%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150523013321+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150523013321+01'00') /Title (Black Market: Britain 1939-1955) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4041 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Black Market: Britain 1939-1955)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this dense and well-researched book, Mark Roodhouse investigates the 'moral economy' of Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime and post-war white, grey, and black markets \(p. 10\). The book offers a persuasive argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evasion of economic regulations cannot be understood solely through attention to structural factors; along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with local community norms, concepts of fairness and ethical behavior were crucial in the functioning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grey and black markets. In presenting this argument, Roodhouse's work accomplishes two major feats. First, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he provides the reader with a comprehensive and detailed account of how the black market functioned in day-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to-day life. Second, and more importantly, Roodhouse recasts the meaning of evasion and illicit commerce, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating that participation in grey and black markets provides insight into concepts of fairness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice but does not necessarily operate as an indicator of patriotic sentiment or national unity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the book's opening pages, the reader is plunged to the bewildering world of clothing coupons, ration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, and price controls, the confusing nature of which hints at how average British consumers must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced the onslaught of new regulations developed from 1939. At the outbreak of war, British officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately began implementing economic policies of price controls and rationing. Fearful of reliving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic downturn that followed the First World War, their goals included both maintaining supplies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1563)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 20 March, 2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Roodhouse)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199588459)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199588459.do#.Ui2yOcakpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamie Stoops)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8183 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential goods and ensuring that the economy would remain strong after the war's end. For the next 16 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, Britons would make do with limited supplies of everything from petrol to bacon to cosmetics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Products that had been plentiful before the war, such as butter and eggs, became scarce and potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegal commodities subject to strict official regulation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.668 752.307 m 311.660 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 311.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Despite narratives of national unity and shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice, British civilians could and did find ways to circumvent these economic regulations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major strand of historiography has concerned itself with the wartime behavior of the British home front, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to determine how the experience of the Second World War altered Britain's social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape. While popular images of wartime Britain continue to emphasize national unity and civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice, works like Angus Calder's )] TJ ET BT 210.140 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myth of the Blitz )] TJ ET BT 313.808 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have foregrounded class tension and regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divides and called into question the Second World War as an event that leveled out social inequalities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.948 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.948 654.771 m 538.940 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.940 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this body of literature, rationing is often used as one example of an area in which pre-war social divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained or even grew worse. Rarely, however, are these questions regarding the social impact of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controls followed into the post-war period. In this work, Roodhouse seeks to engage with these longstanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates surrounding wartime Britain using an economic history of evasion and black markets. As he points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in this volume's preface, economic history has generally studied historical trends using hypothetical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rational actors whose choices can be understood as responses to structural economic forces. Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of E. P. Thompson and others who echoed his calls for greater attention to cultural factors when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying responses to economic trends, economic historians have continued to struggle with the best ways of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporating such non-structural factors into their analysis.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.972 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.972 526.467 m 334.964 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.964 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As this book demonstrates, wartime and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war evasion provides an ideal case with which to critique economic histories that fail to take into account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and cultural factors. As Roodhouse contends at the book's outset, limiting the analysis to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('structure of control' simply cannot explain why some people chose to participate in the black market and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others did not \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the core of Roodhouse's work are the complicated and shifting boundaries between the black, grey, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white markets. As defined by some British regulatory bodies, the black market constituted any evasion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationing or price controls by consumers or retailers. Other agencies adopted more limited definitions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black market activity. Many activities officially classified as black market by one or more legal bodies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, occupied the category of the socially acceptable grey market from the perspective of the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public. In addition, the popular definition of black market could include some 'immoral' activities like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulteration of goods, which was illegal but not necessarily categorized as black market by all official bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 16\). These popular categories were not entirely unrelated to the formal legal regulations, but they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departed from some official views on the grounds of fairness or necessity. For example, consumers refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to cooperate with regulations prohibiting the gifting of clothing coupons, believing that families and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbors should be allowed to trade and gift during holidays and other special occasions. Here, Roodhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vividly illustrates ways that illegal activities became reconfigured as grey rather than black market when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done for the purpose of maintaining community bonds rather than for reasons perceived as self-serving.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This investigation of the moral economy of the black market is broken into three parts. Part one explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various methods by which consumers evaded rationing and price controls. Any fantasies the reader may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have about a black market run by ruthless gangsters are quickly put to rest as Roodhouse illustrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat prosaic reality of evasion as consisting primarily of such low-risk transactions as swapping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing coupons and illegally purchasing eggs. In this first section's detailed exploration of the black and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grey markets, Roodhouse seeks to answer the question of how extensive the black market really was and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what implications this had for larger issues of wartime and post-war British society. In doing so, Roodhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to reconcile conflicting perceptions of the black market as either insignificant or pervasive. He arrives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the conclusion that many of the inconsistencies surrounding research into the scale of the black market can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be traced to the erroneous assumption that the term 'black market' held the same meaning for all members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society \(p. 19\). In addition to identifying conflicting use of terms, this section also identifies social tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the black market, particularly concerning class.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part two, Roodhouse argues that enforcement of rationing and other restrictions took an arbitrary form, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with truly comprehensive regulation proving impossible without significant public cooperation. This section )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.6677 752.6215 311.6597 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.9477 655.0855 538.9397 666.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.9717 526.7815 334.9637 538.6615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7365 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicts the bureaucrats tasked with managing the wartime economy as stumbling in the war's initial phases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before finally arriving at a relatively efficient and effective system. As Roodhouse frequently reminds the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, any successes enjoyed by the rationing and price control system can be attributed not to stringent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement, but rather to the successful design of an efficient system organized in such a way as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourage black market dealings \(seen in such areas as effective monitoring and disposal of used coupons\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While acknowledging this system's effective elements, however, Roodhouse locates significant flaws in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement strategies. In keeping with the book's emphasis on community standards and ethics, Roodhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedicates close attention to the implications of reporting offenses within the community; in some cases, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reporting on a neighbor or shopkeeper could result in social exclusion and increased economic hardship. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly, Roodhouse recognizes that regulators and bureaucrats understood many of the flaws within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own rationing schemes, demonstrated in their shift away from depending on reporting offenders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards public campaigns appealing to the public's sense of fairness and shared sacrifice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This section on regulation and enforcement also brings to light ethnic and regional divides in wartime and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postwar British society. All-too-familiar stereotypes of untrustworthy Jewish and Indian peddlers surface in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both popular discourse and in law enforcement strategy. Further undermining the 'Myth of the Blitz' are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roodhouse's examples of disproportionate police attention to Britons of different regions, such as in a far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher rate of petrol checks of Welsh compared to English drivers. As in the book's other discussions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roodhouse's analysis of ethnic and regional difference in law enforcement illustrates the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal views and social norms became enmeshed with economic activities. In this case, Roodhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contends, the biases of the police and the judiciary against groups like Indian peddlers rendered evenhanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic regulation impossible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's third section delves into the moral decisions and rationales employed to justify illegal or quasi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal dealings. Diaries and surveys supplied by the research organization Mass Observation form the core of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the material used for this part of the analysis. Roodhouse identifies a variety of methods by which people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justified their evasion of price controls and rationing, ranging from attacking hypocrisy and unfairness in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations to redefining the black market so as to exclude their own activities. Local social practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community ties have particular relevance in this section, as the line between black and socially justifiable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grey markets depended largely on local custom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along with this emphasis on locality comes an intriguing discussion of oppositional subcultures operating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the black market. Several groups are identified as already excluded from the mainstream and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore more receptive to participation in black rather than grey market activity; the groups identified by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roodhouse include the 'lumpen poor', Irish Catholics, and petty criminals \(pp. 214?16\). While Roodhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a compelling case for why certain groups would lack sufficient motivation to conform to the policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the British state, the lines separating these oppositional subcultures and mainstream society appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspiciously well-defined. Roodhouse's clear distinction between the 'closed social networks that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterized the underworld' and 'respectable society,' for example, seems to ignore much existing research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that 20th-century working-class communities did not always display such a clear-cut distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between criminal elements and the respectable poor \(p. 220\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.612 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.612 231.603 m 340.604 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While not identified as a category of analysis central to the book's argument, gender appears as an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor at several points. As numerous other historians have observed about earlier periods, both wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household budgeting and the maintenance of community relationships were largely a female responsibility. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roodhouse offers strong discussions of aspects of rationing that placed a disproportionate burden on women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as insufficient clothing coupons. At other points, there seem to be missed opportunities for discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gendered policy choices; an anecdote surrounding a propaganda film chastising a fictional housewife for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evasion, for example, implies that women were sometimes singled out as a driving force in the black market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this is not developed into a more in-depth analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greatest strength of Roodhouse's work lies in his painstaking depiction of the black and grey markets as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nebulous and shifting categories dependent largely on popular consensus rather than the letter of the law. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than adopting a single perspective or definition of 'black market,' such as that employed by law )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6117 231.9175 340.6037 243.7975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7588 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement or by the general public, Roodhouse focuses directly on the points at which conflicting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of legality and fairness collided. By including analysis of both street-level economic activities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regulatory bodies that shaped those activities, this book is able to illustrate the tension emerging from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clash between economically necessary regulations and informal, longstanding social norms governing trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic interaction on a day-to-day basis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roodhouse also displays careful attention to the more deceptive elements of his source material and finds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative ways of drawing conclusions from deeply flawed data. The book's first section contains a thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the different methods used to estimate the size of the black market, ranging from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward prosecution statistics to more unconventional studies identifying price and supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuations that could only be attributable to significant black market activity. While this part of )] TJ ET BT 501.308 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Market Britain)] TJ ET BT 105.680 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s analysis is dense and potentially baffling for readers without a solid background in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics, it contains valuable insights into methods of identifying weaknesses in official data collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in cases when discrepancies may be due largely to inconsistent definitions and categorization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offenses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the strength of the evidence presented and the persuasive use of the moral economy model, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffers from some minor organizational problems. One wonders why the narrative is not arranged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically or broken into distinct periods such as 'wartime' and 'post-war'. While a compelling case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be made for treating the entire rationing period as a time of relative continuity, Roodhouse provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence at several points that his subjects 'differentiate[d] between "during the war" and "after the war."' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208\). Other organizational issues become apparent in moments when an anecdote is repeated multiple times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without reference to previous discussions, such as in multiple mentions of a regulatory scheme involving red )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dye in petrol.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition to these organizational issues, questions regarding Roodhouse's use of sources remain. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously discussed, Roodhouse approaches quantitative data with a healthy dose of skepticism; personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts like diaries, however, are not always sufficiently interrogated. While Roodhouse makes good use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mass Observation diaries, one wonders if different moral justifications for grey and black market dealings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have emerged if they had been paired with a larger body of more conventionally private diaries and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other personal accounts. Roodhouse briefly considers the problem of subjects lying or exaggerating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaries or questionnaires, but dismisses the issue by emphasizing the subjects' 'commitment to M-O's ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their positive experiences of the way M-O handled their replies.' \(p. 196\). Without the inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant quantities of other private documents to serve as supporting evidence or a comparative case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, this conclusion seems unsupported. Even if a large body of non-Mass Observation diaries would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been too scarce or difficult to employ for the purposes of this project, a more detailed discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential weaknesses and pitfalls of the Mass Observation sources would have been enormously helpful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These minor weaknesses, however, do not overpower the general strength of Roodhouse's analysis. With this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, Mark Roodhouse has provided a comprehensive and thoroughly researched study of the functioning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black and grey markets in wartime and post-war Britain. More importantly, he has identified the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ethics and concepts of fair play in the success of rationing schemes. As a result, Roodhouse is able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate the ways in which the boundaries separating white, grey, and black markets were in fact negotiated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within British society rather than strictly imposed from above. This work is a significant contribution to both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history and the cultural history of the British in the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Angus Calder, )] TJ ET BT 156.668 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The People's War: Britain, 1939?1945 )] TJ ET BT 345.896 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1969\), pp. 69?72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.860 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.860 111.315 m 553.856 111.315 l S BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 97.059 m 78.008 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Ibid, )] TJ ET BT 109.676 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myth of the Blitz )] TJ ET BT 213.344 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1991\); see also Sonya O. Rose, )] TJ ET BT 413.324 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Which People's War? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Identity and Citizenship in Wartime Britain, 1939?1945 )] TJ ET BT 380.372 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2003\), p. 36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.020 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.020 68.547 m 540.008 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See E. P. Thompson, ?The moral economy of the English crowd in the eighteenth century?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 41.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Customs in Common: Studies in Traditional Popular Culture)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.8597 111.6295 553.8557 123.5095 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 97.3735 78.0077 109.2535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.0197 68.8615 540.0077 80.7415 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 1621 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. P. Thompson \(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 251.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\), p. 187.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.320 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.320 795.075 m 372.308 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Joanna Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 161.996 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working-Class Cultures in Britain 1890?1960: Race, Class, and Ethnicity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1994\), p. 45, in which she argues for a blurred line separating respectable and disrespectable )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the specific area of juvenile working-class culture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.620 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.620 752.307 m 372.608 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Jamie Stoops for his/her review, but does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 710.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 692.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 692.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1563)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 691.545 m 328.316 691.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 666.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/73167)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.3197 795.3895 372.3077 807.2695 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.6197 752.6215 372.6077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 691.8595 328.3157 703.7395 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1563) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004716 00000 n 0000004825 00000 n 0000004935 00000 n 0000005044 00000 n 0000008605 00000 n 0000008733 00000 n 0000008817 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000017151 00000 n 0000017181 00000 n 0000017309 00000 n 0000017345 00000 n 0000017375 00000 n 0000017503 00000 n 0000017539 00000 n 0000017569 00000 n 0000017697 00000 n 0000017733 00000 n 0000017817 00000 n 0000025235 00000 n 0000025265 00000 n 0000025393 00000 n 0000025429 00000 n 0000025527 00000 n 0000033168 00000 n 0000033296 00000 n 0000033351 00000 n 0000033476 00000 n 0000033531 00000 n 0000033657 00000 n 0000033712 00000 n 0000033810 00000 n 0000035484 00000 n 0000035612 00000 n 0000035667 00000 n 0000035795 00000 n 0000035850 00000 n 0000035978 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36074 %%EOF