%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 43 0 R 60 0 R 99 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723182711+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723182711+01'00') /Title (The German Roots of Nineteenth-Century American Theology) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3970 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The German Roots of Nineteenth-Century American Theology)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The basic thesis of Annette Aubert?s impressive monograph is that the changes and developments within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century American Reformed theology needs to be analysed within a transatlantic intellectual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological context, especially in relation to the influence of German theology upon the United States. Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aubert argues that American Reformed theologians interacted with the liberal theology of F. D. E. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schleiermacher, the confessional orthodoxy of E. W. Hengstenberg, as well as the diverse school of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediating theologians. The latter group are considered to be especially important as they tried to integrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional beliefs with the ideas of Schleiermacher and the philosopher G. W. F. Hegel. Understanding these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences is deemed crucial to our comprehension of how the American Reformed divines contextualised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own theology in light of the modern age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Aubert claims that no detailed study of the mediating theology?s influence on American Reformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology has been carried out thus far, nor has the issue of the divergence in theological method between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton Theology and the Mercersburg Theology been adequately addressed. The book?s primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution is its analysis of the engagement of Charles Hodge of Princeton and E. V. Gerhart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mercersburg with German theology and European intellectual developments. Gerhart, in particular, remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1557)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annette G. Aubert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199915323)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(416pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199915323.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Ritchie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9392 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an under-analysed figure. This neglect is probably as a result of the prominence of other Mercersburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians, especially John Williamson Nevin and the church historian Phillip Schaff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.316 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.316 780.819 m 465.308 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 465.308 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gerhart has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen owing to the fact that he produced a systematic theology of Mercersburg doctrine in his )] TJ ET BT 493.268 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Christian Religion)] TJ ET BT 140.696 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, something that Nevin failed to do.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.688 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.688 752.307 m 324.680 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.680 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hence the book fills a significant gap in our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of vital issues in American intellectual and religious history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The distinguished historian of religion, David Bebbington, has drawn attention to the divergence between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those 19th-century Christians who were influenced by Romanticism and those who intellectual outlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to be shaped by the Enlightenment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.664 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.664 683.283 m 267.656 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 267.656 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One of the most significant examples of this cleavage is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in chapter one, as Dr Aubert analyses the diverse intellectual frameworks within which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton and Mercersburg theologies operated. The theological method of the Princeton divines was deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebted to Scottish Common Sense Realism and Baconian theories of induction. According to their outlook )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exegetical theology must always take precedence over philosophical theology. Hence in an address to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students at Princeton Seminary, Ashbel Green insisted that Baconianism should be applied to biblical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exegesis: ?in true philosophy we are to abandon all hypotheses, and simply to take facts as we find them ? so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that no passage should be interpreted by any previous philosophical dogma, but simply and solely by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound exegesis of language?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.984 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.984 569.235 m 187.976 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 187.976 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While Princeton did not slavishly follow Thomas Reid and other Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophers, they imitated Francis Turretin \(a leading seventeenth-century Calvinist\) in utilising philosophy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a hand-maid to theology and were thus able to employ Common Sense Realism and Baconianism as tools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in defending Reformed orthodoxy and rejecting Romanticism and German Idealism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.292 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.292 526.467 m 453.284 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By way of contrast the Mercersburg theologians, Nevin and Gerhart, relied heavily upon German Idealism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Romanticism in their efforts to reformulate traditional Reformed prolegomena. Gerhart, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought that Baconianism could be applied to the natural sciences, but not to the study of Christianity. Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of Baconianism and Common Sense Realism led them away from the exegetical approach of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton?s theological method to the Christological approach, which argued that Christ \(rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scripture\) was the ultimate source of theology. Moreover, Schaff?s application of Hegel?s dialectic to church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and Nevin?s appropriation of the ideas of the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge were further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicators of the influence of Romanticism. It should not be assumed, however, that Mercersburg had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopoly in relation to its interaction with German theology. Both the )] TJ ET BT 376.676 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mercersburg Review)] TJ ET BT 476.984 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Princeton Review)] TJ ET BT 119.000 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( took great interest in German Protestantism. Even Hodge appreciated aspects of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological works, especially philological, critical, and exegetical studies which could be used to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed orthodoxy. Hodge, in fact, had studied in Germany and interacted carefully with various strands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of German theology.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 133.664 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 133.664 329.139 m 147.656 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 147.656 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus, the author has provided a balanced assessment of the interaction between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton divines and German theology, helpfully correcting the assertion that Hodge was ?anti-German?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 543.920 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 543.920 314.883 m 557.912 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freidrich Schleiermacher, one of the main intellectual sources for German theology in this period, is given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific attention in chapter two. Even his ideological foes such as Charles Hodge recognised that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy of Schleiermacher had a profound influence on the transatlantic theological world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.936 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.936 260.115 m 499.928 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.928 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence was felt both directly as a result of the reading of Schleiermacher?s own writings and indirectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Coleridge and the mediating theologians. Aside from idiosyncratic divines such as Nevin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerhart, more mainstream theologians including Moses Stuart and W. G. T. Shedd engaged with and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated aspects of Schleiermacher?s work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.272 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.272 203.091 m 272.264 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.264 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This proviso notwithstanding, the author?s judgment that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schleiermacher was the father of theological liberalism appears sound. Schleiermacher?s theological method )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was inspired by a desire to reinterpret traditional doctrinal themes to suit the modern world, with him acting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a mediator between traditional religion and enlightened society. Consequently, Schleiermacher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downgraded scholastic theology and marginalised the Protestant confessions as documents merely suited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their context. Schleiermacher, moreover, is recognised as the originator of the notion that all theology should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be deduced from a central principle. Modern theological movements which operate on such an assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should therefore be regarded as appropriators of Schleiermacher?s ideas, even if such ideas are used for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ostensibly orthodox purposes. Schleiermacher was also the inspiration behind theories which tended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise Christ?s incarnation at the expense of the atonement. Schleiermacher judged that Christ?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redemptive act was not to be found at the end of his life, but at the beginning. 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As with Schleiermacher, they emphasised a Christological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method and the idea of a central dogma in order to overcome the rigid dogmatic systems of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation era. Mediating theologians such as August Tholuck and C. C. Ullmann also tended to diverge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat from the Reformers emphasis on the work of Christ. Not all, however, went as far as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schleiermacher in considering the atonement as fulfilled in the incarnation. I. A. Dorner, who was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praised in the )] TJ ET BT 101.672 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Princeton Review)] TJ ET BT 186.656 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, believed that Schleiermacher?s view effectively obscured the ethical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of Christ?s redemptive work. Despite their general acceptance of Christology as the controlling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine and their consequent rejection of )] TJ ET BT 236.636 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sola scriptura)] TJ ET BT 303.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dr Aubert very properly recognises that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediating theologians were not an entirely unified school of thought. To this end, a useful taxonomy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different categories among the mediating theologians \(ecclesiastical, revivalist, and speculative\) has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided \(p. 73\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last four chapters of the book expand on themes mentioned in the introduction and conclusion by means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a detailed analysis of the interaction of Gerhart and Hodge with German theology and the relevance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this to their respective views of the atonement. Dr Aubert?s work on Gerhart expands upon earlier work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out by the renowned historian of theology, Richard Muller.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.296 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.296 500.211 m 374.288 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.288 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the author?s opinion Gerhart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes of the Christian Religion)] TJ ET BT 200.036 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sought to complete what Nevin began and represent the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive systematic theology aligned with the mediating theology ostensibly written for American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed theologians. Gerhart was not, however, an uncritical follower of German theology. He did not go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as far as Schleiermacher in rejecting the idea that the atonement satisfied God?s justice. And while he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained the Mercersburg position that humanity is redeemed by Christ?s person and not by his work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerhart tended to put more emphasis upon the atonement than Nevin. Unlike Kant, Schleiermacher, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hegel, Gerhart saw the need for objective theology in order to combat revivalism. It thus seems fair to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude that Gerhart was a nuanced thinker as opposed to a slavish follower of German philosophy or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology. Nonetheless the influence of the Christological method upon Gerhart?s theology is well drawn out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the author. Evidence of this is seen in the sharp dichotomy he made between Christian dogmatics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biblical Theology, which he set in contrast to the ?metaphysical doctrine of premundane decrees? associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Reformed orthodoxy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.672 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.672 329.139 m 181.664 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 181.664 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This point raises the question of whether or not Mercersburg Theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves to be considered as constituting a significant modification of Reformed divinity. In view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence which the author presents, especially with respect to Gerhart?s rejection of various doctrines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually considered essential to Calvinism \(such as total depravity and limited atonement\), the review must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer in the affirmative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With respect to Hodge, Dr Aubert argues that it is a mistake to view him as a mediating theologian. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges John Stewart?s assertion that Hodge significantly differed from the Reformed scholastics partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owing to the influence of Tholuck?s mediating theology.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.656 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.656 217.347 m 326.648 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.648 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such analysis appears flawed because although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodge?s interaction with the mediating theologians served to sharpen his theological method, he did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share Tholuck?s mediating approach and his work displays much affinity with earlier expressions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed orthodoxy. Furthermore, Hodge rejected several of the leading emphases of mediating theology. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is clear that he eschewed the notion of a central dogma and strongly opposed any downgrade of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atonement from being central to the gospel. Hodge?s commitment to exegetical theology and his application )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the inductive method to systematic theology was hardly congruous with the mediating theology?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deviations from )] TJ ET BT 112.676 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sola scriptura)] TJ ET BT 179.684 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In fact, Hodge himself viewed the mediating theology \(or, at least aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it\) as ?Christian only in name?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.004 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.004 103.299 m 203.996 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.996 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And his uncompromising rejection of the Mercersburg Theology should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make us very wary of viewing Hodge as a mediating theologian.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.628 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.628 89.043 m 363.620 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much to commend this painstakingly researched and carefully written monograph. Dr Aubert?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.2957 500.5255 374.2877 512.4055 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.6717 329.4535 181.6637 341.3335 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 306.6557 217.6615 326.6477 229.5415 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.0037 103.6135 203.9957 115.4935 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [43 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.6277 89.3575 363.6197 101.2375 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 11444 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions are well-argued and largely convincing. The book does an excellent job of setting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergence between Princeton and Mercersburg within a wider, transatlantic context. The nuanced analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Charles Hodge is especially welcome and reflects the author?s sound comprehension of the theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues under review. The reviewer would, perhaps, question the validity of the author?s conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodge anticipated the Biblical Theology of Geerhardus Vos \(p. 312n\). In his inaugural address at Princeton, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vos admitted that, ?From the end of the preceding century, when our science first appears as distinct from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dogmatic Theology, until now, she has stood under the spell of un-Biblical principles. Her very birth took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place under an evil star?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.644 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.644 695.283 m 173.636 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 173.636 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is interesting to speculate whether Hodge would have approved of Vos?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modification of Biblical Theology. Although repetition within a monograph can be helpful, especially for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sake of those who may only read particular chapters, the reviewer must express some displeasure at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount of repetition within this volume. It is also debatable if there really needed to be two chapters each on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerhart and Hodge. Once again, we are disappointed by the editorial decision to employ endnotes instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes. Aside from these minor points, )] TJ ET BT 236.672 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The German Roots of Nineteenth-Century American Theology)] TJ ET BT 534.644 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excellent study which displays both an in-depth knowledge of theology and the religious history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic world. It should be eagerly read by all modern religious historians with an interest in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Reformed theology in the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.731 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. A. Noll, )] TJ ET BT 122.684 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America?s God: From Jonathan Edwards to Abraham Lincoln)] TJ ET BT 424.340 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2002\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 409?12; D. G. Hart, )] TJ ET BT 180.332 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John Williamson Nevin: High Church Calvinist)] TJ ET BT 408.668 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Phillipsburg, NJ, 2005\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 487.203 m 139.004 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. V. Gerhart, )] TJ ET BT 134.660 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes of the Christian Religion)] TJ ET BT 300.680 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1891\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.316 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.316 472.947 m 472.304 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. W. Bebbington, )] TJ ET BT 158.012 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dominance of Evangelicalism: The Age of Spurgeon and Moody)] TJ ET BT 488.972 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leicester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\), pp. 109?72; David Bebbington, )] TJ ET BT 252.008 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Religious Revivals: Culture and Piety in Local and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Contexts)] TJ ET BT 142.352 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2012\), pp. 48, 179, 191, 223, 270?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.328 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.328 430.179 m 418.316 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashbel Green, ?Address delivered to the theological students of the Princeton Seminary, N. J., at the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close of semi-annual examination in May, 1835?, )] TJ ET BT 304.316 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biblical Repertory)] TJ ET BT 393.308 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 7, 4 \(Oct. 1835\), 543?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.956 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.956 401.667 m 553.952 401.667 l S BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 387.411 m 78.008 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Turretin,)] TJ ET BT 147.668 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes of Elenctic Theology)] TJ ET BT 293.996 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. G. M. Giger, ed. J. T. Dennison \(1679; 3 vols, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillipsburgh, NJ, 1992\), i, p. 20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.360 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.360 358.899 m 278.348 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. A. Hoffecker, )] TJ ET BT 150.644 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles Hodge: The Pride of Princeton )] TJ ET BT 343.964 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Phillipsburgh, NJ, 2011\), pp. 77?118.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.296 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.296 344.643 m 555.956 344.643 l S BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 330.387 m 90.344 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This claim was made in an editorial comment in )] TJ ET BT 298.328 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coleridge?s American Disciples: The Selected )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Correspondence of James Marsh)] TJ ET BT 222.992 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. J. Duffy \(Amherst, MA, 1973\), p. 118n.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.964 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.964 301.875 m 502.952 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Hodge, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Systematic Theology)] TJ ET BT 240.656 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3 vols., New York, NY, 1872?4\) ii, p. 440.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 453.296 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 453.296 287.619 m 507.284 287.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should be remembered that Shedd, though committed to the orthodoxy of the Westminster )] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confession, was also a great admirer of Coleridge and edited his works. See Bebbington, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dominance of Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 208.664 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 143; W. G. T. Shedd, )] TJ ET BT 332.324 246.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calvinism: Pure and Mixed ? A Defence of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Standards)] TJ ET BT 175.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1893\), p. vi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.988 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.988 230.595 m 373.976 230.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 217.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. A. Muller, ?Emanuel V. Gerhart on the ?Christ-Idea? as fundamental principle?, )] TJ ET BT 466.928 217.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theological Journal)] TJ ET BT 161.684 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 48 \(1986\), 97?117.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.004 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.004 202.083 m 318.992 202.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 189.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerhart, )] TJ ET BT 106.664 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Institutes of the Christian Religion)] TJ ET BT 272.684 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. xiii?xiv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.356 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.356 187.827 m 396.344 187.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 174.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. W. Stewart, )] TJ ET BT 134.672 174.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mediating the Center: Charles Hodge on American Science, Language, Literature, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics)] TJ ET BT 100.688 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1995\), pp. 13?14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.336 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.336 159.315 m 323.324 159.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 146.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Charles Hodge], ?What is Christianity??, )] TJ ET BT 268.316 146.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review)] TJ ET BT 466.292 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 32, 1 \(Jan. 1860\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(157.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 130.803 m 145.004 130.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 117.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For his critique of Nevin and Schaff, see P. C. Gutjahr, )] TJ ET BT 330.980 117.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles Hodge: Guardian of American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orthodoxy)] TJ ET BT 115.340 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2011\), pp. 240?4; Hoffecker, )] TJ ET BT 344.276 103.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles Hodge)] TJ ET BT 417.272 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 255?67.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.600 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.600 102.291 m 539.588 102.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 89.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geerhardus Vos, )] TJ ET BT 147.656 89.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inauguration of the Rev. 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