%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922030532+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922030532+01'00') /Title (The Invention of the Restaurant. Paris and Modern Gastronomic Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4828 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Restaurant. Paris and Modern Gastronomic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, Rebecca Spang's first book, is the well-merited recipient of the Thomas J. Wilson prize, awarded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press to the best book it publishes in a given year. )] TJ ET BT 372.644 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention)] TJ ET BT 441.968 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Restaurant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns the emergence of the restaurant as public space and the concomitant development of an authentic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse and doctrine of gastronomy which has its adherents to this day. Gastronomic skills have been part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the definition of gentlemanliness for more than a century, in Britain as in France; Dorothy L. Sayers's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renowned detective hero, Lord Peter Wimsey, was an epicure, and wine-tasting is nowadays a popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity of many middle-class couples, for whom it is as closely associated with cultural superiority and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display of taste as going to the opera. Moreover, who in English-speaking culture today does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately think of France in connection with the history of cookery? The cordon bleu, Escoffier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomy-cuisine and Frenchness are inseparably connected, and this is as true today as it was in 1820. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These connections of taste with elitism, cuisine with a particularly French culture, savoir-faire and savoir-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manger with social status, are all among the problems considered by Spang in tracing their emergence as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inseparable part of the identity of the restaurant over the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it should be noted that an activity which has possessed such cultural significance for so long has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not gone without a history; albeit a very different kind of history from that which Spang wishes to offer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spang's approach can be allied with the so-called 'new cultural history', currently the principal mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing French history around the Revolutionary period, and exemplified by the writings of such as Lynn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunt, Sarah Maza, or Dena Goodman. It bears all the hallmarks of that approach: rich documentation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical engagement with the sources, painstaking archival research, combined into a readable, approachable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book which is hard to put down, and mingles the sources upon which it is built as a )] TJ ET BT 436.328 52.355 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nouvelle cuisine)] TJ ET BT 513.980 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(156)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 November, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Spang)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674000641)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emma Spary)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined its original ingredients. \(I am writing here of the original )] TJ ET BT 359.312 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nouvelle cuisine)] TJ ET BT 436.964 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which, Spang argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed restaurant culture in the late eighteenth century.\) Historians, cultural or otherwise, can reap rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewards from this work. This is not just because of its rewriting of a whole existing historical canon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although that in itself is an impressive and awesome task, handled gently and generously by the author. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather because, as a model of cultural history, this book is a delightful piece. It shows more plainly than any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other that a work which can fascinate the lay reader can also be a skilled and scholarly contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field; an enviable achievement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of what does that achievement consist, seen from the historical standpoint, and where are its weaknesses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths? Established restaurant history, often written by connoisseurs and restaurant critics, presents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin and development of the restaurant as self-evident, and the explanatory model is so dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomic self-accounting since the early 1800s that the existing history of restaurants virtually neglects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pre-Revolutionary history. Spang's account breaks sharply with this 'gastro-hagiography'. In its place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she offers an institution which had its roots in the display of sensibility and physical debility in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the eighteenth century, and came to represent a form of shelter from political intervention where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gustatory delights were elevated to an art form. I find it helpful to compare Spang's account of the restaurant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to work in sociology of knowledge concerning the formation and stabilising of cultural objects. Wiebe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bijker's study of the bicycle raises many similar theoretical issues to those addressed by Spang's book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Technological histories tell teleological tales of the inevitability of the bicycle's being a familiar, two-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wheeled object with clearly defined uses. They tend to efface the very different purposes and forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects which have been roped into the account of the bicycle's 'origins', as if these were mistakes on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to an ideal, yet-to-be-realised bicycle. From the beginning of her work, Spang problematises our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospective vision and understanding of the restaurant as space or cultural object by pointing to its fluidity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its controversial identity over the period between the 1760s and the 1800s. Like sociologists of knowledge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she shows how a variable, contested, cultural entity with a succession of different political and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings could eventually develop into a familiar institution. It was the identity of )] TJ ET BT 434.660 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(practices)] TJ ET BT 478.652 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant-separate tables, movable mealtimes, menus, fixed prices, waiters, the invisibility of culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity-which linked the pre-Revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 247.988 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maison de sante)] TJ ET BT 325.316 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or house of health to the 1820s and 1830s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant, which served a social function close to what we know today. Spang points to the persistence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain aspects of restaurant life which do not seem, )] TJ ET BT 285.956 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prima facie)] TJ ET BT 340.952 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to be central to the definition of what a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant is: the tense combination of private consumption and conspicuous personal display; the attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to furnishings, particularly mirrors, a stock-in-trade of restaurants throughout the period she discusses; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment of paying the bill. These repertoires of self-conduct, the alternating management of the visibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and orderliness of restaurant behaviour, were all quite central to the forging of the restaurant's cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning. Denis Diderot, editor of the )] TJ ET BT 216.656 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopedie)] TJ ET BT 281.300 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, who was fond of describing his meals to his lover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sophie Volland, outlined his first visit to a restaurant in 1767 only in terms of furnishings and practices: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Did I like the restaurant)] TJ ET BT 150.008 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(! Yes indeed: a limitless taste. Service is good, rather expensive, but at the time one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wants. The pretty hostess never comes to chat with her clients; she is too honest and decent for that; but her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clients go and chat with her as much as they like, and she answers very well. One eats alone. Everyone has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his little cabinet where his attention wanders: she comes to see of her own accord whether you need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything; it's a marvel, and it seems everyone is praising it. \(Tourneux edition, vol. XIX:254, letter CVI\) It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at this point that Spang's study extends the boundaries of the studies of cultural objects produced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociologists of knowledge. For, as she stresses, the restaurant was not merely a cultural institution, but also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed primarily, a public space, in which certain new sorts of behaviours were constructed. These were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely to do with eating, but to do with knowing about which sorts of behaviours \(sex, singing, paying, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeing, and being seen\) were appropriate in restaurants and under what circumstances. In this respect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spang's book contributes to a particular historiographical problem of late eighteenth-century France. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the restaurant as public space, her account raises the issue of how 'public' and 'private' are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined for this period. Given the extent of work on this topic, and the number of models and exemplars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Masonic lodges, cafes, academies\) which occupy the interests of historians, it seems astonishing that, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spang notes, 'the restaurant seems, for most historians' purposes, to have been neither public nor private but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead nearly invisible' \(85\). Did 'public' mean 'open to all'? In that case, most Old Regime sites were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public. Could it be taken to denote particular types of behaviour, such as sociability? In that case, the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7556 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant must be excluded. If one takes 'public' in a commercial sense, and attends, as British historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption have done, to the levelling effect of money, then the restaurant fits well, and as Spang notes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to shape the notion of an equivalence between goods and value which was not established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesses at the time. If 'public' is to be taken primarily in terms of 'political' life, then the Pont-Neuf was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly more public than any salon, cafe or restaurant. Likewise, secondary studies have not defined privacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly well - academies were exclusive, but not domestic, and most institutions and circles, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('political' service such as the crown administration, were entered by personal connections. This issue takes us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from the ostensible subject of Spang's book but towards one of its central outcomes. Her argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins a long overdue critique of the models of Habermas and Elias. In this sense her discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant as public space possesses considerable historiographical significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spang's work is innovative, too, in locating medicine within cultural history. Such an approach has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted in part by the materials which she has used: restaurants began life not as places but as dishes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated meat essences served by cooks to ailing members of wealthy households-'restoratives', in short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the literal translation suggests. Bridging the gap between history of medicine and cultural history is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple. One of the strengths of the new cultural history, as well as one of its shortcomings, is its tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generate syntheses, to concentrate on unity rather than rupture. Unlike many of the new cultural historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of science and medicine would be inclined to shun a univocal interpretation of a medical debate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and would tend to search for conflicting significances ascribed to particular cultural phenomena. Spang's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach is actually rather different. She treats medical writings as on a par with other sources which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses. Her aim is not to problematise the claims about the body, health and medicine expounded in such texts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather to use such sources to generate a single argument about restaurant culture and the emergence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of the restaurant. As such, contemporary writings on medicine and health play an evidential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in chapters 1 and 2, where Spang treats the restaurant in its early form, as a setting for the conspicuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display of ill health; but in later chapters the question of health and eating seems largely abandoned. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions that she sets up in the early part of the book between sobriety and self-indulgence, health and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gourmandise, are not followed through; so we never find out why healthy eaters deserted the restaurant. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is clear that still in the 1810s, gastronomic and scientific writers explicitly addressed one another in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings, debating the morality of eating with vim and glee. I do not wish to suggest that Spang should have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been writing a history of medical accounts of food instead, but perhaps a comparison between gastronomic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other forms of food writing might have been in order for the post-Revolutionary period, to avoid the risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of obscuring the vast differences and disagreements over the nature of food in the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spang hinges her discussion of the health concerns of early restaurant visitors around one particular medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition, weak-chestedness. I am in complete agreement with her about the value of ranking indigestion as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an enlightened ailment alongside the much better-studied complaint of nerves, as manifested in vapours, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypochondria and hysteria, so well known from the work of George Rousseau, Roy Porter and others. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weak-chestedness, although very important, was very far from being the only medical condition resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from wrong eating. Diet played a prominent role in causing a huge range of medical complaints, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general states of ill health to more specific ailments-also with powerful cultural resonances - such as gout, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dropsy, or 'nocturnal pollutions'. The selection of weak-chestedness also leads Spang to imply that attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to preserve health by eating formed a single set of activities; but contemporary medical writings and 'healthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eating' cookbooks actually depended upon a humoural model in which the consumption of foods with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular qualities \(wet or dry, hot or cold\) caused the body to deviate in various directions from an ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. Diet was thus to be tailored to correct these errors, but what was good for one eater was pernicious for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. The physical causes of food-induced disease were similarly varied: the rotting of food in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stomach, mentioned by Spang, was only one of several causal models which included hot foods that burnt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the blood or made the humours boil, and coarse foods which clogged the passages of the body. A more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed account of the models of illness and of the body being advanced in the contemporary medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature would have been valuable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, the question of medical regimen might have been raised. Regimen has particular relevance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spang's arguments because it touched upon many of the categories of behaviour which she raises. Firstly, it )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7803 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a primary means for individuals to participate in health reform and negotiate with medical practitioners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooks, and presumably restaurateurs by defining and controlling their own daily practice of eating, sleeping, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise, clothing, bathing, breathing and so on. Secondly, alimentary regimen imposed dietary regularities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the individual eater which were highly conspicuous-they often involved the refusal of hospitality, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection of foodstuffs in a society where food was still an important sign of status, and the maintenance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigid timetable and dietary restrictions. A comparison with the restaurant would be most interesting. Spang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterises it as a space of personal liberty, but notes that 'In its initial form, ... the restaurant was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically a place one went )] TJ ET BT 175.640 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 190.976 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to eat' \(2\). But how did it differ from the private kitchen in which the eater's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cook was formally instructed by his or her physician? And how did restaurateurs claim legitimately to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent health? This was a much-contested issue in the period, as the authority of physicians was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressively undermined by Crown support of competing medical corporations such as surgeons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apothecaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As healthy eaters were displaced by )] TJ ET BT 209.300 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gastronomes)] TJ ET BT 270.632 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Spang turns her attention to the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomy as a literary genre and medium for the definition of French national character \(although, as she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, restaurants in fact catered only for the wealthiest inhabitants of Paris, and were hardly typical of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French eating\). At this point she moves more assertively into the well-trodden terrain of French culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, from restaurant reviews and plays to the publications of Grimod de La Reyniere and Brillat-Savarin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course literature and restaurants are now an obvious pairing. Spang has fine examples of restaurant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewers penning their texts about great meals. But I wondered how restaurants captured this literary form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so definitively, given that they were only one among the establishments which Grimod de La Reyniere listed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as contributing to the state of )] TJ ET BT 176.672 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bonne chere)] TJ ET BT 235.652 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in post-Revolutionary France. Perhaps in keeping with her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissal of the traditional myth that restaurants were founded by dispossessed cooks from noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households, Spang also makes little mention of the writings of famous post-Revolutionary chefs. Yet of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course the 1810s to 1820s was also the time in which cooks such as Careme attained a hitherto unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of cultural and social status. The literature produced by such individuals was as widely read as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gastronomic classics of Grimod de La Reyniere, and Spang's revisionism prompts questions about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the personality cult of the chef and the cultural status of the restaurant, a relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to the traditional history of gastronomy in France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the early nineteenth century the restaurant became a setting for the generation of new cultural forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which substituted for political engagement. The model of the restaurant generated by contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentators, as a place which diverted the seditious impulses of Parisians, is somewhat belied by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostensible clientele, recruited from among a social elite which actually was the prime beneficiary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutionary upheaval-in the long run. Spang's principal argument picks up on the creation of middling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in France during the early decades of the nineteenth century, exploring the restaurant as a site for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of definitions of 'Frenchness' in a very fine chapter. After about 1810, she therefore considers it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a primarily cultural, rather than political, space. To return to the problem which I raised initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the ways in which it is possible to write a history of cultural objects and local meanings: Once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the meaning of the bicycle had been more or less stabilised in one culture, it was possible to export it to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other cultures, and for all bicycles to be comparable and equivalent in certain crucial ways. We now think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we know what a bicycle is, and how it is used \(the practical aspects may be harder to master\). If restaurants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denoted Frenchness, what did their export to Prussia and England in the 1810s, along with French culinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts and chefs, signify? We are accustomed to a literature which argues for the )] TJ ET BT 418.244 187.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(importation)] TJ ET BT 474.920 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural models by such as Mme de Stael in the same period. On my daily walk to the library here, I often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pass the famous establishment founded by Lutter and Wegner in 1811. It seems interesting that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurant as institution could so shed all the negative connotations of Frenchness as to be popular in a city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose cultural life was so coloured by the imperial tendencies of Frenchmen. At any rate, it seems a thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking fact that this transmission could be so rapid and so apparently unproblematic-especially as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restaurants did not spread to the French provinces until after the mid-nineteenth century. I hunger for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second volume which might tell of the transmission of the restaurant beyond the culture in which it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially arisen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 945 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 240.992 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/156)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/796)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5703)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 240.9917 793.0135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5703) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/156) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000579 00000 n 0000000661 00000 n 0000005541 00000 n 0000005650 00000 n 0000005760 00000 n 0000005869 00000 n 0000009430 00000 n 0000009558 00000 n 0000009642 00000 n 0000009707 00000 n 0000018193 00000 n 0000018258 00000 n 0000025867 00000 n 0000025932 00000 n 0000033788 00000 n 0000033879 00000 n 0000034876 00000 n 0000035003 00000 n 0000035103 00000 n 0000035231 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35326 %%EOF