Baltic and continental economy of the Habsburg Empire was far removed from the Atlantic World of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade and cultural hybridity inhabited by the United States. Trade between the two nations was of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microscopic proportions, few treaties existed between them, and their paths never crossed militarily until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe plunged headlong into the Great War. Yet, for all its diminutive character, Nicole Phelps? innovative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study recovers an overlooked relationship that offers a penetrating insight into the transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international governance and diplomatic protocol across the long 19th century. Her richly textured account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the United States-Habsburg relationship ?demonstrates the international and transnational aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of sovereignty?. The two nations clashed ?over diplomatic norms? and ?a multitude of legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems stemming from the migration of several million people back and forth between the two countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the 1870s and World War I? and over ?their contrasting approaches to managing their diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations? \(p. 2\). These clashes over sovereignty, and the ultimate transformation they wrought on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Power System, animate this diverse account.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We learn of the broad contours of this relationship in the first two chapters, which stand alone as a discrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section. These chapters trace the United States? reluctant and glacial adoption of the norms of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Power System founded at the Congress of Vienna until its dismantling by the post-1919 Wilsonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international system. Phelps has an eye for the intricacies and symbolic practices of Great Power diplomacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that enforced the mutual recognition of legitimacy by nation states. American diplomats discovered many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these norms by breaking them. ?Incidents between the United States and the Habsburg Empire?, writes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phelps, ?created opportunities for American debates on the topic [of diplomatic custom], which in turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created opportunities for the U.S. government to adopt practices that were compliant with the norms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, thus furthering U.S. integration into the Great Power System? \(p. 40\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its frequent and blundering breaches of etiquette with the Habsburgs, American domestic politics were, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever, catalytic. Thus, as national-separatist revolutions broke open across the European continent in 1848, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ebullient support of Lajos Kossuth and the Hungarian 48ers in the United States drove Washington and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vienna into conflict. Pro-Hungarian fervour in the Senate and Democratic press, stoked by Lewis Cass; State )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department flirtation with the recognition of Hungarian independence in the Taylor and Fillmore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presidencies; and, finally, the latter?s 1851 ?rescue? of Kossuth from the Ottoman Empire on board the USS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mississippi)] TJ ET BT 88.028 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( precipitated a breach in relations. Only the death of Daniel Webster, a major opponent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation, averted the crisis. Keen to signal the importance of United States-Habsburg relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Webster?s replacement, Edward Everett, negotiated to raise American diplomats in Vienna from chargs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers resident. In the process, he drew the United States deeper into the system of Great Power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all the importance of formal diplomatic symbolism, however, it is also apparent that United States-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg disputes were resolved most effectively through back-channels. In March 1906, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theodore Roosevelt and Elihu Root recalled Ambassador Bellamy Storer from Vienna because of his wife?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clandestine efforts to expand the Catholic Church?s influence in Europe. Convinced that ?the inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States in world affairs as a Great Power hinged on [the United States?] ability to behave in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner acceptable to the existing, recognized Great Powers?, Roosevelt decided that Storer had to go. Root )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clumsily removed Storer without informing the Habsburg Government \(pp. 95-9\). Away from the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spotlight, Baron Ladislaus Hengelmller?s long residence in Washington \(1894-1913\) enabled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian to leverage personal friendship into ?future American compliance with diplomatic norms? \(p. 98\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt and Hengelmller smoothed over the dispute at various social events ?with relatively little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damage to either individual, either government, or U.S.-Habsburg relations in general?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These chapters make a powerful case that the mutual recognition of national sovereignty both structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Power diplomacy and animated the course of United States-Habsburg relations. Taken together, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a reminder that while the United States may have desired to break from the culture of Old World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy, it was often forced to accept its norms and even co-opt its power to suit its own claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international legitimacy. With its focus on the importance of the symbolic resonances of diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremony and social life these chapters are also a fine example of the ?New Diplomatic History?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.896 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.896 50.787 m 515.888 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 515.888 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.8957 51.1015 515.8877 62.9815 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on bilateral relations and elite diplomacy sets them apart from the chapters that follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phelps?s study changes gear when she focuses on the era of mass migrations. The late 19th-century boom in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic migration fuelled a transnational discussion of dual citizenship and sovereignty in a world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferating nationalisms. Chapters three and four scrutinise the inter-relationship between diplomacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-building through the lens of this mass movement. The international state system groaned under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight of increasing numbers of mobile subjects and citizens crossing state borders, trespassing on the legal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic, and racial categories of citizenship favoured by consolidating national regimes. As the volume of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unregulated movement increased between the United States and the Habsburg Empire the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consular service expanded in kind, extending the power of its protection ?to provide services in areas where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a country?s citizens concentrated abroad? \(p. 109\). Phelps? analysis shifts into higher gear too, as the density )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of United States-Habsburg connections increased with the tide of transatlantic migration. ?The massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of people between the United States and the Habsburg Empire raised vital questions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty and citizenship,? Phelps writes, at the root of which ?was how to prove an individual?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship status? \(p. 110\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturalised Hungarian- and Austrian-Americans struggled to prove their status as American citizens in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of arrest or the Habsburg state?s claims on them for military service, revealed in chapter three. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frequent, high volume migration across the Atlantic raised legal and diplomatic problems unheard of before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid 19th century. Consulates struggled constantly to determine expatriates, repatriates, and dual citizens. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Consuls across the Habsburg Empire therefore played an important part in codifying citizenship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and expatriation as they weighed the legitimacy of individual?s claims to protection by the United States. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zdenek Bodlak, for instance, born in St. Paul, Minnesota, in 1893 to Bohemian migr parents, was arrested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Prague in 1913 after circulating letters that were highly critical of Austria and Germany. As punishment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodlak was sentenced to three months hard labour and banishment from the Habsburg Empire upon its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completion. With the help of Charles Hoover, the United States Consul, Bodlak appealed the verdict, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was upheld. In the end, Hoover was likewise content with the verdict. In so doing, argues Phelps, ?he helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(align politics and physical location?. To Hoover, ?if naturalized American citizens were more interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austrian politics ? then they should not be able to hide behind the barrier of American citizenship? \(p. 128\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phelps? work highlights that dual-citizenship was deeply problematic in a rapidly connecting world. Since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals slipped so easily between the interstices of diplomatic treaty-making, protection was granted at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consular level on a case by case basis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Phelps is also historicising one element of the emergence of international law in this period. Many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issues facing the consular service in Vienna were grappled with across the Continent by American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats. Dual citizenship, or worse, statelessness, created great confusion under the citizenship regimes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Power System. In the final third of the 19th century, the United States led the way in recognising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right of expatriation. The State Department concluded bi-lateral naturalization treaties with the North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German Confederation, Baden, and Bavaria in 1867; with Hesse, Belgium and Mexico \(1868\); Sweden and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norway \(1869\); Britain and Austria-Hungary \(1870\); Ecuador and Denmark \(1872\). The treaties, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying Expatriation Act of 1868, were one element of a fragile consensus in the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international law. This mass movement reminds us that the norms and practices of Great Power Diplomacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were consistently reformulated in the light of contestations it received from highly mobile non-state actors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phelps suggests one mode for understanding the broader impact of the transatlantic debate over dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and expatriation on the Great Power System.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protection demanded a vast consular service. The rapidly expanding Habsburg Consular service is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recaptured in vivid detail by Phelps in chapter four, as she examines the difficulties its members faced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protecting Austrian and Hungarian citizens in the United States in this period. Principally, this took the form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of coordinating compensation payments, protecting the property rights, and examining the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions of the thousands of Habsburg subjects who migrated to the United States. These transatlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birds of passage took employment in hard labour industries such as mining, steel milling, and on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railroads where working conditions were poor and nativism, labour unrest, and injury were rife. Through an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative use of reports of accidental death and on-the-job injuries, compensation claims, and consular )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7906 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulars in Austrian archives, Phelps uncovers the voices of Habsburg migrants and the complex interaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between transatlantic migration and diplomatic service. Habsburg consuls amassed extraordinary amounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information from a web of diplomats that stretched from New York to San Francisco, Chicago to New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orleans. Through regular )] TJ ET BT 158.648 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amtstage)] TJ ET BT 203.312 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?office days?\) and the opening of )] TJ ET BT 373.592 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(expositurs)] TJ ET BT 422.924 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(branch offices\) Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials circulated germane knowledge of economic opportunities and working conditions for likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants from the Empire, they transmitted copies of federal laws and regulations to Vienna with a host of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other material including newspaper editorials, congressional debates, and proposed legislation. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through these avenues, much more than American projection, that Habsburg subjects gained knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although migration has been central to proliferating transnational histories of the United States in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, these are perspectives and approaches absent from the vast majority of this literature. )] TJ ET BT 481.916 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(U.S.-Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Relations)] TJ ET BT 79.352 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pieces together the structural apparatus of transatlantic migration circuits. Migrants? motives were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more than the sum of rumour, misinformation, incentive, and familial networks, but could draw on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulation of international knowledge collected by the state. This analysis provokes further queries. How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should historians conceive of consular offices as transnational spaces? What social and cultural roles did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg Consulates perform for communities of expatriated imperial subjects? In what other ways did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interface between state apparatus and non-state actors and agencies shape the mass movement of the Gilded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Age?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phelps is also interested in the power that flows through these veins of interconnection, which she finds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cultural identity politics of United States-Habsburg interactions. Habsburg consuls in the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?strong proponents of a supranational,)] TJ ET BT 243.968 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( kaisertreu)] TJ ET BT 295.628 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( identity? in which language, religion, and social class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were deemphasized, or suppressed, in favour of the political citizenship categories of either )] TJ ET BT 475.580 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Austrian)] TJ ET BT 516.920 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian)] TJ ET BT 86.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Diplomatic insistence on these categories was therefore an act ?reinforcing Habsburg legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the international community? \(p. 155\). Yet, each time Habsburg consuls pressured the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government in defence of its subject?s interests they encountered the limitations of transnational state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building. Habsburg sovereign categories ran counter to American political culture, which identified German, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magyar, Polish, Slovak, Croatian, and Romanian speakers as racial categories, ?undermining Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy and fostering the development of exclusionary racial nationalisms? \(p. 211\). Ironically, Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consuls found that they must rely on nationalist associations such as the Magyar American Hungarian Aid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society if they were to successfully protect Hungarian subjects. In the process, Habsburg officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadvertently supported the identity categories they hoped to oppose. Caught between two polities, Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials also blamed Magyarization efforts by the Hungarian government for the development of separatist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalisms in the United States \(p. 184?5\). Cumulatively, Phelps argues, ?this racial thinking undermined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legitimate sovereignty of the Habsburg government and planted the seed for later American recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of race-based nation-states in Central Europe? \(p. 196\). Rarely have the dialogic, transnational dimensions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national separatism and imperial state-building been examined in this way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phelps adeptly traces the nexus of race and state-building through the Great War in the closing chapters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which form the third and final discrete section of the work. Chapters six and seven are much more in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mould of traditional diplomatic history, tracking the break in United States-Habsburg relations, declaration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war, and the efforts of the Wilsonian government to negotiate the reorganisation of Central and Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. The United States and Allied governments, as is well known, favoured the break-up of the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire and made various, often contradictory, concessions to groups seeking self-determination. The arc )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that unites this narrative is the importance of American racial categorising and its creation of the conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the recognition of alternate sovereignty in Central Europe. This evolved from the lack of direction in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson?s initial policy towards Eastern and Central Europe, which opened a vacuum that enabled ?deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingrained American thinking about racialist categories to manifest itself? \(p. 219\). Competitors to Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty were able to take advantage of these racial formations, making claims for their legitimacy by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invoking ?a race-based sense of self-determination? \(p. 220\). Czechoslovak nationalists, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted American categorisations to argue that the Czech and Slovak languages were so similar as to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost identical. From this linguistic root, they asserted that the two groups were racially similar and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7202 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessed the same political aspirations. These were the exact arguments Wilson wanted to hear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson therefore created the opportunity for the recognition of alternative sovereignty in Central Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reality of a post-war multinational Central Europe took shape gradually and was not fully completed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Paris Peace Conference, discussed in the final chapter. The turbulence, violence, and revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ferment of post-1919 Europe emerged in this geopolitical void and was in part a product of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American insistence on an ?unbridgeable gulf between majority and minority populations? \(p. 264\). Armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts broke out across eastern and central Europe as the new states emerging from the dismantled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg and Romanov Empires attempted to fix their own borders. In Budapest, Bla Kun had founded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic. The equally short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic had likewise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised the red flag in Munich. As the transatlantic partners attempted to create states that included the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smallest number of minorities possible, the successor states they forged ?were more inclined to work to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create that homogeneity through laws, forced repatriations, and eventually ?ethnic cleansing?? \(p. 264\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This racial-national essentialism also created a vast stateless population suffering in American internment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps. Four military camps in the United States housed 2,300 Austrian, Hungarian, and German civilians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(mostly in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia, and Fort Douglas, Utah\) and 4,000 prisoners of war. Phelps examines a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of attempts by these transnational inmates to secure release from American camps, which reveal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the United States? commitment to racial territorial sovereignty rendered Central European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens temporarily stateless. The Justice Department was committed to a mixed policy of repatriation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportation of many of these individuals. In so doing, they hoped to ?align individuals? racial identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship, and physical location? ? the supposed pre-requisites of lasting peace \(p. 270\). Yet, in the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war world of redrawn borders, individual citizenship often remained unclear. It was this ?disregard for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual choice regarding nationality and citizenship,? Phelps asserts, that ?became a hallmark of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1919 international system, which privileged group identity and rights over those of individual people? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(273\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of self-determination places Phelps in conversation with the ?Wilsonian Moment?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ushered in the transformation and expansion of international society in the 20th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 456.956 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 456.956 402.675 m 470.948 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 470.948 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that process was the belief that the self-determining nation-state was the only legitimate form of sovereignty. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, as Phelps cogently demonstrates, that sovereignty was dependent on the racial-national categorising of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Habsburg Empire?s subjects. As Wilson haphazardly redrew the map of Central and Eastern Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along ethnic and racial lines, the reader is left wondering where the region stood in the transformed global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartography envisioned by Wilson. In other words, did he ever consider the region as fundamentally post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial in character? What place did the empire of the Habsburgs occupy in his understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and modes of government that animated empires worldwide? Finally, in what ways did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicities of Habsburg Europe intersect with American views of the processes of ?civilization? ? or was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?whiteness? both necessary and sufficient for the Habsburg successor states to be considered suitable for self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance? Indeed, throughout the volume, this reviewer was left wondering whether American diplomats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or State Department officials ever seriously considered, or even understood, the complex imperial character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Austria-Hungary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both international and transnational in approach, Phelps? study is a highly calibrated examination worthy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a place on the shelves of European and American historians alike. This is a rare, non-Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the transatlantic transformation of international society between the end of the Napoleonic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First World Wars. Phelps unfolds a finely textured and detailed image of a tangled and complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interconnection that should prompt historians to reconsider the way in which the legitimacy of international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order was asserted, reinforced, and eventually, dismantled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.563 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance: )] TJ ET BT 146.996 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Diplomats? World: A Cultural History of Diplomacy, 1815-1914)] TJ ET BT 479.996 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Markus )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Msslang and Torsten Riotee \(Oxford, 2008\); Jenifer Mori, )] TJ ET BT 352.640 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Diplomacy: Britain in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe, c.1750?1830 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 456.9557 402.9895 470.9477 414.8695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 1753 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2011\), reviewed at )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1139)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.632 795.075 m 446.276 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 449.276 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 463.268 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 15 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 2014].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.332 780.819 m 189.320 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erez Manela, )] TJ ET BT 130.988 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wilsonian Moment: Self-Determination and the International Origins of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anticolonial Nationalism )] TJ ET BT 188.036 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.684 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.684 752.307 m 317.672 752.307 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1556)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 328.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/71782)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1139)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.6317 795.3895 446.2757 807.2695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1139) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.3317 781.1335 189.3197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.6837 752.6215 317.6717 764.5015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 328.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1556) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000004859 00000 n 0000004968 00000 n 0000005078 00000 n 0000005187 00000 n 0000008748 00000 n 0000008876 00000 n 0000008960 00000 n 0000009044 00000 n 0000016521 00000 n 0000016551 00000 n 0000016677 00000 n 0000016713 00000 n 0000016778 00000 n 0000024222 00000 n 0000024287 00000 n 0000032246 00000 n 0000032330 00000 n 0000039585 00000 n 0000039615 00000 n 0000039743 00000 n 0000039779 00000 n 0000039884 00000 n 0000041690 00000 n 0000041818 00000 n 0000041914 00000 n 0000042042 00000 n 0000042097 00000 n 0000042225 00000 n 0000042280 00000 n 0000042408 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42504 %%EOF