%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 37 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140919001647+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140919001647+01'00') /Title (Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4270 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Nirenberg?s )] TJ ET BT 127.988 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Judaism: The Western Tradition)] TJ ET BT 310.652 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an impressive scholarly accomplishment that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matches a dauntingly large subject matter with a vast vault of personal knowledge. At 474 pages and 13 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters covering more than 3000 years, it is thorough without being exhaustive. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.300 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.300 229.161 m 439.292 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.292 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The book cogently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follows the development of anti-Judaism from Ancient Egypt through to the de-Judaising theories of Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heidegger and Joseph Goebbels. It is, however, first and foremost a history of ideas rather than of societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some of Nirenberg?s focus and conclusions may sit uncomfortably with readers expecting a straight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-political history of anti-Judaism. Jewish communities and their religion Judaism appear infrequently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of Nirenberg?s sources. They haunt his history like invisible ghosts, invoked to attack perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies who were as likely to be non-Jews as Jews. Take for instance the war of words between the fourth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Christian theologians St Jerome and St Augustine. Jerome \(340/2?420CE\) accused Augustine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(354?430CE\) of ?Judaising? tendencies by defending Jewish Law, who in turn labelled Jerome a ?Judaiser? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for reading original Hebrew texts rather than the Greek translations. Neither knew or had any actual contact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Jews, but their debates on the dangers of Judaism remained seminal guidelines for generations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian theologians \(pp. 120?34\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1558)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Nirenberg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780393058246)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(624pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. W. Norton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.wwnorton.com/books/detail.aspx?ID=24677)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.2997 229.4755 439.2917 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg focuses rather on how certain aspects of Christian teaching and culture used criticism of Jews and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaism to make sense of their own religion and society. It is not a history of anti-Semitism, and Nirenberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differs from Robert Wistrich antithetically.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.320 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.320 754.563 m 254.312 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.312 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He does not examine anti-Judaism to explain the Holocaust, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or contemporary western and Middle Eastern attitudes towards Israel. His purpose is more ambitious than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this; he aims to show that ?pathological? fantasies of Judaism are central to the history of ideas that became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply ingrained in the Western tradition \(p. 468\). Ancient civilisations, medieval kingdoms and modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial states each developed discourses on the Jewish threat that society could be defined against. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg, the barbarism of the Holocaust is the conceivable product of the encoded threat of Judaism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western thought, but was not made inevitable by it. Previous historical instances of anti-Judaism did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create the anti-Semitic ideologies of the 20th century, but they did build on each other to create the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political conditions for them to occur \(pp. 469?70\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg buttresses this argument with reference to influential thinkers from each era. The Ptolemaic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian Manetho?s \(282?246BCE\) demonising of the Jewish ?shepherds? was central to the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a unique Egyptian historical and political thought \(p. 22\). St Jerome and St Augustine?s theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slanging match influenced the medieval Church and monarchies? treatment of minorities \(pp. 120?34\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Luther accused his papist opponents of ?Pharasaism? and attempted to ?drain? Jewish letters from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word of God \(p. 252\). Both Voltaire and Kant identified Jewish vices in the Old Testament as the source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerance in Ancien Rgime society \(pp. 352?60\). And Marx, Heidegger and Sobert provided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical context for Joseph Goebbels? 1933 declaration ?The age of rampant Jewish intellectualism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now at an end? \(p. 423\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With a book this ambitious, however, a wide ranging and generous smattering of primary source material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from lesser known thinkers is expected. Second-century writers such as Justin Martyr \(pp. 100?3\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chronicler Hegesippus \(pp.92?8\) inform the reader of the early Church?s anti-Judaism as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustine and Jerome in Nirenberg?s narrative. Likewise Nirenberg uses Sebastian Brant?s )] TJ ET BT 477.920 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ship of Fools)] TJ ET BT 541.928 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1494 to reveal the dramatization of Early Modern English concerns with the ?Jewishness? of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce as relevantly as Shakespeare?s )] TJ ET BT 236.948 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Merchant of Venice)] TJ ET BT 352.592 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1598\) or Christopher Marlow?s )] TJ ET BT 514.232 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jew of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Malta)] TJ ET BT 62.684 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1589\). It is a testament to Nirenberg?s masterful scholarly skills that his interweaving of diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary sources ? often across eras and continents ? feels appropriate and convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is hard to avoid the impression that )] TJ ET BT 216.008 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Judaism: the History of a Way of Thinking)] TJ ET BT 444.332 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( represents for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg the culmination of a career volte-face in respects to his methodological approach. His 1996 work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 377.660 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rejected a )] TJ ET BT 429.968 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 492.956 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Semitism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.360 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.360 305.139 m 118.352 305.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 118.352 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This approach, Nirenberg argued, was liable to assess individual events in structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextually grounded in the Holocaust, and not in the climatic conditions in which they occurred. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montcluse massacre of 1320 was more relevant for understanding socio-economic relations between Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their Aragonese overlords than explaining the Holocaust, for example.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.276 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.276 262.371 m 406.268 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.268 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communities of Violence )] TJ ET BT 532.928 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a relatively narrow belt of sources covering southwest France and the Crown of Aragon. With )] TJ ET BT 487.916 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Judaism)] TJ ET BT 551.912 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work takes in 3,000 years of historical thought from the Ancient Egyptians to Nazi Germany on a subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost impossibly vast: how anti-Judaism became the basis for people to criticise and understand their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies, and subsequently, how this became the bedrock of the Western tradition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Judaism)] TJ ET BT 111.008 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Nirenberg allows for a continuation of trends in the development of a shared concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Judaism built on and progressed over the periods covered in his book. Nirenberg would not consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this a determinist argument: that questions of Judaism in the history of ideas necessarily connected with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other, or culminated in 20th-century anti-Semitism \(pp. 456?7\). He attempts to combine his disdain for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural approach by viewing anti-Judaism within the context of each period ?and with an awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential futures- that is, of how that material will be put to the work of generating different worldviews in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later periods and places? \(p. 11\). This leads to dead ends as often as open doors. It is a history of how ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Judaism drove forward key concepts of Western thought concerning Christian \(and Muslim\) society, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this tradition was not what inherently drove Western civilisation towards the Final Solution. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps an unsettling conclusion: by implication that the Holocaust was far from inevitable, but equally that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.3197 754.8775 254.3117 766.7575 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.3597 305.4535 118.3517 317.3335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.2757 262.6855 406.2677 274.5655 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 5796 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it could have occurred not in Germany but in France, Britain, the United States or anywhere in the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world \(p. 458?9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The great focus of the book is on the Christian history of thinking about Judaism, but the influence of pagan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers and concepts from antiquity were instrumental to the guidance of the early Church on Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects. In chapter one \(?The ancient world: Egypt, exodus, empire?\) Nirenberg shows how Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars used negative stories and stereotypes of Jews and Judaism, assigning a centrality to them that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped explain Egyptian civilisation?s past ? and just as importantly its future direction. The Passover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(festival for Jews celebrated their liberation; for Egyptians it was an offensive celebration of their society?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction and the defeat of their gods \(p. 18\). In this context, Nirenberg asserts \(conjecturally as the source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(base provides little assistance\) that ancient Egyptians created their own pro-Egyptian versions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Passover?. Nirenberg quotes Manetho \(282?246BCE\), an Egyptian priest from Heliopolis, who relates an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of Egypt by a people called the ?shepherds? residing in Judea, bringing rapine pillage and murder, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but more shockingly in Manetho?s view, impious destruction of temples and divine images \(p. 23\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately the Shepherds were resisted, and this became the basis for the Egyptian version of the exodus as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as Nirenberg?s first example of how ?a people?s sense of their past and present place in the world could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be articulated through the construction of a fundamental opposition to Jews and Judaism? \(p. 24\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg shows how Egyptian anti-Judaism had a powerful influence on the two powers that bequeathed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West its political and cultural heritage: Rome and Greece. Greek thinkers such as Lysimachus \(Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century BCE, p.30\) accepted Egyptian narratives of Jews acting as the enemies of native piety and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity, and Alexandria saw some of the most brutal anti-Jewish riots of antiquity \(pp. 40?1\). By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lobbying for the exclusion of Jews from the privileges of citizenship, Nirenberg asserts that Greeks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexandria were in effect defending their own sovereign rights, and by the act of anti-Jewish violence were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypostatizing political and theoretical criticism of the imperial power of Rome onto a powerless minority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman generals and governors used Egyptian histories to draw their own conclusions about how to deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the perpetual rebelliousness of the state of Judea. However, unlike for the Egyptians and Greeks, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews mattered little to how Romans thought of themselves. Nirenberg leaves this unexplained but it perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted from a lack of physical threat from Jews in Roman historical origins \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was within the framework of the Greek cultural world \(although deeply within the political sphere and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory of the Roman Empire\) that the early Christian Church developed a contrary attitude towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaism which Nirenberg discusses in chapters two and three. Nirenberg details the overriding concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst early Christians \(who were themselves predominantly of Jewish background\) to define ?true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching? from ?false? in their interpretations of the New Testament \(p. 87\). It was with the consolidation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early Church that ?false teaching? became equated with ?Jewish practice?. Second-century CE Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians such as Marcion used the teachings of Paul and the other apostles to denounce as ?Judaisers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians who adhered too closely to the flesh \(i.e. acceptance of circumcision or placing too much focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesus? mortal status\) rather than the spirit \(pp. 97?9\). This marked a crucial phase in early Christian history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the Church became increasingly a Gentile movement independent of Jews, they became the medium for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Christians condemned bad practice. Judaism became the ?Anti-Christianity? to which the narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own Church and wider gentile society could be favourably compared.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7004 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg focuses on the continuation of this theme in the medieval period, which became increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicised \(chapters four to six\). Jews ? barred from communal economic activities and guild membership ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often found employment as money lenders or tax collectors with tacit sovereign approval. Despite not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually predominating in either professions, Jews became associated with them and therefore with sovereign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fiscal power. Political opponents would accuse rulers of becoming ?Judaised?. Thus Simon De Montfort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based the righteousness of his rebellion against Henry III of England in the King?s endorsement of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic activity. Nirenberg shows how this built on the teachings of St Augustine ? that Jews should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerated only as an example to Christians of the ?wandering? fate awaiting adherents to a failed and tainted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion. As a De Montfort supporter, the 13th-century CE theologian Robert Grosseteste, stated, toleration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not extend to princely protection and favour: ?Such lords, like the Jews, drink the blood of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects? \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such powerful anti-Judaist sentiment contributed to the mass expulsion or forced conversions of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations by European monarchs. Vast tracts of Europe became Jew-free zones. Paradoxically, Nirenberg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows how this widened the scope and range of anti-Judaism in the West. The line between Jews and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews suddenly became blurred. The Inquisition in Spain to root out secret Jews led to accusations of ?Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendencies? for as little as refusing to buy an apple on the Sabbath or nodding one?s head during prayer \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(242\). In a Europe largely free from Jews, now potentially everyone could be a Jew or be accused of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Judaisers?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was true also of the world of the Reformation as Nirenberg relates in chapter seven. Martin Luther in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his polemic ?That Jesus Christ was born a Jew? \(1523\) inferred that the Catholic brand of Christianity was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worse even than Judaism in its focus on the flesh and hypocrisy \(p. 261\). His later hard line towards ?real? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews \(?On the Jews and their lies?, 1543\) was perhaps influenced by Catholic counter attempts to Judaize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, and contributed towards the violent expulsion of Jews from most of the German lands by the 1570s \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(262\). But Luther was more concerned with attacking his Christian opponents, seeking to portray them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ?Jewish? than the Jews for their perversion of the sacraments and other ?Jewish? crimes \(p. 260\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg shows how Luther refocused the debate surrounding the interpretation of the Scriptures and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word of God, and made the ghostly spectre of Judaism a ?real? threat to which Christian teaching was set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against in the Confessional age. The centrality of the threat of Judaism within Europe did not diminish with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gradual move from a divinely to a secularised conception of the ordering of the world ? it merely shifted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter ten ? ?Enlightenment revolts against Judaism: 1670?1789?\). Enlightenment philosophes from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Voltaire to Kant derided Christianity for its coupling with, and origin from, the ?sterile? and unreligious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?legalism? of Judaism \(p.359\). Only by throwing off the shackles of Judaism could Christianity become the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true universal religion of humanity, by separating religious institutions and observance from the mechanisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of state. Here again then, Nirenberg shows political thinkers using Judaism to characterise their opponents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conceptualise the evils they observed in their society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th- and early 20th-century Germany provides Nirenberg?s focus in his later chapters. He shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German philosophers from Hegel \(1770?1831\) to Schopenhauer \(1788?1860\) saw the remnants of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law as the principle barrier to the freedom of the individual and human spirit \(pp. 404?5\). Concerns at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creeping calamity of industrialisation, urbanisation and commercialisation from 1750 onwards animated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of Heine \(1797?1856\), Fichte \(1762?1814\) and Marx \(1818?83\) with each equating in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way these ?dangerous? processes with ?Judaism? \(p. 422\). Werner Sombart \(1863?1941\) saw the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism deeply rooted in the migrations of the Jewish people; Max Weber \(1864?1920\) counters this with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his assertion that Protestant capitalism and the ?capitalist spirit? originated separately from what he saw as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unethical history of Jewish economic activity. Marx, Sombart and Weber remain towering figures within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern social sciences, and Nirenberg shows how all of them developed their theories to some degree by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking about Judaism. And it was within the influence and schooling in such high intellectual German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture that Goebbels?s propaganda developed and provided the context in which it was delivered and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received \(p. 448\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 6429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, Nirenberg seeks to show how each era of anti-Judaism to differing degrees built upon one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another to develop the 20th-century political and cultural framework in which the Holocaust was realisable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not inevitable. His is a history of anti-Judaism, but not particularly a history of interaction between Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and non-Jews. It seeks to ask why so many people through history have thought negatively about Judaism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is consequently little room for Jewish voices, or evidence of ?Judeophilia?. The reader is left waiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in vain for a Jewish champion to stand up to the blistering barrage ?Jews? are subjected to in this history, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least for someone to throw in the towel. Nirenberg no doubt would argue that this is not for him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide; his focus is anti-Judaism and its relevance to Western thought, not the history of philosemitism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, some acknowledgement of tolerance and co-existence between Jews and non-Jews would provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a useful counterbalance to the relentless pursuit of evidence of anti-Judaism which occasionally feels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboured.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is primarily a history of thought not a social history. Given this, Nirenberg is occasionally too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quick to inflate the societal importance of the ideas he discusses. Broad socio-economic, cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political developments are summarised and dogmatic doctrinal debates between scholars indulged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generalisations litter these summaries, such as the assertion that the rise of a stock capitalised banking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system meant ?every man became willy nilly a speculator? \(p. 425\). 19th-century workers in sweated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industries may have had something to say about this statement. It perhaps falls outside the scope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nirenberg?s work, but I find the general reluctance to directly explore the impact and influence of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaism on the societies from which his thinkers originate \(and vice versa\) a tad frustrating. For instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the rhetoric and nature of anti-Semitism in 19th- and early 20th-century German towns and villages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by the anti-Judaism of Heideger, Marx and Sombert? Was support for the Third Reich a product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this continually evolving process of self-perlustration-by-Judaism?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A case in point is the Russian Jewish community of London during the First World War. A particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nasty anti-Jewish incident occurred in September 1917 in Bethnal Green; Jewish businesses were looted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vandalised, and hundreds of immigrant Jews subjected to violent attacks in the streets. In determining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivation driving the English crowd to violence against their Jewish neighbours, documentary analysis has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovered several key determinants. Anger at a perceived non-commitment on behalf of the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community to Britain?s war cause; war-strain and shortages on the home front; economic xenophobia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting from Jewish encroachment in traditionally English industries such as tailoring and cabinet making.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 345.651 m 48.008 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In truth all three factors ? their perception as much as reality ? blended together to create the conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for local fury to pour forth. Local memory mythologised how English tailors serving in the war were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muscled out of their territory by entrepreneurial Jews ?shirking? their responsibilities, making quick bucks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst East London families starved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But was this focus on their supposed fiscal avarice a further example of an historic in-grained anti-Semitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse of Jews as money grabbers? A link perhaps from the time of the expulsion under Edward I, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has animated English perceptions of Jews ever since, from Shakespeare to Lord Northcliffe? Was it the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of the development of the ideology of anti-Judaism? If only such developments could be explained so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply. The Bethnal Green disturbances in 1917 were the product of a diverse and overlapping set of factors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chief amongst which was a seemingly indiscriminate economic xenophobia on the part of the East End )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class that spared few newcomers, be they French, Irish, Jewish, or Bangladeshi for that matter. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any case Nirenberg does not attempt to answer such questions; his is a history of ideas not a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples. Besides, if Nirenberg had attempted this, his book would take on a length that would necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negate the punchy pace and direction that makes it such a delight to read.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 345.9655 48.0077 357.8455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 5929 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book represents a scholarly feat few writers could hope to match, engagingly tracking the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how influential thinkers ? from ancient Egyptian historians to Weimer Republic philosophers ? negatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted Judaism to better understand their own religions and society. But the focus on high philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought, the broad sweeps through major societal transformations, and the brevity of analysis on how anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judaism influenced communal interaction between Jews and non-Jews will trouble some historians, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even a young David Nirenberg.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This rises to 610 pages with notes and index.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.668 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.668 646.275 m 333.656 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. A. Wistrich, )] TJ ET BT 140.012 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to Global Jihad)] TJ ET BT 448.352 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 617.763 m 149.000 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Nirenberg, )] TJ ET BT 133.328 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communities of Violence: Persecution of Minorities in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 476.972 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\), pp. 6?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.340 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.340 589.251 m 190.328 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp.69?93.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.676 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.676 574.995 m 190.664 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PROHO 45/10822/318095/478, ?Anti-Jewish Demonstration?, Report of Superintendent J. Best, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hackney Police Station, J Division, 24 September 1917.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.004 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.004 546.483 m 387.992 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author does not wish to reply.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 465.459 m 240.992 465.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 452.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marginalia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://themarginaliareview.com/archives/tag/david-nirenberg)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 436.947 m 326.300 436.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.300 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Republic)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.newrepublic.com/article/114894/david-nirenbergs-anti-judaism-reviewed-sordid-representation-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 408.435 m 553.916 408.435 l S BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jews)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 394.179 m 56.012 394.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 59.012 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huffington Post)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-roth/review-of-david-nirenberg_b_3175416.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 365.667 m 466.304 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.304 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/mar/20/imaginary-jews/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 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